1 The General Theory of Relativity2 Anadijiban Das Andrew DeBenedictis The General Theory of Relativity A Mathematical Exposition 1233 Anadijiban Das ...

Author:
Branden Jones

0 downloads 49 Views 608KB Size

Anadijiban Das • Andrew DeBenedictis

The General Theory of Relativity A Mathematical Exposition

123

Anadijiban Das Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC Canada

Andrew DeBenedictis Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC Canada

ISBN 978-1-4614-3657-7 ISBN 978-1-4614-3658-4 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-3658-4 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2012938036 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Dedicated to the memory of Professor J. L. Synge

Preface

General relativity is to date the most successful theory of gravity. In this theory, the gravitational field is not a conventional force but instead is due to the geometric properties of a manifold commonly known as space–time. These properties give rise to a rich physical theory incorporating many areas of mathematics. In this vein, this book is well suited for the advanced mathematics or physics student, as well as researchers, and it is hoped that the balance of rigorous mathematics and physical insights and applications will benefit the intended audience. The main text and exercises have been designed both to gently introduce topics and to develop the framework to the point necessary for the practitioner in the field. This text tries to cover all of the important subjects in the field of classical general relativity in a mathematically precise way. This is a subject which is often counterintuitive when first encountered. We have therefore provided extensive discussions and proofs to many statements, which may seem surprising at first glance. There are also many elegant results from theorems which are applicable to relativity theory which, if someone is aware of them, can save the individual practitioner much calculation (and time). We have tried to include many of them. We have tried to steer the middle ground between brute force and mathematical elegance in this text, as both approaches have their merits in certain situations. In doing this, we hope that the final result is “reader friendly.” There are some sections that are considered advanced and can safely be skipped by those who are learning the subject for the first time. This is indicated in the introduction of those sections. The mathematics of the theory of general relativity is mostly derived from tensor algebra and tensor analysis, and some background in these subjects, along with special relativity (relativity in the absence of gravity), is required. Therefore, in Chapter 1, we briefly provide the tensor analysis in Riemannian and pseudoRiemannian differentiable manifolds. These topics are discussed in an arbitrary dimension and have many possible applications. In Chapter 2, we review the special theory of relativity in the arena of the fourdimensional flat space–time manifold. Then, we introduce curved space–time and Einstein’s field equations which govern gravitational phenomena. vii

viii

Preface

In Chapter 3, we explore spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein’s equations, which are useful, for example, in the study of nonrotating stars. Foremost among these solutions is the Schwarzschild metric, which describes the gravitational field outside such stars. This solution is the general relativistic analog of Newton’s inverse-square force law of universal gravitation. The Schwarzschild metric, and perturbations of this solution, has been utilized for many experimental verifications of general relativity within the solar system. General solutions to the field equations under spherical symmetry are also derived, which have application in the study of both static and nonstatic stellar structure. In Chapter 4, we deal with static and stationary solutions of the field equations, both in general and under the assumption of certain important symmetries. An important case which is examined at great length is the Kerr metric, which may describe the gravitational field outside of certain rotating bodies. In Chapter 5, the fascinating topic of black holes is investigated. The two most important solutions, the Schwarzschild black hole and the axially symmetric Kerr black hole, are explored in great detail. The formation of black holes from gravitational collapse is also discussed. In Chapter 6, physically significant cosmological models are pursued. (In this arena of the physical sciences, the impact of Einstein’s theory is very deep and revolutionary indeed!) An introduction to higher dimensional gravity is also included in this chapter. In Chapter 7, the mathematical topics regarding Petrov’s algebraic classification of the Riemann and the conformal tensor are studied. Moreover, the Newman– Penrose versions of Einstein’s field equations, incorporating Petrov’s classification, are explored. This is done in great detail, as it is a difficult topic and we feel that detailed derivations of some of the equations are useful. In Chapter 8, we introduce the coupled Einstein–Maxwell–Klein–Gordon field equations. This complicated system of equations classically describes the selfgravitation of charged scalar wave fields. In the special arena of spherically symmetric, static space–time, these field equations, with suitable boundary conditions, yield a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the allowed theoretical charges of gravitationally bound wave-mechanical condensates. Eight appendices are also provided that deal with special topics in classical general relativity as well as some necessary background mathematics. The notation used in this book is as follows: The Roman letters i , j , k, l, m, n, etc. are used to denote subscripts and superscripts (i.e., covariant and contravariant indices) of a tensor field’s components relative to a coordinate basis and span the full dimensionality of the manifold. However, we employ parentheses around the letters .a/; .b/; .c/; .d /; .e/; .f /, etc. to indicate components of a tensor field relative to an orthonormal basis. Greek indices are used to denote components that only span the dimensionality of a hypersurface. In our discussions of space–time, these Greek indices indicate spatial components only. The flat Minkowskian metric tensor components are denoted by dij or d.a/.b/. Numerically they are the same, but conceptually there is a subtle difference. The signature of the space–time metric is

Preface

ix

C2 and the conventions for the definitions of the Riemann, Ricci, and conformal tensors follow the classic book of Eisenhart. We would like to thank many people for various reasons. As there are so many who we are indebted to, we can only explicitly thank a few here, in the hope that it is understood that there are many others who have indirectly contributed to this book in many, sometimes subtle, ways. I (A. Das) learned much of general relativity from the late Professors J. L. Synge and C. Lanczos during my stay at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Before that period, I had as mentors in relativity theory Professors S. N. Bose (of Bose– Einstein statistics), S. D. Majumdar, and A. K. Raychaudhuri in Kolkata. During my stay in Pittsburgh, I regularly participated in, and benefited from, seminars organized by Professor E. Newman. In Canada, I had informal discussions with Professors F. Cooperstock, J. Gegenberg, W. Israel, and E. Pechlaner and Drs. P Agrawal, S. Kloster, M. M. Som, M. Suvegas, and N. Tariq. Moreover, in many international conferences on general relativity and gravitation, I had informal discussions with many adept participants through the years. I taught the theory of relativity at University College of Dublin, Jadavpur University (Kolkata), Carnegie-Mellon University, and mostly at Simon Fraser University (Canada). Stimulations received from the inquiring minds of students, both graduate and undergraduate, certainly consolidated my understanding of this subject. Finally, I thank my wife, Mrs. Purabi Das. I am very grateful for her constant encouragement and patience. I (A. DeBenedictis) would like to thank all of the professors, colleagues, and students who have taught and influenced me. As mentioned previously, there are far too many to name them all individually. I would like to thank Professor E. N. Glass of the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor and the University of Windsor, who gave me my first proper introduction to this fascinating field of physics and mathematics. I would like to thank Professor K. S. Viswanathan of Simon Fraser University, from whom I learned, among the many things he taught me, that this field has consequences in theoretical physics far beyond what I originally had thought. I would also like to thank my colleagues whom I have met over the years at various institutions and conferences. All of them have helped me, even if they do not know it. Discussions with them, and their hospitality during my visits, are worthy of great thanks. During the production of this work, I was especially indebted to my colleagues in quantum gravity. They have given me the appreciation of how difficult it is to turn the subject matter of this book into a quantum theory, and opened up a fascinating new area of research to me. The quantization of the gravitational field is likely to be one of the deepest, difficult, and most interesting puzzles in theoretical physics for some time. I hope that this text will provide a solid background for half of that puzzle to those who choose to tread down this path. I would also like to thank the students whom I have taught, or perhaps they have taught me. Whether it be freshman level or advanced graduate level, I can honestly say that I have learned something from every class that I have taught.

x

Preface

Not least, I extend my deepest thanks and appreciation to my wife Jennifer for her encouragement throughout this project. I do not know how she did it. We both extend great thanks to Mrs. Sabine Lebhart for her excellent and timely typesetting of a very difficult manuscript. Finally, we wish the best to all students, researchers, and curious minds who will each in their own way advance the field of gravitation and convey this beautiful subject to future generations. We hope that this book will prove useful to them. Vancouver, Canada

Anadijiban Das Andrew DeBenedictis

Contents

1

Tensor Analysis on Differentiable Manifolds . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Differentiable Manifolds.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Tensor Fields Over Differentiable Manifolds .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Riemannian and Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Extrinsic Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 16 40 88

2 The Pseudo-Riemannian Space–Time Manifold M4 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Review of the Special Theory of Relativity . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Curved Space–Time and Gravitation .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 General Properties of Tij . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Solution Strategies, Classification, and Initial-Value Problems .. . . . . . 2.5 Fluids, Deformable Solids, and Electromagnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105 105 136 174 195 210

3 Spherically Symmetric Space–Time Domains . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Schwarzschild Solution .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Spherically Symmetric Static Interior Solutions . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Nonstatic, Spherically Symmetric Solutions . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229 229 246 258

4 Static and Stationary Space–Time Domains . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Static Axially Symmetric Space–Time Domains ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The General Static Field Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Axially Symmetric Stationary Space–Time Domains .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 The General Stationary Field Equations . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

277 277 290 317 331

5 Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Spherically Symmetric Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Kerr Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Exotic Black Holes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

351 351 384 403

6 Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Big Bang Models.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Scalar Fields in Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Five-Dimensional Cosmological Models . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

419 419 440 456 xi

xii

Contents

7 Algebraic Classification of Field Equations . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 7.1 The Petrov Classification of the Curvature Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 7.2 Newman–Penrose Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 8 The Coupled Einstein–Maxwell–Klein–Gordon Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 The General E–M–K–G Field Equations . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Static Space–Time Domains and the E–M–K–G Equations . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Spherical Symmetry and a Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problem for a Theoretical Fine-Structure Constant . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

537 537 542 551

Appendix 1 Variational Derivation of Differential Equations .. . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Appendix 2 Partial Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Appendix 3 Canonical Forms of Matrices .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 Appendix 4 Conformally Flat Space–Times and “the Fifth Force” . . . . . . 617 Appendix 5 Linearized Theory and Gravitational Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Appendix 6 Exotic Solutions: Wormholes, Warp-Drives, and Time Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Appendix 7 Gravitational Instantons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Appendix 8 Computational Symbolic Algebra Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 References .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 Index . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669

List of Figures

Fig. 1.1 Fig. 1.2 Fig. 1.3 Fig. 1.4 Fig. 1.5 Fig. 1.6 Fig. 1.7 Fig. 1.8 Fig. 1.9 Fig. 1.10 Fig. 1.11 Fig. 1.12 Fig. 1.13

Fig. 1.14 Fig. 1.15 Fig. 1.16 Fig. 1.17 Fig. 1.18 Fig. 1.19 Fig. 1.20

A chart .; U / and projection mappings . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two charts in M and a coordinate transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The polar coordinate chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tangent vector in E 3 and R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A parametrized curve into M .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reparametrization of a curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Jacobian mapping of tangent vectors . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A vector field U.x/ along an integral curve . ; x/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A classification chart for manifolds endowed with metric.. . . . . . . . Parallel propagation of a vector along a curve .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel transport along a closed curve . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel transport along closed curves on several manifolds. Although all manifolds here are intrinsically flat, except for the apex of (c), the cone yields nontrivial parallel transport of the vector when it is transported around the curve shown, which encompasses the apex. The domain enclosed by a curve encircling the apex is non-star-shaped, and therefore, nontrivial parallel transport may be obtained even though the entire curve is located in regions where the manifold is flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-dimensional surface generated by geodesics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geodesic deviation between two neighboring longitudes . . . . . . . . . A circular helix in R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A two-dimensional surface †2 embedded in R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A smooth surface of revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The image †N 1 of a parametrized hypersurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate transformation and reparametrization of hypersurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 3 4 5 6 11 13 22 36 65 74 76

76 79 81 83 89 92 94 95

xiii

xiv

List of Figures

Fig. 1.21

Change of normal vector due to the extrinsic curvature . . . . . . . . . . .

98

Fig. 2.1 Fig. 2.2

A tangent vector vE p0 in M4 and its image vE x0 in R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Null cone Nx0 with vertex at x0 (circles represent suppressed spheres).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Lorentz transformation inducing a mapping between two coordinate planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Images S ; T , and N of a spacelike, timelike, and a null curve .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The three-dimensional hyperhyperboloid representing the 4-velocity constraint .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A world tube and a curve representing a fluid streamline . . . . . . . . . A doubly sliced world tube of an extended body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping of a rectangular coordinate grid into a curvilinear grid in the space–time manifold .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OC A coordinate transformation mapping half lines L O O O . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and LO into half lines LO and L

106

Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.4 Fig. 2.5 Fig. 2.6 Fig. 2.7 Fig. 2.8 Fig. 2.9

4

Fig. 2.10 Fig. 2.11

Fig. 2.12 Fig. 2.13 Fig. 2.14 Fig. 2.15 Fig. 2.16 Fig. 2.17 Fig. 2.18 Fig. 2.19 Fig. 2.20 Fig. 3.1

Fig. 3.2 Fig. 3.3 Fig. 3.4

C

108 109 112 114 118 120 128 129

Three massive particles falling freely in space under Earth’s gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Space and time trajectories of two geodesic particles freely falling towards the Earth. (b) A similar figure but adapted to the geodesic motion of the two freely falling observers in curved space–time M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative representation of a swarm of particles moving under the influence of a gravitational field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) shows the parallel transport along a nongeodesic curve. (b) depicts the F–W transport along the same curve . . . . . . . Measurement of a spacelike separation along the image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A material world tube in the domain D.b/ . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analytic extension of solutions from the original domain D.e/ into DQO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five two-dimensional surfaces with some peculiarities . . . . . . . . . . . (a) shows a material world tube. (b) shows the EP field over ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continuous U A doubly sliced world tube of an isolated, extended material body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domain D WD D.0/ .0; t1 / R4 for the initial-value problem ..

188 203

Two-dimensional submanifold M2 of the Schwarzschild space–time. The surface representing M2 here is known as Flamm’s paraboloid [102].. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rosette motion of a planet and the perihelion shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The deflection of light around the Sun . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two t-coordinate lines endowed with ideal clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

233 238 240 241

138

139 140 147 149 165 168 169 184

List of Figures

Fig. 3.5 Fig. 3.6 Fig. 4.1 Fig. 4.2 Fig. 4.3 Fig. 5.1 Fig. 5.2 Fig. 5.3 Fig. 5.4 Fig. 5.5 Fig. 5.6 Fig. 5.7 Fig. 5.8

Fig. 5.9 Fig. 5.10 Fig. 5.11 Fig. 5.12 Fig. 5.13 Fig. 5.14 Fig. 5.15 Fig. 5.16 Fig. 5.17 Fig. 5.18 Fig. 5.19 Fig. 5.20 Fig. 5.21

xv

Qualitative representation of a spherical body inside a concentric shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 A convex domain D in a two-dimensional coordinate plane .. . . . . 260 The two-dimensional and the corresponding axially symmetric three-dimensional domain . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Two axially symmetric bodies in “Euclidean coordinate spaces” .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 A massive, charged particle at x.1/ and a point x in the extended body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Qualitative picture depicting two mappings from the Lemaˆıtre chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The graph of the semicubical parabola .rO /3 D .O /2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The mapping X and its restrictions Xj:: . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The graph of the Lambert W-function .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four domains covered by the doubly null, u v coordinate chart .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximal extension of the Schwarzschild chart.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intersection of two surfaces of revolution in the maximally extended Schwarzschild universe . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates .Ou; vO / describing the black hole. The vertical lines rO D 2m and rO D 0 indicate the event horizon and the singularity, respectively . . . . . . . Qualitative graph of M.r/.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collapse of a dust ball into a black hole in a Tolman-Bondi-Lemaˆıtre chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collapse of a dust ball into a black hole in Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative representation of a collapsing spherically symmetric star in three instants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundary of the collapsing surface and the (absolute) event horizon .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Various profile curves representing horizons in the submanifold ' D =2; t D const in the Kerr space–time .. . . . . . . . Locations of horizons, ergosphere, ring singularity, etc., in the Kerr-submanifold x 4 D const. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The region of validity for the metric in (5.100iii) and (5.99) .. . . . . The region of validity for the metric in (5.101) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The submanifold M2 and its two coordinate charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximally extended Kerr submanifold MQ 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative representation of an exotic black hole in the T -domain and the Kruskal–Szekeres chart.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collapse into an exotic black hole depicted by four coordinate charts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

353 355 360 361 364 365 369

370 372 373 375 376 377 387 389 396 396 397 398 409 413

xvi

List of Figures

Fig. 5.22

Qualitative graphs of y D Œ.s/ 1 and the straight line y D ˝.s/ WD y0 C .1=3/ .s s0 / . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

Fig. 6.1

Qualitative graphs for the “radius of the universe” as a function of time in three Friedmann (or standard) models . . . . . . . . Qualitative representation of a submanifold M2 of the spatially closed space–time M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative graphs of y D Œ.s/ 1 and the straight line y D y0 C 13 .s s0 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the square of the cosmological scale factor, a2 .t/. The dotted lines represent the numerically evolved Cauchy data utilizing the scheme outlined in Sect. 2.4 to various orders in t t0 (quadratic, cubic, quartic). The solid line represents the analytic result .e2t / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative graphs of two functions .ˇ/ and z.ˇ/ corresponding to the particular function h.ˇ/ WD " ˇ 1 . . . . . . . . . The qualitative graph of the function .ˇ/ for 0 < ˇ < 1 .. . . . . . . . Qualitative graphs of a typical function h.ˇ/ and the curve comprising of minima for the one-parameter family of such functions .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphs of evolutions of functions depicting the scale O w/. (Note that at late times O w/ and ˇ.t; factors A.t; the compact dimension expands at a slower rate than the noncompact dimensions) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fig. 6.2 Fig. 6.3 Fig. 6.4

Fig. 6.5 Fig. 6.6 Fig. 6.7

Fig. 6.8

426 426 435

452 460 461

462

464

Fig. 7.1

A tetrad field containing two spacelike and two null vector fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

Fig. 8.1

A plot of the function in (8.39) with the following parameters: c0 D 1, e D 1, 0 D 1 and x0 D 0 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A plot of the function W .x 1 / D x 1 V .x 1 / subject to the boundary conditions W .0/ D 0, @1 W .x 1 /jx 1 D0 D 0:5; 1; and 5 representing increasing frequency respectively. The constant .0/ is set to unity .. . . . . . . . . . The graph of the function r D coth x 1 > 0 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphs of the eigenfunctions U.0/ .x/, U.1/ .x/ and U.2/ .x/. . . . . . . . (a) Qualitative graph of eigenfunction u.0/ .r/: (b) Qualitative plot of the radial distance R.r/ versus r: (c) Qualitative plot of the ratio of circumference divided by radial distance. (d) Qualitative two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional, spherically symmetric geometry .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualitative plots of three null cones representing radial, null geodesics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fig. 8.2

Fig. 8.3 Fig. 8.4 Fig. 8.5

Fig. 8.6

550

552 556 560

564 565

List of Figures

xvii

Fig. 8.7

(a) Qualitative graph of the eigenfunction u.2/ .r/: (b) ˇ ˇ plot of the radial distance R r Qualitative R.r/ WD 0C ˇu.2/ .w/ˇ dw: (c) Qualitative plot of the ratio of circumference divided by radial distance. (d) Qualitative, two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional, spherically symmetric geometry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566

Fig. A1.1 Fig. A1.2

Two twice-differentiable parametrized curves into RN .. . . . . . . . . . . 570 The mappings corresponding to a tensor field y .rCs/ D .rCs/ .x/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Two representative spacelike hypersurfaces in an ADM decomposition of space–time . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583

Fig. A1.3 Fig. A2.1 Fig. A2.2

Classification diagram of p.d.e.s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Graphs of nonunique solutions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603

Fig. A5.1

An illustration of the quantities in (A5.13) in the three-dimensional spatial submanifold. The coordinates xs , known as the source points, span the entire source (shaded region). O represents an arbitrary origin of the coordinate system . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 The C (top) and (bottom) polarizations of gravitational waves. A loop of string is deformed as shown over time as a gravitational wave passes out of the page. Inset: a superposition of the two most extreme deformations of the string for the C and polarizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 The sensitivity of the LISA and LIGO detectors. The dark regions indicate the likely amplitudes (vertical axis, denoting change in length divided by mean length of detector) and frequencies (horizontal axis, in cycles per second) of astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. The approximately “U”-shaped lines indicate the extreme sensitivity levels of the LISA (left) and LIGO (right) detectors. BH D black hole, NS D neutron star, SN D supernova (Figure courtesy of NASA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631

Fig. A5.2

Fig. A5.3

Fig. A6.1

A possible picture for the space–time foam. Space-time that seems smooth on large scales (left) may actually be endowed with a sea of nontrivial topologies (represented by handles on the right) due to quantum gravity effects. (Note that, as discussed in the main text, this topology is not necessarily changing.) One of the simplest models for such a handle is the wormhole . . . 634

xviii

Fig. A6.2

Fig. A6.3

Fig. A6.4

Fig. A6.5

Fig. A6.6

Fig. A6.7

Fig. A6.8

Fig. A6.9

List of Figures

A qualitative representation of an interuniverse wormhole (top) and an intra-universe wormhole (bottom). In the second scenario, the wormhole could provide a shortcut to otherwise distant parts of the universe . . . . . . Left: A cross-section of the wormhole profile curve near the throat region. Right: The wormhole is generated by rotating the profile curve about the x 3 -axis.. . . . . . . . . A “top-hat” function for the warp-drive space–time with one direction (x 3 ) suppressed. The center of the ship is located at the center of the top hat, corresponding to s r D 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The expansion of spatial volume elements, (A6.12), for the warp-drive space–time with the x 3 coordinate suppressed. Note that, in this model, there is contraction of volume elements in front of the ship and an expansion of volume elements behind the ship. The ship, however, is located in a region with no expansion nor compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A plot of the distribution of negative energy density in a plane (x 3 D 0) containing the ship for a warp-drive space–time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two examples of closed timelike curves. In (a) the closure of the timelike curve is introduced by topological identification. In (b) the time coordinate is periodic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The embedding of anti-de Sitter space–time in a five-dimensional flat “space–time” which possesses two timelike coordinates, U and V (two dimensions suppressed).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The light-cone structure about an axis % D 0 in the G¨odel space–time. On the left, the light cones tip forward, and on thepright, they tip backward. Note that at % D ln.1 C 2/ the light cones are sufficiently tipped over that the ' direction is null. At greater %, the ' direction is timelike, indicating the presence of a closed timelike curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

634

635

639

640

641

642

643

644

List of Tables

Table 1.1

The number of independent components of the Riemann–Christoffel tensor for various dimensions N . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

Table 2.1

Correspondence between relativistic and nonrelativistic physical quantities .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Table 4.1

Comparison between Newtonian gravity and Einstein static gravity outside matter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Table 7.1

Complex Segre characteristics and principal null directions for various Petrov types .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

Table 8.1

Physical quantities associated with the first five eigenfunctions of U.j /.x/. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567

xix

Symbols1; 2

WD, DW j:: 2 r s 0, O E O [j k; i] i jk Œc $ d , f $ g, etc. a E kAk A[B A\B AB

d’Alembertian operator, completion of an example Q.E.D., completion of proof Central dot denotes multiplication (used to make crowded equations more readable) Identity Definition, which is an identity involving new notation Hodge star operation, tortoise coordinate designation Constrained to a curve or surface Belongs to .r C s/th order zero tensor. (In the latter the number of dots indicate r and s.) Zero vector Christoffel symbol of the 1st kind Christoffel symbol of the 2nd kind Represents the previous term in brackets of an expression but with the given indices interchanged Angular momentum parameter, expansion factor in F–L–R–W metric Norm or length of a vector Union of two sets Intersection of two sets Cartesian product of two sets

1

For common tensors, only the coordinate component form is shown in this list. Occasionally the symbols listed here will also have other definitions in the text. We tabulate the most common definitions here as it should be clear in the text where the meanings differ from those in this list.

2

xxi

xxii

Symbols

AB E B/ E B/ E g g:: .A; E .A pA ^ q B E B EB E E WD A E B EA [A; A Ai ˛ B ˇ c C Cr Ci u r v CŒs T C ij kl C .; U / .p/ D x .x 1 ; x 2 ; : : : ; x N / ij D Di @D ri D @t r2 ıji p p ı;

i ;:::;i

ı 1 j1p;:::;jp df , dŒp W dij xN / @.b x 1 ; : : : ;b 1 @.x ; : : : ; x N / e Eij , EQij , E lij k E E˛ E; EN fEe.a/ gN 1 WD fEe.1/ ; : : : ; Ee.N / g

A is a subset of B Inner product between two vectors Wedge product between a p-form and a q-form Lie bracket or commutator Electric potential, (also a function used in fivedimensional cosmologies) Components of the electromagnetic 4-potential Affine parameter for a null geodesic, Newman–Penrose spin-coefficient Magnetic potential, bivector set Expansion coefficient for 5th dimension, Newman– Penrose spin-coefficient Speed of light (usually set to 1) Conformal group, causality violating region Differentiability class r Coordinate conditions Contraction operation of a tensor field rs T Components of Weyl’s conformal tensor The set of all complex numbers Coordinate chart for a differentiable manifold Local coordinates of a point p in a manifold. In some places x 2 R. Extended extrinsic curvature components A domain in RN (open and connected) Gauge covariant derivative .N 1/-dimensional boundary of D Covariant derivatives Covariant derivative along a curve Laplacian in a manifold with metric, determinant of ij Laplacian in a Euclidean space Components of Kronecker delta (or identity matrix) Generalized Kronecker delta Exterior derivative of f or p W Components of flat space metric Jacobian of a coordinate transformation Electric charge, exponential Components of Einstein equations (in various forms) Electric field and its components N -dimensional Euclidean space A basis set for a vector space

Symbols

xxiii

E .a/ g4 fE n 1

A complex null basis set for Newman–Penrose formalism

o E El; kE E m; WD m; " "i1 i2 ;:::;iN i .a/.b/ i1 ;i2 ;:::;iN f˛ fij .x; u/ Fi Fij g; jgj G gij Gji

X WD ı Lij

.a/.b/.c/

.a/.b/.c/ kij „ hi , hij , hkij E H˛ H; H I J Ji J ik E k ki k0 K.u/ E Ki K; K

A small number, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient, coefficient of a perturbation Totally antisymmetric permutation symbol (Levi-Civita) Components of the geodesic deviation vector Components of metric tensor relative to a complex null tetrad Totally antisymmetric pseudo (or oriented) tensor (Levi-Civita) Newtonian force Finsler metric components 4-force components Electromagnetic tensor field tensor components Metric tensor determinant and its absolute value Gravitational constant (usually set to 1) Metric tensor components Einstein tensor components A parametrized curve into a manifold, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient A parametrized curve into RN The image of a parametrized curve into RN , characteristic matrix Characteristic matrix components Complex Ricci rotation coefficients Ricci rotation coefficients Independent connection components in Hilbert-Palatini variational approach Reduced Planck’s constant (usually set to 1) Variations of vector, second-rank tensor, Christoffel connection respectively Magnetic field and its components Relativistic Hamiltonian Identity tensor Action functional or action integral 4-current components Total angular momentum components Real null tetrad vector Wave vector (or number) components Curvature of spatial sections of F–L–R–W metric Gaussian curvature A Killing vector and corresponding components Extrinsic curvature components of a hypersurface

xxiv

.A/ , .0/ El l ij , Lij ŒL T L LVE L L.I/ .i / E .A/ .s/ .a/ i.a/ , i m, M.s/ E E m m; M , MN M Mi , Mi

N ni N˛ O.p; nI R/ IO.p; nI R/ p p# pk , p? pi ; P i .0/ k P ij ˚ ˛ (ext) ij ' ˚.A/.B/ ˚ i1 ;:::;ij1r;:::;js

Symbols

Einstein equation constant (D 8G=c 4 in common units) Ath curvature, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Real null tetrad vector Components of a generalized Lorentz transformation Transposed matrix A Lagrangian function Lie derivative Lagrangian density Lagrangian function from super-Hamiltonian Eigenvalue, Lagrange multiplier, electromagnetic gauge function, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient i th eigenvalue Ath normal vector to a curve Components of orthonormal basis Cosmological constant Mass, mass function Complex null tetrad vectors A differentiable manifold, N dimensional differentiable manifold “Total mass” of the universe Maxwell vector (and dual) components Mass density, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Dimension of tangent vector space, lapse function in A.D.M. formalism Unit normal vector components Shift vector in A.D.M. formalism Frequency, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Generalized Lorentz group Generalized Poincar´e group Point in a manifold, polynomial equation, pressure Polynomial equation for invariant eigenvalues Parallel pressure and transverse pressure respectively 4-momentum components Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Projection mapping Projection tensor field components Characteristic surface function of a p.d.e., scalar field Born-Infeld (or tachyonic) scalar field, (also a function used in five-dimensional cosmologies) External force density Complex electromagnetic field tensor components Complex Ricci components (A; B 2 f0; 1; 2g) Components of an oriented, relative tensor field of weight w

Symbols

xxv

.J / Q.a/.d /

Complex Klein-Gordon field Complex J th Weyl components (J 2 f0; : : : ; 4g) Complex Weyl tensor with second and third index projected in a timelike direction Ricci curvature scalar (or invariant) Components of Ricci tensor Components of Cotton–Schouten–York tensor Components of Riemann-Christoffel tensor The set of real numbers, complex Ricci scalar Cartesian product of N copies of the set R

R Rij Rij k Rij kl R RN WD „ R R ƒ‚ R … N

s ij ; S ij Sij kl s S2 ˛ˇ ij P , ;˙

Etx Tx TQx T ij T:: ; T ij k r sT T i1 ;:::;irj1 ;:::;js .a1 /;:::;.ar / .b1 /;:::;.bs / .a1 /;:::;.ar / T .b1 /;:::;.bs / p r sT ˝ q S i

T

T

r sT

.Tx .RN //

ij r s

U U.a/.b/ ; V.a/.b/ ; W.a/.b/

Mass density, proper energy density, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Components of relativistic stress tensor (special and general respectively) Components of symmetrized curvature tensor Arc separation parameter Two-dimensional spherical surface Electrical charge density, Newman–Penrose spin coefficient, separation of a vector field, Klein-Gordon equation Stress density, shear tensor components Arc separation function, function in Kerr metric, summation Tangent vector of the image at the point x Tangent vector space of a manifold Cotangent (or dual) vector space of a manifold Components of energy–momentum–stress tensor Torsion tensor and the corresponding components Tensor field of order .r C s/ Coordinate components of the (same) tensor field Orthonormal components of the (same) tensor field Complex tensor field components Tensor (or outer product) of two tensor fields Conservation law components Affine parameter along geodesic (usu. proper time), Newman–Penrose spin coefficient Tensor bundle Expansion tensor components, T -domain energy– momentum–stress tensor Components of a relative tensor field an open subset of a manifold Components of complex bivector fields (see definitions (7.48i–vi))

xxvi

ui ; U i ; U i V ˛ .t/, V ˛ W,w W W p W; Wi1 ;:::;ip !ij ˝ x D X .t/; x i D X i .t/ x D .u/; x i D i .u1 ; : : : ; uD / Y z; z Z; ZC

Symbols

4-velocity components Newtonian or Galilean velocity Effective Newtonian potential Lambert’s W-function, (symbol also used for other functions in axi-symmetric metrics) Work function p-form and its antisymmetric components Vorticity tensor components Synge’s world function A parametrized curve in RN A parametrized submanifold Coefficient of spherical line element in Tolman-Bondi coordinates A complex variable and its conjugate The set of integers, the set of positive integers

Our partners will collect data and use cookies for ad personalization and measurement. Learn how we and our ad partner Google, collect and use data. Agree & Close