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R O C Z N I K
O R I E N T A L I S T Y C Z N Y,
The Role of Gemination in Inflection and Word Formation of Modern Standard Arabic
Abstract This paper discusses gemination, mainly its morphologically conditioned cases. It gives an account of the use of gemination in inflection and – much more abundant – in word formation (of deverbal, denominal and deadjectival verbs, of deverbal, denominal and deadjectival nouns and of deverbal adjectives). The analysis focuses on meanings of derivatives in which gemination occurs (indicating also the mechanisms of motivation). Keywords: Modern Standard Arabic, gemination, inflection, word formation, semantic analysis
Gemination,1 that is lengthening or doubling of a consonant, regularly appears in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in mostly the same way, as in other Semitic languages.2 In some cases it is a by-product of phonetic processes taking place within particular lexemes and in other cases it is a procedure used deliberately in inflection and word formation, and as such it determines meanings of inflected forms and derivatives, so it should be considered a part of language system.
1 Arabic term: Ϊ˲ ϳΪ˶ θ˸ ˴Η tašdīd intensification, strengthening, intensified pronunciation. English translations of Arabic words I quote after: Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, J.M. Cowan (ed.), Ithaca, New York 1984. 2 Edward Lipinski, Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar, Peters, Leuven 1997, pp. 173–174.
Phonetic analysis of this phenomenon is provided i.a. by Salman Al-Ani3 and Henri Fleisch,4 and its prosodic analysis i.a. by John J. McCarthy and Alan S. Prince,5 Robert D. Hoberman,6 Samuel Rosenthal.7 Whereas these authors focus mainly on formal aspects of the phenomenon, this paper is aimed at reviewing meanings of inflected forms and derivatives in which gemination occurs. It has been conceived as an appendix to my monograph Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników arabskich i polskich w ujęciu kontrastywnym [The Contrastive Analysis of Noun Formation in Arabic and Polish],8 which offers semantic approach to the issues of word formation (analysis starts with meanings and indicates possible ways of expressing them). In the Polish language gemination is a rare and exclusively phonetically conditioned phenomenon with no semantic implications. For instance the paired lexemes: winy : winny [faults : guilty], rana : ranna [wound : wounded (fem.)], podany : poddany [served : subject] differ in their meanings but the geminations are accidental consequences of occurrence of two identical consonants at the junctions of morphemes. That is why I have not discussed in detail this technique of word formation in the monograph. In MSA gemination may also result exclusively from phonetic factors, but the important thing is, that in numerous cases it bears semantic functions. This paper therefore focuses exclusively on Modern Standard Arabic and surveys various forms in which gemination occurs, in order to indicate and classify meanings expressed by them. Geminated consonants (called geminates), which are characterized as double consonants or long consonants, stand out by the longer period of their articulation.9 In MSA – as well as in other Semitic languages – all consonants can be geminated.10 Though gemination may be semantically relevant, it is not reflected in orthography. The sign ଉ ˷ called ˲Γ Ϊ͉ η˴ šadda strenghening, intensification, appears only in vocalized texts which constitute a small fraction of all written texts. Phonetically conditioned gemination occurs, when at the junction of two morphemes there are two identical consonants adjacent to each other, and no vowel separates them (for example doubling of consonant t in past tense conjugation of verbs having stems ending with t, that attach suffixes that begin also with t, e.g.: Ζ ͊ Ϝ˴ γ˴ sakat-tu I broke off). Similar 3
Salman Al-Ani, Arabic Phonology. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation, Mouton, The Hague-Paris 1970, pp. 75–86. 4 Henri Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 1: Préliminaires, phonétique, morphologie nominale, Dar el-Machreq Éditeurs, Beyrouth 1990, pp. 61–62, 174–175. 5 John J. McCarthy, A Prosodic Theory of Nonconcatenative Morphology, „Linguistic Inquiry”, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1981, pp. 373–418; John J. McCarthy and Alan S. Prince, Foot and Word in Prosodic Morphology: The Arabic Broken Plural, “Natural Language & Linguistic Theory”, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990, pp. 209–283. 6 Robert D. Hoberman, Local and Long-Distance Spreading in Semitic Morphology, „Natural Language & Linguistic Theory”, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1988, pp. 541–549. 7 Samuel Rosenthal, Gemination, in: Kees Versteegh et al. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden–Boston 2007, pp. 153–155. 8 Iwona Król, Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników arabskich i polskich w ujęciu kontrastywnym, Księgarnia Akademicka, Kraków 2013. 9 Hadumod Bussmann, Dictionary of language and linguistics, (trans.) Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzazi, Routledge, London and New York 1996, p. 451. 10 Lipinski, Semitic Languages, pp. 148–149.
THE ROLE OF GEMINATION IN INFLECTION AND WORD FORMATION OF MODERN STANDARD ARABIC
is the case of so called geminate verbs, in which the second and third consonant of the root are the same. Short vowel that separates two identical consonants is elided when they are followed by a short vowel, e.g.: * έ ˴ ή˴ ˴ϓ farara > ή͉ ˴ϓ farra to flee, run away.11 Gemination may occur in cases of total assimilation of adjacent consonants, e.g.: (i) consonant l in the definite article al- which is assimilated to the subsequent consonant (dental, alveolar or interdental) that occurs at the beginning of the following word, ˸ al-siyāsa > ˵Δ γ˴ Ύ˴ϴδ͋ ϟ as-siyāsa the policy;12 e.g. * ˵Δ γ ˴ Ύ˴ϴδ˶ ϟ (ii) consonant d occurring at the end of stems of verbs that attach suffixes beginning with t, e.g.: Ε ͊ Ϊ˸ ό˴ ˴ϗ qaʻad-tu > qaʻat-tu I sat down. In the above examples phonetically conditioned gemination doesn’t influence meanings of the words. In most cases gemination is accompanied by transfixation13 and then derivational bases and derivatives have different syllabic structures.
The role of gemination in inflection In MSA there exist two patterns of broken plurals, in which gemination occurs: Ϟ ˲ ό͉ ˵ϓ fuʻʻal and its more frequent variant with long vowel following geminated consonant ϝ ˲ Ύ͉ό˵ϓ fuʻʻāl.14 They are used in case of personal nouns designating performers of habitual actions, that follow the pattern Ϟ ˲ ϋΎ ˶ ˴ϓ faʻil. The pattern Ϟ faʻil is typical of active participles derived from triconsonantal ˴ ˲ ϋΎ ˶ ϓ form I verbs. They can function as adjectival attributes, e.g.: ζϋΩΎϬϴϠϋήτϴγϖρΎϨϣ ϲϓ ϦϴϨϛΎδϟϦϴϨρϮϤϟϥϭΩ except for citizens inhabitating areas controlled by The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Aš-Šarq al-Awsaṭ, 27.01.2015). Plural forms are then created with the use of suffix -ūna (-īna). Participles following the pattern Ϟ ˲ ϋΎ ˶ ˴ϓ faʻil are adjectival participles. In MSA they are very often subject to paradigmatic derivation, i.e. they are transferred into noun paradigm and occur in syntactic positions typical of nouns (this derivational pattern is today the most expansive method of creating new words in Arabic).15
11 Karin C. Ryding, A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2005, p. 458. 12 Hartmut Kästner, Phonetik und Phonologie des modernen Hocharabisch, VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1981, p. 102. 13 I use terms: “transfixation” and “transfix” as they are used in: Alan S. Kaye, Arabic Morphology, in: Alan S. Kaye (ed.), Morphologies of Asia and Africa, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind. 2007, p. 211, Ellen Broselow, Transfixation, in: Geert Boij et al. (eds.), Morphologie. Morphology. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Flexionund Wortbildung. An International Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, Vol. 1, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 2000, p. 552. 14 Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 1, p. 483. 15 Król, Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników, pp. 135–141.
The nouns that are products of this derivational pattern may have various meanings. In this group personal nouns of performers of habitual actions, that single out particular social (e.g. professional) groups (nouns of profession) are the most numerous. Only in case of those nouns plural forms are created with the use of gemination.16 Examples: Ϣ˲ ˶ Ύλ ˵ ṣuyyam faster, one who fasts; ˵ ṣuwwam / Ϣ˲ ͉ϴλ ˴ ṣāʼim – ϡ˲ Ϯ͉ λ
Gemination as a mechanism of creating plural forms allows one to differentiate between derivatives belonging to this semantic category and others, i.e.: (i) Nouns of performers of actual actions, the plural forms of which are created with the use of suffixation, e.g.: Ϟ ˲ ϴϠ˶˴ϗ ˴Ϧϴδ ˶ ϟ˶ΎΠϟ ˴ Ω˵ Ϊ˴ ϋ ˴ The number of the sitting [people] is small. (Al-Ahrām: 3.02.1015). (ii) Impersonal nouns of performers of actions, the plural forms of which are created with the use of transfixation, without gemination, e.g. the word Ϟ ˲ ϣ˶ Ύ˴ϋ ʻāmil may also occur with the meaning factor, (causative) agent, something that functions and then its plural form it is: Ϟ ˲ Σ ˵ ϣ˶ Ϯ˴ ϋ˴ ʻawāmil; other example is: ϒ ˵ Σ ˶ ί˴ zāḥif – ϒ ˶ ϭ˴ ί˴ zawāḥif reptile, something that crawls. (iii) Nouns of instruments, particularly feminine ones, e.g.: ϊ ˲ ϓ˶ έ˴ rāfiʻ / ˲Δ ό˴ ϓ˶ έ˴ rāfiʻa – rawāfiʼ crane, machinery that is used to lift something up, ή ˲ ϓ˶ ΎΣ ϊ˵ ϓ˶ ϭ˴ έ˴ ˴ ḥāfir – ή˵ ϓ˶ Ϯ˴ Σ ˴ ḥawāfir hoof, organ that is used for digging.
The role of gemination in word formation Gemination as a word-formation technique that accompanies transfixation in most cases involves the second consonant, and very rarely the third consonant of the root of the word.17 In the following survey of various types of derivatives I also take into consideration word-formation motivation.18 1. Word patterns with gemination are used i.a. for creating intensive deverbal adjectives. They are derived exclusively from form I verbs having triconsonantal roots, with short vowel following the first consonant and long vowel following the second, geminated consonant, e.g.: 16
In this case there appear also other patterns of plural, e.g.: Ϣ˲ ˶ϟΎ˴ϋ ʻālim – ˯˵ ΎϤ˴ ˴Ϡϋ ˵ ʻulamāʼ scientist; Ϟ˲ ϋ˶ Ύ˴ϓ fāʻil
Hoberman, Local and Long-Distance Spreading, p. 546. See also: Król, Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników, pp. 22–23.
THE ROLE OF GEMINATION IN INFLECTION AND WORD FORMATION OF MODERN STANDARD ARABIC
(i) ϝ ˲ Ϯ͊ό˴ϓ faʻʻūl, ϝ ˲ Ϯ͊ό˵ϓ fuʻʻūl: α ˴ Ϊ˵ ˴ϗ qadusa to be holy → ˲αϭΪ͊ ˴ϗ qaddūs / ˲αϭΪ͊ ˵ϗ quddūs most holy, one who is most holy; (ii) Ϟ˲ ϴ͋όϓ˶ fiʻʻīl: ή˴ Ϝ˶ γ˴ sakira to be, to get drunk → ή˲ ϴϜ͋ γ ˶ sikkīr drunkard, heavy drinker, one who is frequently or habitually drunk; ή˴ Ϝ˶ γ˴ ṣadaqa tell the truth, be sincere, be right → ή˲ ϴϜ͋ γ ˶ ṣiddīq strictly veracious, honest, one who is veracious, honest; (iii) ϝ˲ Ύ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāl: Ϟ˴ ϛ˴ ˴ ʼakala → ϝ˲ Ύϛ͉ ˴ ʼakkāl voracious, gluttonous, hearty eater, glutton, one who often eats; Ώ ˴ ά˴ ϛ˴ kaḏaba to lie, deceive → ˲Ώά͉ ϛ˴ kaḏḏāb lying, untruthful, liar, swindler, one who often lies; Ϛ ˴ Τ˶ ο ˴ ḍaḥika to laugh, jeer → ˲ϙΎΤ͉ ο ˴ ḍaḥḥāk frequently or constantly laughing, laugher, joker, one who often laughs.19 The adjectives belonging to the category (iii) may be subject to paradigmatic derivation (analogously to the derivatives motivated by active participles) and then they function as nouns.20 They sometimes have the same meanings as adjectives having word pattern without gemination, but with long vowel ū following the second consonant of the root instead: ϝ ˲ Ϯ˵Το ˲ Ϯϛ˵ ˴ ʼakul, ˲Ώϭά˵ ϛ˴ kaḏūb, ϙ ˲ Ϯ˵ό˴ϓ faʻūl: ϝ ˴ ḍaḥūk. 2. In MSA lexemes with the word pattern ϝ ˲ Ύ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāl, when they are motivated by verbs designating habitual actions being bases for particular professions, have exclusively substantive-like meanings and designate performers of those actions. Today they are considered being derived directly from verbs, e.g.: ζ ˴ ˴Ϙ˴ϧ naqaša to paint, sculpture → ˲εΎ͉Ϙ˴ϧ naqqāš painter, sculptor; Ϊ˴ ˴Ϙ˴ϧ naqada to criticize → Ω˲ Ύ͉Ϙ˴ϧ naqqād critic; 21 έ˴ ΰ˴ Ο ˴ ǧazara to slaughter, kill, butcher → έ˲ ΰ͉ Ο ˴ ǧazzār butcher. The same word pattern characterizes also derivatives motivated by nouns, that designate: (i) object of habitual action performed by someone, e.g.: ˲ΐθ˴ ˴Χ ḫašab wood, lumber, timber → ˲ΏΎθ͉ ˴Χ ḫaššāb lumber merchant, one who works with timber; Δ˴ϟΎ˴Αί˵ zubāla refuse, rubbish, garbage → ϝ ˲ Ύ͉Αί˴ zabbāl sweaper, garbage collector, one who collects garbage;
Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 1, p. 358; Janusz Danecki, Gramatyka języka arabskiego, Vol. 1, Wydawnictwo Akademickie DIALOG, Warszawa 2001, p. 416. 20 Clive Holes, Modern Arabic. Structures, Functions, and Varieties, Georgetown University Press, Washington 2004, p. 157. 21 Król, Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników, pp. 82–85.
(ii) result of habitual action performed by someone, e.g.: ˲ ΑΎλ ˲ Βλ ϥϮ˵ ˴ ṣābūn soap → ϥΎ͉ ˴ ṣabbān soap boiler, soap maker; ͉ ḥiḏāʼ shoe → ḥaḏḏāʼ shoemaker; ˴ ˯˲ άΣ ˯˲ άΣ ˴ ˶ (iii) place at which some habitual action is performed by someone, e.g.: ή˲ ˸Τ˴Α baḥr sea → έ˲ Ύ͉Τ˴Α baḥḥār seaman, sailor.22 Contrary to intensive adjectives, which are very rare today, nouns of performers of habitual actions are quite numerous, however it is paradigmatic derivation based on active participles derived from most verbs forms and adnominal adjectives, that is the most productive mechanism of creating such nouns. 3. Word pattern ϝ ˲ Ύ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāl when transferred into feminine paradigm ( ˲Δ ˴ϟΎ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāla)23 is typical of nouns of instruments (tools, mechanisms, devices, appliances).24 Those nouns are motivated by form I verbs and this type of derivation is quite productive today, e.g.: ή˴ δ˴ ϛ˴ kasara to break, shatter, fracture → ˲Γέ˴ Ύ͉δϛ˴ kassāra crusher; Ϊ˴ μ ˴ ḥaṣṣāda mowing machine, harvester. ˴ Σ ˴ ḥaṣada to harvest, to reap → ˲Γ Ω˴ Ύ͉μΣ Much more rarely they are motivated by nouns, e.g.: ˴Λ ṯallāǧa refrigerator, icebox. Ξ˲ Ϡ˸ ˴Λ ṯalǧ snow, ice → ˲Δ Ο˴ ͉ϼ In few cases nouns of instruments are created with the use of the word pattern ϝ ˲ Ύ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāl (masculine), e.g.: ˴ς ͉ϼ ˴Χ ḫallāṭ mixer, mixing machine.25 ˴Ϡ ˴Χ ḫalaṭa to mix, to blend → ˲ρ The above nouns refer to tools and devices, that are used for performing habitual actions – analogously to nouns of performers of actions having the word pattern ϝ ˲ Ύ͉ό˴ϓ faʻʻāl. 4. Form II verbs Form II verbs are derived from form I verbs with the use of gemination of the second root consonant. In most cases they are transitive verbs.26 Their frequency is very high and they may have various meanings,27 that depend on properties or causalities constituting their lexical aspect:28 22
Ibidem, pp. 127–129. Suffix -a is a feature of impersonal noun here, see: Jerzy Łacina, Współczesna specjalistyczna terminologia arabska i procesy słowotwórcze na przykładzie słownictwa z dziedziny chemii, fizyki i techniki, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 1989, p. 8. 24 Król, Słowotwórstwo rzeczowników, pp. 102–104. 25 Because they may be confused with personal nouns of performers of actions. 26 Ryding, Reference Grammar, p. 491. 27 Hoberman, Local and Long-Distance Spreading, p. 547, William Wright, A Grammar of the Arabic Language, Michael Jan de Goeije and W. Robertson Smith (eds.), Vol. 1, Cossimo Classics, New York 2011, pp. 31–32, J.A. Haywood, H.M. Nahmad, A New Arabic Grammar of the Written Language, Lund Humphries Publishers, London 1965, p. 161, Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 2, Pronoms, Morphologie verbale, Particules, Dar el-Machreq Éditeurs, Beyrouth 1990, p. 288. 28 Kazimierz Polański (ed.), Encyklopedia językoznawstwa ogólnego, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 1999, p. 496. 23
THE ROLE OF GEMINATION IN INFLECTION AND WORD FORMATION OF MODERN STANDARD ARABIC
(i) causative (factitive) meaning – bringing about some activity or state, e.g.: ϊ˴ Ϥ˶ γ˴ samiʻa to hear, to listen → ϊ˴ Ϥ͉ γ˴ sammaʻa to make hear; ώ˴ ˴Ϡ˴Α balaġa to reach, to arrive → ώ˴ ͉Ϡ˴Α ballaġa to make reach or attain; έ˴ Ϊ˶ ˴ϗ qaḏira to be or become dirty → έ˴ Ϊ͉ ˴ϗ qaḏḏara to make dirty, to pollute. (ii) intensive meaning – performing action with greater intensity, e.g.: ή˴ δ˴ ϛ˴ kasara to break → ή˴ δ͉ ϛ˴ kassara to break into pieces, fragmentize; Ϟ˴ ˴Θ˴ϗ qatala to kill, murder → Ϟ ˴ ͉ Θϗ˴ qattala to kill, massacre; slaughter; ˴ ή ˴Χ ḫarraba to devastate, demolish, ruin; Ώ ˴ ή˴ ˴Χ ḫaraba to destroy, demolish → Ώ͉ ˴ϊ˴ τ˴ϗ qaṭaʻa to cut, cut off → ϊ˴ ͉τ˴ϗ qaṭṭaʻa to cut into pieces. (iii) iterative (frequentative) meaning – performing action repeatedly, e.g.: ˴ ṭawwafa to run around often, to circle, ˴ ṭāfa to go about, run around → ˴ϑϮ͉ ρ ϑΎ ˴ ρ to circumambulate; (iv) declarative (estimative) meaning – declaring and assessing, e.g.: ϖ ˴ Ϥ͉ Σ ˴ Ϥ˵ Σ ˴ ḥamuqa to be stupid, silly, foolish → ϖ ˴ ḥammaqa to regard as a fool, consider stupid; ˴ ή͉ γ˴ sarraqa to accuse of theft, call a thief; ϕ ˴ ή˴ γ˴ saraqa to steal, to rob → ϕ kaḏaba to lie, to deceive → Ώ ˴ ά͉ ϛ˴ kaḏḏaba to accuse of lying, to call a liar; Ώ ˴ ά˴ ϛ˴ ˴ Ϊ͉ λ ϕ ˴ Ϊ˴ λ ˴ ṣaddaqa to deem credible, accept ˴ ṣadaqa to tell the truth, to be right → ϕ as true, to believe, to trust. Some verbs belonging to this class are motivated by nouns. They give the meaning of creating something with the use of something else, dealing with something, etc., e.g.: Ξ˲ Ϡ˸ ˴Λ ṯalǧ snow, ice → Ξ ˴ ͉Ϡ˴Λ ṯallaǧa to cool with ice, to turn into ice; ṯaman price, cost, value → ˴ϦϤ͉ ˴Λ ṯammana to determine the price or value, to ˴ Ϧ˲ Ϥ˴ Λ appraise, estimate; ˲Δ Ϥ˴ ϴ˸ ˴Χ ḫayma tent → Ϣ˴ ͉ϴ ˴Χ ḫayyama to pitch one’s tent, to camp. 5. Form V verbs Form V verbs are derived from form II verbs with the additional prefix ta- bearing reflexive meaning.29 Here gemination is inherited from derivational base. The verbs transform meanings of their form II bases (resulting from gemination) making them reflexive or mediopassive meanings, e.g.: ή˴ ͉Βϛ˴ kabbara to make great, large, to extend, intensify → ή˴ ͉ΒϜ˴ ˴Η takabbara to make oneself great, to swagger, to be proud; ˴ ͉Ϡ˴Ϙ˴Η taqallaba to ΐ ˴ ͉Ϡ˴ϗ qallaba to turn (something) over, turn (something) around → ΐ 30 turn over (oneself), writhe. 6. Form IX verbs These are intransitive verbs meaning to be or to become (of some quality). This category of verbs is the least numerous one.31 They are derived exclusively from adjectives 29 30 31
Wright, Grammar of the Arabic Language, p. 36. Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 2, p. 304, Ryding, Reference Grammar, p. 530. Fleisch, Traité de philologie arabe, Vol. 2, p. 328.
designating colours or physical defects with the use of gemination of the third root consonant, e.g.: ή˵ π ˴ Χ˸ ˶ iḫḍarra to be or become green; ˴ Χ˸ ˴ ʼaḫḍar green → ή͉ π ͉ έ˴ ί˸ ˶ izraqqa to become blue; ˵ έ˴ ί˸ ˴ ʼazraq blue → ϕ ϕ ϝ˵ Ϯ˴ ˸Σ˴ ʼaḥwal squint-eyed, cross-eyed → ϝ ͉ Ϯ˴ ˸Σ˶ iḥwalla to become cross-eyed.32 Some authors suggest that form IX verbs are motivated by form I verbs.33 Taking into account, however, that in case of some colours or physical defects there are no form I verbs designating states, the supposition that it is adjectives that motivate them, is more plausible. Those adjectives are also derivational bases for form II verbs (denominal forms are pretty frequent in this category) meaning: to make something have some quality, e.g.: ή˵ ˴ϔ ˸λ˴ ʼaṣfar yellow → ή˴ ͉ϔλ ˴ ṣaffara to make yellow, to dye yellow; ή˵ Ϥ˴ ˸Σ˴ ʼaḥmar red → ή˴ Ϥ͉ Σ ˴ ḥammara to color or dye red, to redden.
Conclusions Arabic morphology is based on a system of consonantal roots, combined with transfixing, prefixing, suffixing, infixing and gemination. In the system of Modern Standard Arabic gemination may be conditioned phonetically or – more often – morphologically. In this latter case gemination becomes one of the mechanisms (together with transfixation) of creating particular inflectional forms or derivatives. As far as inflexion is concerned, gemination occurs in plural forms (broken plural). In word formation it is used for deriving verbs from verbs, nouns or adjectives, as well as for deriving nouns from verbs, nouns or adjectives and also for deriving adjectives from verbs. The occurrences of gemination linked to word formation are therefore the most frequent. Derivatives created with the use of gemination have various semantic functions, but among them there is one – function of expressing increased quantity (resp. intensity, plurality, etc.) – that seems to be the most frequent. It occurs in case of every category of words: nouns, adjectives and verbs. As far as inflection of nouns is concerned, gemination is used for creating plural forms (of nouns of performers of habitual actions), therefore it expresses semantic category of discrete quantity that may be subject to numerical quantification (e.g. in phrases consisting of a noun and numeral: ϥΎ ˵ ϴϠ˶ ϣ˶ milyūn ˶ Ϝ͉ γ˵ ϥϮ˵ sukkān million inhabitants). The broadly understood aspect of quantity characterizes some of form II verbs, which denote intensive, long lasting or repetitive activities, as well as nouns and adjectives (motivated by verbs) connoting abundance of events or states of some sort. These are nouns of performers of habitual actions and nouns of instruments that connote multiple and repetitive actions performed by the bearer of the noun, as well as adjectives motivated by verbs expressing increase of intensity of a state or multiplicity and repetitiveness of an action. 32 Ibidem, pp. 315–316, Danecki, Gramatyka języka arabskiego, pp. 183–184, Régis Blachère, Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Grammaire de l‘arabe classique. Morphologie et syntaxe, Éditions G.P. Maisonneuve, Paris 1975, p. 68. 33 Wright, Grammar of the Arabic Language, p. 43.