Some principles for the introduction of the QuarterHourWatch
Technical data/ Accessories
Introduction The QuarterHourWatch II comprises both the usual QuarterHourWatch-function and a Timer-function. Both functions show time distance. They are based on the so-called “QuarterHourWatch principal”, see below. The difference between the two functions is that the QuarterHourWatchfunction shows the time distance to a certain point of time, for example how much time there is left to 15:30, while the Timer-function shows time distance to the end of a certain period, for instance the time left of 60 minutes. The Timer-function is accordingly what one in general refers to as an “egg-timer”. In order to make the difference plain for the users one should use white watchcases for the QuarterHourWatch-function and grey watchcases for the Timer-function.
The QuarterHourWatch principle The QuarterHourWatch principle means that the time distance to an activity/event is shown as dots (=filled circles) in a vertical row left of the symbol representing the activity/event. Each dot represents 15 min. The dots disappear from top to bottom. Consequently, the picture shows that there are 45 minutes (actually 31 to 45 min) left before dinner. Many persons with developmental disabilities cannot handle a normal watch in a satisfactory way. One can often read the watch face, but not make a meaningful conclusion of the information, especially not being able to figure out how much time there is left to a certain point of time. How long must I wait until the bus arrives? When does the TV-program start? Etc. Such estimations are based on a relation between two points of time. The present point of time, which can be read from a watch, compared with the point of time for the event one is waiting for. That estimation presupposes that one has the knowledge of both these points of time and the ability to handle the relation in order to reach a meaningful understanding of the time distance (=the length of the time period until the event occurs).
Normally we do this with a relatively complex arithmetical operation. We subtract the point of time we read from the watch from the point of time we would like to orientate us against. For example: “Half past two from twenty minutes to four = seventy minutes, slightly more than an hour”. By means of our experience we can estimate the size of this time distance expressed in hours and minutes. Persons with developmental disabilities have great difficulty in performing that subtraction and also difficulty in getting any feeling for size of the time distance expressed in hours and minutes. • The QuarterHourWatch calculates the time distance so the user does not have to subtract time values. • The time distance is shown as a number of clearly separated dots in order to make it easy for the user to build up his experience of time values without being able to handle hours and minutes. • Each dot represents a quarter of an hour. A unity that will make many everyday time periods representable by a reasonable number of dots. • Pictures can symbolize the activities/events against which the user would like to orientate himself. • When it is time for the set event, the QuarterHourWatch beeps and flashes and functions as a reminder. The “invisible” time becomes visible and apprehensible almost like an hourglass where a sinking level shows the flow of time.
The QuarterHourWatch QuarterHourWatch with Picture card Grooves
Display Picture card Picture card Picture card, front side
Back side with watch face inserted
Space for symbol Disposable watch face
4 Outer segments, quarter of an hour segments 12 Inner segments, hour segments
Notch AM PM
Watchcase = Picture card without the watch face
The QuarterHourWatch-function The QuarterHourWatch contains a built-in clock. When a coded Picture card is put in the QuarterHourWatch the number of quarters of an hour left until the coded point of time is shown. The display always shows 8 circles (when a Picture card is in place). The number of remaining quarters of an hour left until the coded event is indicated by filled circles (dots). If there are more than two hours left before the coded event, all 8 circles are filled. When there is one hour and 45 minutes left, 7 circles are filled. When there is one hour and 30 minutes left, 6 circles are filled, etc. When the coded event occurs, the QuarterHourWatch beeps and the dots flash intensely for 1 minute. The dots continue to flash for 15 minutes. Thereafter, the QuarterHourWatch shows that the point in time is passed by way of a dot slowly travelling over the display, i.e., if one inserts a Picture card coded with a passed point of time, a dot slowly travels over the display. The point of time is considered passed in 12 hours, after that it is before that point of time the next day. The Picture card may continuously be placed in the QuarterHourWatch showing the flow of time before the coded point in time occurs. It is a good habit to place the QuarterHourWatch in its stand (available as an accessory) when one is at the same place for longer periods of time, at home or at work.
Coding of the QuarterHourWatch-function It is strongly recommended to use white watchcases to prepare Picture cards for the QuarterHourWatch-function. Attach a suitable picture to represent the activity/event, it may be a sticker, a photo or a drawn picture. One can also draw/write directly on the watchcase. The desired point in time is coded by pressing out segments from the black plastic disposable watch face so it looks like the desired point of time on a normal watch face. The point in time shall be coded as it is written, i.e. 14:45 “fourteen forty-five” (not “a quarter to three”). Start by pressing out the segment for morning “AM” or the segment for afternoon “PM” at the bottom. Then press out the segment for “hour”, e.g. “fourteenth hour”, finally press out the segment for desired quarter of an hour, e.g. “forty-five”.
In order to achieve the QuarterHourWatch-function three segments should be pressed out. Then insert the coded watch face into the watchcase. Press firmly all the way around. Examples of watch faces coded to certain points of time 14:45 (2:45 PM) 8:00 (8:00 AM) 16:30 (4:30 PM)
15:15 (3:45 PM)
Check of coded point in time The coding can be checked in the following manner. Insert the Picture card in the Quarter Hour Watch so that a number of dots are visible (if no dots or circles are visible at all, the coding is incorrect). Then remove the Picture card. For a short period of time the coded point of time, e.g., 14:45, is visible in the upper edge of the display. It is recommended to always check after preparing a new Picture card. Re-coding of a Picture card It is very important that the coded point of time is correct. If an activity has changed time, one has to re-code the Picture card. a. Snap out the watch face from the watchcase by bending the Picture card or by putting a screwdriver in the notch. b. Code a new watch face by pressing out three segments as described above. c. Put the new coded watch faces in the watchcase. Press firmly all the way around. The white watchcases can be re-used an unlimited number of times. If the Picture card shall represent some other activity/event, the old picture is just removed or covered by a new picture.
The Timer-function The Timer-function is an “egg-timer” where the user, in an easy way, can set the time for activities like; brushing teeth in 3 minutes, boiling of spaghetti in 10 minutes, bathing in 50 minutes etc. Remaining time is shown in accordance with the “QuarterHourWatch principle” as described above, i.e., in steps of 15 minutes. It is possible to set the Timer-function in 1-minute steps between 1 and 25 minutes and in 5-minutes steps between 25 and 120 minutes. Note!! If one takes out a Timer card and then puts it back in the QuarterHour Watch it starts the countdown from the beginning.
Coding of the Timer-function In order not to confuse the user one should better use the grey watchcases for Picture cards for the Timer-functions (= Timer card). The Timer-function is activated by pressing out both the AM- and PMsegment along with additional two segments to code the desired time period (see below), i.e., on the Timer cards four segments should be pressed out. The QuarterHourWatch II is delivered with 3 pre-coded Timer cards. They are coded to 15 min, 30 min and 1 hour and labelled with 1, 2, and 4 hourglasses. The coding of Timer cards is described below. 1-12 minutes in 1-minutes steps, i.e., 1, 2, 3, ….12 minutes 1. Press out the full hour segment. 2. Press out both AM and PM
3. Press out desired inner segment. See examples:
13-24 minutes in 1-minutes steps, i.e. 13, 14, 15, … 24 minutes 1. Press out the “15 minutes past”segment. 2. Press out both AM and PM
3. Press out desired inner segment. See examples:
5-60 minutes in 5-minutes steps, i.e. 5,10,15, … 60 minutes 1. Press out “30 minutes after”segment. 2. Press out both AM and PM
3. Press out desired inner segment.
65-120 minutes in 5-minutes steps, i.e. 65, 70, 75, … 120 min 1. Press out “45 minutes past”segment. 2. Press out both AM and PM
3. Press out desired inner segment.
Inserting and removing Picture cards The QuarterHourWatch should be used with the large button to the right and the vertical display to the left. The Picture card is put in the picture card compartment with the black watch face facing down and the little notch (see picture) to the left. Press down the picture card until it snaps into position. The Picture card is now safely in place. To take out the Picture card, press the large button (the grooves shows where to press). If one presses sharply, the Picture card jumps up and stays above, making it easy to lift off. A simpler way of taking out the Picture card without requiring a sudden press is to hold the QuarterHourWatch vertically so that the Picture card falls out by its own weight.
Check and adjustment of the built-in clock Note!! The QuarterHourWatch must be adjusted for Standard and Daylight Savings times. Check and adjustment of the built-in clock is done with two small switches, K1 and K2, placed below the coverlid, see picture. Press the switches with some narrow object; a bent paperclip, match, pen nib, small screw, or similar. The object should not be sharp as an awl. K1 K2
Check of the built-in clock Press the button K1, the built-in clock is shown on top of the display. After approx. 10 seconds the QuarterHourWatch returns to normal function.
Adjustment of the built-in clock a. Press K1 so that the present setting is shown on top of the display. b. When the time is shown on the display, press K2 and keep it pressed until the colon starts to twinkle (after approx. 5 sec). c. Release K2 and the numbers for the hour flashes. Step forward to change the hour by pressing K2 repeatedly. When the correct hour is set, push K1. Then the numbers for minutes starts to flash. Step forward to change the minute by pressing K2 repeatedly. d. A press on K1 starts the clock. The numbers go out after approx. 10 sec.
Use of the QuarterHourWatch outdoors The QuarterHourWatch is well suited for use outdoors. However, one should keep it in a bag or pocket when it is not being used. It is not recommended to let the QuarterHourWatch be left outdoors over-night or in the rain. If the QuarterHourWatch has been soaked with water or exposed to dampness in any way, the batteries should be removed and everything dried out properly before the batteries are put back and the QuarterHourWatch is used again. At extremely high temperature (+40°C), e.g., if the QuarterHourWatch has been lying in direct sunlight in several hours, the display contrast can be impaired to where the empty circles look filled, i.e., like dots, if you look at the QuarterHourWatch a little bit from the side. At extremely low temperature (-20°C), e.g., if the QuarterHourWatch has been lying very cold for several hours, the display contrast also may be impaired and somewhat difficult to read.
Cleaning of the QuarterHourWatch The QuarterHourWatch may be cleaned with a firmly twisted damp swab and a mild dishwasher detergent. The QuarterHourWatch must not be flushed with water.
Exchange of batteries The batteries (alkaline) are expected to last at least 7 months. When the batteries are running out, a small battery symbol is shown at the bottom of the display, and the QuarterHourWatch beeps several times when a Picture card is put in place. It is recommended that the batteries always are exchanged when adjustment is made for Standard and Daylight Savings time, in order to avoid the batteries running out in an inappropriate situation. The batteries are three R03 (AAA) 1,5V standard batteries. Good quality alkaline batteries are recommended. Screw Battery lid
a. Open the battery lid on the rear side by unscrewing the screw. Remove the lid. b. Remove the old batteries and put in new ones. The polarity is marked on the printed circuit card visible through the narrow opening at the bottom of the battery compartment. All the batteries shall be put in the same direction. c. Replace the battery lid and screw in the screw. d. Note! Check the time setting by pressing K1. If necessary adjust the built-in clock as described in last chapter. Bear in mind that the clock must be adjusted for Standard and Daylight Savings time.
Some principles for the introduction of the QuarterHourWatch The QuarterHourWatch gives the user possibilities to develop the use in his own pace and according to his own ability. It is therefore important to not overload the users contact with the QuarterHourWatch with many explanation and instructions. The role of the helper (personal or relative) is first to introduce the aid and thereafter serve as support. The helper should give assistance when it is requested or when special needs come up, for instance, when the user wants Picture cards for new activities/events, when it is time to shift between Standard and Daylight Savings time or to exchange batteries, etc. As a first step, it is normally appropriate to use the QuarterHourWatch as a reminder. The QuarterHourWatch beeps at a chosen point of time. This function is concrete and easy to explain. Experience has shown that most people who use the QuarterHourWatch regularly in this way, after a while notice the row of circles and dots and start on their own to wonder what it means. This means the start of a learning process which, after varying periods of time – from days until weeks or months – often leads to the user learning on his own how to use the information of remaining time shown on the QuarterHourWatch. This learning process implies a radical development of the user’s concept of time, which not can be achieved with instructions and explanations. New QuarterHourWatch users often have the experience of helpers as the source of information regarding time for activities/events: “Now its time to go to the bus!”, “Now the game on TV starts!”, etc. The QuarterHourWatch can, therefore, already function just as a reminder to give the user great improvements in security and independence.
It is very important that the user from the start feels that it is he who has control over the QuarterHourWatch. Among other things, it is important that the first points of time to be introduced are points of time important to the user himself. It is equally important that the user himself activates the QuarterHourWatch by choosing the Picture card and putting it in place. It is in this way that the interest in its use is established, as well as an interest to further develop the ability to use the capabilities of the QuarterHourWatch. Bear in mind that the learning difficulties that persons with developmental disabilities have first concern situations demanding interpretation of linguistic instruction correctly. To learn by own experience gives, in general, far fewer problems. There is always a risk that oral instructions are misunderstood and thereby lead to unnecessarily prolonged learning time. One example is the use of the words “quarter of an hour” to designate the dots on the display. For the new user, the display simply shows a row of dots and circles, not as symbols for the abstract concept of time. It is the daily experience of how the numbers of ”dots” vary in different situations that develops the concept of time as shown by the QuarterHourWatch, a concept of time where the time unit is ”dots”, not minutes, quarter of hours or hours. Below are some more detailed proposals of how the introduction might be carried out. 1. Inserting and removing a Picture card Show how the Picture card should be inserted and removed. The easiest way of inserting a Picture card is to place the QHW on a flat surface, placing the Picture card in the Picture card compartment with the notch in correct place, and then pressing the Picture card until it snaps into place. The easiest way of removing the Picture card is to press the button when the QuarterHourWatch is held vertical with the front side facing slightly downwards. The Picture card will then fall out by its own weight Let the user practice until it works well, especially to take out the Picture card. 2. Using the QuarterHourWatch to keep track of an event Prepare a Picture card for an event the user is keen to keep, for example a coffee break or a TV-program. Put the Picture card in the QuarterHourWatch and say that this is a watch, which will beep when it is time for the event symbolized on the Picture card. Explain that the beeping stops immediately when the Picture card is removed. 14
Point at the display and mention that one can see how much time there is left. Let the user bring the QuarterHourWatch to his normal activities and expand its use at his own pace. Prepare Picture cards for new activities/events as soon as the user asks for it, and support its use rather passively. 3. To separate between future and past events. Make sure there are Picture cards for events both backwards and forward in time. Let the user put in Picture cards of both kinds. Look at the display and explain. Repeat a number of times. Ask the user to give you a Picture card of each type. Point out that one always must check so that the dots do not move if there is a time one wants to keep. If a dot is moving, one is too late. 4. To use the Timer-function The Timer-function is a very simple to use “egg-timer” for persons accustomed to the ”QuarterHourWatch principle”. It is recommended that the Timer-function being introduced after the user controls the QuarterHourWatch’s functions satisfactorily. In order not to mix the functions, one should use Picture cards with different colours, white Picture cards for the normal QuarterHourWatch-function and grey for the Timer-function. The Timer-function is suitable for activities that have a certain duration, but are not connected to a certain point of time; ”boiling spaghetti, time to shower”, ”time to play with the computer”, etc.
Technical data/ Accessories Enclosed accessories Quarter HourWatch (black, blue, red or silver) 3 LR03 Alkaline batteries Case with shoulder strap and belt 20 black disposable watch faces for coding 5 white watchcases for Picture cards for the QuarterHourWatch-function 2 grey watchcases for Picture cards for the Timer-function 3 coded Timer cards (15 min, 30 min and 1 hour) Other accessories/ spares Belt case Stand (birch) Bag with 10 white watchcases Bag with 10 grey watchcases Bag with 50 black watch faces Binder for Picture cards Technical data Power supply Temperature range Size Weight
3 LR03 Alkaline batteries 0°C to 40°C 130 x 78 x 27 mm 170 g