1 GATE 2016 General Aptitude - GA Set-3 Q. 1 Q. 5 carry one mark each. Q.1 Based on the given statements, select the appropriate option with respect t...

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General Aptitude - GA Set-3

Q. 1 – Q. 5 carry one mark each. Q.1

Based on the given statements, select the appropriate option with respect to grammar and usage. Statements (i) The height of Mr. X is 6 feet. (ii) The height of Mr. Y is 5 feet. (A) Mr. X is longer than Mr. Y. (B) Mr. X is more elongated than Mr. Y. (C) Mr. X is taller than Mr. Y. (D) Mr. X is lengthier than Mr. Y.

Q.2

The students ___________ the teacher on teachers’ day for twenty years of dedicated teaching. (A) facilitated

Q.3

(B) felicitated

(C) fantasized

(D) facillitated

After India’s cricket world cup victory in 1985, Shrotria who was playing both tennis and cricket till then, decided to concentrate only on cricket. And the rest is history. What does the underlined phrase mean in this context?

Q.4

Q.5

(A) history will rest in peace

(B) rest is recorded in history books

(C) rest is well known

(D) rest is archaic

½ ½ Given (9 inches) = (0.25 yards) , which one of the following statements is TRUE? (A) 3 inches = 0.5 yards

(B) 9 inches = 1.5 yards

(C) 9 inches = 0.25 yards

(D) 81 inches = 0.0625 yards

S, M, E and F are working in shifts in a team to finish a project. M works with twice the efficiency of others but for half as many days as E worked. S and M have 6 hour shifts in a day, whereas E and F have 12 hours shifts. What is the ratio of contribution of M to contribution of E in the project? (A) 1:1

(B) 1:2

(C) 1:4

(D) 2:1

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GATE 2016

General Ap ptitude - GA Set-3

Q. 6 – Q. 10 carry tw wo marks each. Q.6

Thee Venn diagrram shows thhe preferencee of the studeent populatioon for leisuree activities.

g the num mber of studdents who lik ke to read boooks or play ssports is ____ __. Froom the data given, (A)) 44

Q.7

(B) 51

(C) 79

(D) 108

Soccial science disciplines were w in existtence in an amorphous a f form until thhe colonial period when theyy were instittutionalized. In varying degrees, they y were intennded to furthher the colon nial interest. and the econnomic rise of postcoloniaal countries llike India, co In the t time of globalization g onventional wayys of knowleedge producttion have beccome obsolette. Whhich of the foollowing can be logicallyy inferred from m the above statements? (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Q.8

(A)) (ii) only

(B) (i) and (iii)) only

(C)) (ii) and (ivv) only

(D) (iii) and (ivv) only

Tw wo and a quarrter hours baack, when seeen in a mirro or, the reflecttion of a walll clock without number marrkings seemeed to show 1:30. What iss the actual cu urrent time shown s by thee clock? (A)) 8:15

Q.9

Soccial science disciplines d have become obsolete. Soccial science disciplines d had a pre-colo onial origin. Soccial science disciplines d allways promo ote colonialissm. Soccial science must m maintaiin disciplinarry boundariees.

(B) 11:15

(C) 12:15

(D) 12:45

M and N start from f the sam me location. M travels 10 0 km East annd then 10 km m North-Easst. N travels 5 km k South andd then 4 km South-East. What is thee shortest disstance (in km m) between M and N at the end of their travel? (A)) 18.60

(B) 22.50

(C) 20.61

(D) 25.00

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GATE 2016

Q.10

General Aptitude - GA Set-3

A wire of length 340 mm is to be cut into two parts. One of the parts is to be made into a square and the other into a rectangle where sides are in the ratio of 1:2. What is the length of the side of the square (in mm) such that the combined area of the square and the rectangle is a MINIMUM? (A) 30

(B) 40

(C) 120

(D) 180

END OF THE QUESTION PAPER

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q. 1 – Q. 25 carry one mark each. Q.1

3 2 4 The value of 𝑥 for which the matrix 𝐴 = � 9 7 13 � −6 −4 −9 + 𝑥 has zero as an eigenvalue is ________

Q.2

Consider the complex valued function 𝑓(𝑧) = 2𝑧 3 + 𝑏 |𝑧|3 where 𝑧 is a complex variable. The value of 𝑏 for which the function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic is ________

Q.3

As 𝑥 varies from −1 to +3, which one of the following describes the behaviour of the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 3 – 3𝑥 2 + 1?

(A) 𝑓(𝑥) increases monotonically. (B) 𝑓(𝑥) increases, then decreases and increases again. (C) 𝑓(𝑥) decreases, then increases and decreases again. (D) 𝑓(𝑥) increases and then decreases. Q.4

How many distinct values of 𝑥 satisfy the equation sin(𝑥) = 𝑥/2, where 𝑥 is in radians?

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4 or more

Q.5

Consider the time-varying vector 𝐈 = 𝐱� 15 cos(𝜔𝑡) + 𝐲� 5 sin(𝜔𝑡) in Cartesian coordinates, where 𝜔 > 0 is a constant. When the vector magnitude |𝐈| is at its minimum value, the angle 𝜃 that 𝐈 makes with the 𝑥 axis (in degrees, such that 0 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 180) is ________

Q.6

In the circuit shown below, 𝑉𝑆 is a constant voltage source and 𝐼𝐿 is a constant current load.

The value of 𝐼𝐿 that maximizes the power absorbed by the constant current load is

(A)

EC (2)

𝑉𝑆

4𝑅

(B)

𝑉𝑆

2𝑅

(C)

𝑉𝑆 𝑅

(D) ∞

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.7

The switch has been in position 1 for a long time and abruptly changes to position 2 at 𝑡 = 0.

If time 𝑡 is in seconds, the capacitor voltage VC (in volts) for 𝑡 > 0 is given by

(A) 4(1 − exp(−𝑡/0.5)) (B) 10 − 6 exp(−𝑡/0.5) (C) 4(1 − exp(−𝑡/0.6)) (D) 10 − 6 exp(−𝑡/0.6) Q.8

The figure shows an RLC circuit with a sinusoidal current source.

At resonance, the ratio |𝐈𝐋 |/|𝐈𝐑 |, i.e., the ratio of the magnitudes of the inductor current phasor and the resistor current phasor, is ________

Q.9

The z-parameter matrix for the two-port network shown is �

2𝑗𝜔 𝑗𝜔

𝑗𝜔 �, 3 + 2𝑗𝜔

where the entries are in Ω. Suppose 𝑍𝑏 (𝑗𝜔) = 𝑅𝑏 + 𝑗𝜔 .

Then the value of 𝑅𝑏 (in Ω) equals ________ Q.10

EC (2)

The energy of the signal 𝑥 (𝑡 ) =

sin(4𝜋𝑡) 4𝜋𝑡

is ________

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.11

The Ebers-Moll model of a BJT is valid (A) only in active mode (B) only in active and saturation modes (C) only in active and cut-off modes (D) in active, saturation and cut-off modes

Q.12

A long-channel NMOS transistor is biased in the linear region with 𝑉𝐷𝑆 =50 mV and is used as a resistance. Which one of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A) If the device width 𝑊 is increased, the resistance decreases. (B) If the threshold voltage is reduced, the resistance decreases. (C) If the device length 𝐿 is increased, the resistance increases. (D) If 𝑉𝐺𝑆 is increased, the resistance increases. Q.13

Assume that the diode in the figure has 𝑉𝑜𝑛 = 0.7 𝑉, but is otherwise ideal.

The magnitude of the current i2 (in mA) is equal to ________ Q.14

Resistor R1 in the circuit below has been adjusted so that I1 = 1 mA. The bipolar transistors Q1 and Q2 are perfectly matched and have very high current gain, so their base currents are negligible. The supply voltage Vcc is 6 V. The thermal voltage 𝑘𝑇/𝑞 is 26 mV.

The value of R 2 (in Ω) for which I2 =100 µA is ________

EC (2)

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.15

Which one of the following statements is correct about an ac-coupled common-emitter amplifier operating in the mid-band region? (A) The device parasitic capacitances behave like open circuits, whereas coupling and bypass capacitances behave like short circuits. (B) The device parasitic capacitances, coupling capacitances and bypass capacitances behave like open circuits. (C) The device parasitic capacitances, coupling capacitances and bypass capacitances behave like short circuits. (D) The device parasitic capacitances behave like short circuits, whereas coupling and bypass capacitances behave like open circuits.

Q.16

Transistor geometries in a CMOS inverter have been adjusted to meet the requirement for worst case charge and discharge times for driving a load capacitor C. This design is to be converted to that of a NOR circuit in the same technology, so that its worst case charge and discharge times while driving the same capacitor are similar. The channel lengths of all transistors are to be kept unchanged. Which one of the following statements is correct?

(A) Widths of PMOS transistors should be doubled, while widths of NMOS transistors should be halved. (B) Widths of PMOS transistors should be doubled, while widths of NMOS transistors should not be changed. (C) Widths of PMOS transistors should be halved, while widths of NMOS transistors should not be changed. (D) Widths of PMOS transistors should be unchanged, while widths of NMOS transistors should be halved.

Q.17

Assume that all the digital gates in the circuit shown in the figure are ideal, the resistor 𝑅 = 10 𝑘Ω and the supply voltage is 5 𝑉. The D flip-flops D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 are initialized with logic values 0,1,0,1 and 0, respectively. The clock has a 30% duty cycle.

The average power dissipated (in mW) in the resistor 𝑅 is ________

EC (2)

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.18

A 4:1 multiplexer is to be used for generating the output carry of a full adder. A and B are the bits to be added while 𝐶in is the input carry and 𝐶out is the output carry. A and B are to be used as the select bits with A being the more significant select bit.

Which one of the following statements correctly describes the choice of signals to be connected to the inputs I0 , I1 , I2 and I3 so that the output is Cout ?

(A) I0 =0, I1 =Cin, I2 =Cin and I3 =1 (B) I0 =1, I1 =Cin, I2 =Cin and I3 =1 (C) I0 =Cin, I1 =0, I2 =1 and I3 =Cin (D) I0 =0, I1 =Cin, I2 =1 and I3 =Cin Q.19

The value of

Q.20

𝑠−2

The response of the system 𝐺(𝑠) = (𝑠+1)(𝑠+3) to the unit step input 𝑢(𝑡) is 𝑦(𝑡). 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡

at 𝑡 = 0+ is _________

The number and direction of encirclements around the point −1 + 𝑗0 in the complex plane by the Nyquist plot of

1−𝑠 𝐺(𝑠) = 4+2𝑠

is

(A) zero. (C) one, clockwise.

(B) one, anti-clockwise. (D) two, clockwise.

Q.21

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet {𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , 𝑎4 } with corresponding probabilities 1 1 1 1 �2 , 4 , 8 , 8 �. The minimum required average codeword length in bits to represent this source for error-free reconstruction is ________

Q.22

A speech signal is sampled at 8 kHz and encoded into PCM format using 8 bits/sample. The PCM data is transmitted through a baseband channel via 4-level PAM. The minimum bandwidth (in kHz) required for transmission is ________

Q.23

A uniform and constant magnetic field 𝐁 = 𝐳�𝐵 exists in the 𝐳� direction in vacuum. A particle of mass 𝑚 with a small charge 𝑞 is introduced into this region with an initial velocity 𝐯 = 𝐱�𝑣𝑥 + 𝐳�𝑣𝑧 . Given that 𝐵, 𝑚, 𝑞, 𝑣𝑥 and 𝑣𝑧 are all non-zero, which one of the following describes the eventual trajectory of the particle? (A) Helical motion in the 𝐳� direction. (B) Circular motion in the 𝑥𝑦 plane. (C) Linear motion in the 𝐳� direction. (D) Linear motion in the 𝐱� direction.

EC (2)

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.24

Let the electric field vector of a plane electromagnetic wave propagating in a homogenous medium be expressed as 𝐄 = 𝐱�𝐸𝑥 𝑒 −𝑗(𝜔𝑡−𝛽𝑧) , where the propagation constant 𝛽 is a function of the angular frequency 𝜔. Assume that 𝛽(𝜔) and 𝐸𝑥 are known and are real. From the information available, which one of the following CANNOT be determined? (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.25

The type of polarization of the wave. The group velocity of the wave. The phase velocity of the wave. The power flux through the 𝑧 = 0 plane.

Light from free space is incident at an angle 𝜃𝑖 to the normal of the facet of a step-index large core optical fibre. The core and cladding refractive indices are 𝑛1 = 1.5 and 𝑛2 = 1.4, respectively.

The maximum value of 𝜃𝑖 (in degrees) for which the incident light will be guided in the core of the fibre is ________

Q. 26 – Q. 55 carry two marks each. Q.26

The ordinary differential equation

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

= −3 𝑥 + 2, with 𝑥(0) = 1 is to be solved using the forward Euler method. The largest time step that can be used to solve the equation without making the numerical solution unstable is ________

Q.27

Suppose C is the closed curve defined as the circle 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = 1 with C oriented anti-clockwise. The value of ∮(𝑥𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥 2 𝑦 𝑑𝑦) over the curve C equals ________

Q.28

Two random variables 𝑋 and 𝑌 are distributed according to 𝑓𝑋,𝑌 (𝑥, 𝑦) = �

(𝑥 + 𝑦), 0,

The probability 𝑃(𝑋 + 𝑌 ≤ 1) is ________

EC (2)

0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1, 0 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 1 otherwise.

6/14

GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.29

a 2 The matrix A = 0 0

0 5 0 0

3 1 2 0

7 3 has det(𝐴) = 100 and trace(𝐴) = 14. 4 b

The value of |𝑎 − 𝑏| is ________ Q.30

In the given circuit, each resistor has a value equal to 1 Ω.

What is the equivalent resistance across the terminals 𝑎 and 𝑏?

(A) 1/6 Ω Q.31

Q.32

(B) 1/3 Ω

(C) 9/20 Ω

(D) 8/15 Ω

In the circuit shown in the figure, the magnitude of the current (in amperes) through R 2 is ___

A continuous-time filter with transfer function time filter with transfer function

𝐺(𝑧) =

𝐻(𝑠) =

2𝑧 2

𝑧2

𝑠2

− 0.5032 𝑧

2𝑠 + 6

− 0.5032 𝑧 + 𝑘

+ 6𝑠 + 8

is converted to a discrete-

so that the impulse response of the

continuous-time filter, sampled at 2 Hz, is identical at the sampling instants to the impulse response of the discrete time filter. The value of 𝑘 is ________

EC (2)

7/14

GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.33

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the 4-point sequence 𝑥[𝑛] = {𝑥[0], 𝑥[1], 𝑥[2], 𝑥[3]} = {3, 2, 3, 4} is

𝑋[𝑘] = {𝑋[0], 𝑋[1], 𝑋[2], 𝑋[3]} = {12, 2𝑗, 0, −2𝑗}.

If X1[k] is the DFT of the 12-point sequence 𝑥1 [𝑛] = {3, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 3, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0},

the value of

Q.34

�

𝑋1 [8] 𝑋1 [11]

�

is ________

The switch S in the circuit shown has been closed for a long time. It is opened at time 𝑡 = 0 and remains open after that. Assume that the diode has zero reverse current and zero forward voltage drop.

The steady state magnitude of the capacitor voltage 𝑉C (in volts) is ______ Q.35

A voltage 𝑉𝐺 is applied across a MOS capacitor with metal gate and p-type silicon substrate at T=300 K. The inversion carrier density (in number of carriers per unit area) for 𝑉𝐺 = 0.8 V is 2 × 1011 cm−2. For 𝑉𝐺 = 1.3 V, the inversion carrier density is 4 × 1011 cm−2 . What is the value of the inversion carrier density for 𝑉𝐺 = 1.8 V?

(A) 4.5 × 1011 cm−2 (C) 7.2 × 1011 cm−2 Q.36

Consider avalanche breakdown in a silicon 𝑝+ 𝑛 junction. The 𝑛-region is uniformly doped with a donor density 𝑁𝐷 . Assume that breakdown occurs when the magnitude of the electric field at any point in the device becomes equal to the critical field 𝐸𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 . Assume 𝐸𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 to be independent of 𝑁𝐷 . If the built-in voltage of the 𝑝+ 𝑛 junction is much smaller than the breakdown voltage, 𝑉𝐵𝑅 , the relationship between 𝑉𝐵𝑅 and 𝑁𝐷 is given by

(A) 𝑉𝐵𝑅 × �𝑁𝐷 = constant (C) 𝑁𝐷 × 𝑉𝐵𝑅 = constant

EC (2)

(B) 6.0 × 1011 cm−2 (D) 8.4 × 1011 cm−2

(B) 𝑁𝐷 × �𝑉𝐵𝑅 = constant (D) 𝑁𝐷 /𝑉𝐵𝑅 = constant

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.37

Consider a region of silicon devoid of electrons and holes, with an ionized donor density of 𝑁𝑑+ = 1017 cm−3 . The electric field at 𝑥 = 0 is 0 V/cm and the electric field at 𝑥 = 𝐿 is 50 kV/cm in the positive 𝑥 direction. Assume that the electric field is zero in the 𝑦 and 𝑧 directions at all points.

Given 𝑞 = 1.6 × 10−19 coulomb, 𝜖0 = 8.85 × 10−14 F/cm, 𝜖𝑟 = 11.7 for silicon, the value of 𝐿 in nm is ________ Q.38

Consider a long-channel NMOS transistor with source and body connected together. Assume that the electron mobility is independent of 𝑉𝐺𝑆 and 𝑉𝐷𝑆 . Given, 𝑔𝑚 = 0.5 𝜇A/V for 𝑉𝐷𝑆 = 50 mV and 𝑉𝐺𝑆 = 2 V, 𝑔𝑑 = 8 𝜇A/V for 𝑉𝐺𝑆 = 2 V and 𝑉𝐷𝑆 = 0 V, 𝜕𝐼

𝜕𝐼

where 𝑔𝑚 = 𝜕𝑉 𝐷 and 𝑔𝑑 = 𝜕𝑉 𝐷 𝐺𝑆

𝐷𝑆

The threshold voltage (in volts) of the transistor is ________

Q.39

The figure shows a half-wave rectifier with a 475 𝜇F filter capacitor. The load draws a constant current 𝐼𝑂 = 1 A from the rectifier. The figure also shows the input voltage 𝑉𝑖 , the output voltage 𝑉𝐶 and the peak-to-peak voltage ripple 𝑢 on 𝑉𝐶 . The input voltage 𝑉𝑖 is a triangle-wave with an amplitude of 10 V and a period of 1 ms.

The value of the ripple 𝑢 (in volts) is ________

EC (2)

9/14

GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.40

In the opamp circuit shown, the Zener diodes 𝑍1 and 𝑍2 clamp the output voltage 𝑉𝑂 to +5 V or −5 V. The switch S is initially closed and is opened at time 𝑡 = 0.

The time 𝑡 = 𝑡1 (in seconds) at which 𝑉𝑂 changes state is ________ Q.41

An opamp has a finite open loop voltage gain of 100. Its input offset voltage Vios (= +5mV) is modeled as shown in the circuit below. The amplifier is ideal in all other respects. Vinput is 25 mV.

The output voltage (in millivolts) is ________

Q.42

���) is to be used in an 8085 An 8 Kbyte ROM with an active low Chip Select input (CS microprocessor based system. The ROM should occupy the address range 1000H to 2FFFH. The address lines are designated as 𝐴15 to 𝐴0 , where 𝐴15 is the most significant address bit. Which one of the following logic expressions will generate the correct ��� CS signal for this ROM? (A) (B) (C) (D)

EC (2)

����� ����� 𝐴15 + 𝐴14 + (𝐴13 ⋅ 𝐴12 + 𝐴 13 ⋅ 𝐴12 ) 𝐴15 ⋅ 𝐴14 ⋅ (𝐴13 + 𝐴12 ) ����� ����� ����� ����� 𝐴 15 ⋅ 𝐴14 ⋅ (𝐴13 ⋅ 𝐴12 + 𝐴13 ⋅ 𝐴12 ) ����� ����� 𝐴 15 + 𝐴14 + 𝐴13 ⋅ 𝐴12

10/14

GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.43

In an N bit flash ADC, the analog voltage is fed simultaneously to 2𝑁 − 1 comparators. The output of the comparators is then encoded to a binary format using digital circuits. Assume that the analog voltage source Vin (whose output is being converted to digital format) has a source resistance of 75 Ω as shown in the circuit diagram below and the input capacitance of each comparator is 8 pF. The input must settle to an accuracy of 1/2 LSB even for a full scale input change for proper conversion. Assume that the time taken by the thermometer to binary encoder is negligible.

If the flash ADC has 8 bit resolution, which one of the following alternatives is closest to the maximum sampling rate ? (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.44

1 megasamples per second 6 megasamples per second 64 megasamples per second 256 megasamples per second

The state transition diagram for a finite state machine with states A, B and C, and binary inputs X, Y and Z, is shown in the figure.

Which one of the following statements is correct? (A) Transitions from State A are ambiguously defined. (B) Transitions from State B are ambiguously defined. (C) Transitions from State C are ambiguously defined. (D) All of the state transitions are defined unambiguously.

EC (2)

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.45

In the feedback system shown below

𝐺(𝑠) =

1

.

(𝑠 2 +2𝑠)

The step response of the closed-loop system should have minimum settling time and have no overshoot.

The required value of gain 𝑘 to achieve this is ________ Q.46

In the feedback system shown below

1

𝐺(𝑠) = (𝑠+1)(𝑠+2)(𝑠+3)

.

The positive value of 𝑘 for which the gain margin of the loop is exactly 0 dB and the phase margin of the loop is exactly zero degree is ________ Q.47

The asymptotic Bode phase plot of is shown below.

𝑘

𝐺(𝑠) = (𝑠+0.1)(𝑠+10)(𝑠+𝑝

1)

, with 𝑘 and 𝑝1 both positive,

The value of 𝑝1 is ________ Q.48

EC (2)

An information source generates a binary sequence {𝛼𝑛 }. 𝛼𝑛 can take one of the two possible values −1 and +1 with equal probability and are statistically independent and identically distributed. This sequence is precoded to obtain another sequence {𝛽𝑛 }, as 𝛽𝑛 = 𝛼𝑛 + 𝑘 𝛼𝑛−3 . The sequence {𝛽𝑛 } is used to modulate a pulse 𝑔(𝑡) to generate the baseband signal 1, 0≤𝑡≤𝑇 𝑋(𝑡) = ∑∞ 𝑛=−∞ 𝛽𝑛 𝑔(𝑡 − 𝑛𝑇), where 𝑔(𝑡) = � 0, otherwise. 1 If there is a null at 𝑓 = 3𝑇 in the power spectral density of 𝑋(𝑡), then 𝑘 is ________

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.49

An ideal band-pass channel 500 Hz - 2000 Hz is deployed for communication. A modem is designed to transmit bits at the rate of 4800 bits/s using 16-QAM. The roll-off factor of a pulse with a raised cosine spectrum that utilizes the entire frequency band is ________

Q.50

Consider a random process 𝑋(𝑡) = 3𝑉(𝑡) − 8, where 𝑉(𝑡) is a zero mean stationary random process with autocorrelation 𝑅𝑣 (𝜏) = 4𝑒 −5|𝜏| . The power in 𝑋(𝑡) is ________

Q.51

A binary communication system makes use of the symbols “zero” and “one”. There are channel errors. Consider the following events: 𝑥0 : a "zero" is transmitted 𝑥1 : a "one" is transmitted 𝑦0 : a "zero" is received 𝑦1 : a "one" is received 1 3 1 The following probabilities are given: 𝑃(𝑥0 ) = , 𝑃(𝑦0 |𝑥0 ) = , and 𝑃(𝑦0 |𝑥1 ) = . The 2 4 2 information in bits that you obtain when you learn which symbol has been received (while you know that a “zero” has been transmitted) is ________

Q.52

The parallel-plate capacitor shown in the figure has movable plates. The capacitor is charged so that the energy stored in it is 𝐸 when the plate separation is 𝑑. The capacitor is then isolated electrically and the plates are moved such that the plate separation becomes 2𝑑.

At this new plate separation, what is the energy stored in the capacitor, neglecting fringing effects? (A) 2𝐸 Q.53

(B) √2𝐸

(D) 𝐸 ⁄2

(C) 𝐸

A lossless microstrip transmission line consists of a trace of width 𝑤. It is drawn over a practically infinite ground plane and is separated by a dielectric slab of thickness 𝑡 and relative permittivity 𝜀𝑟 > 1. The inductance per unit length and the characteristic impedance of this line are 𝐿 and 𝑍0 , respectively.

Which one of the following inequalities is always satisfied? (A) 𝑍0 > �𝜀 (C) 𝑍0 > �𝜀

EC (2)

𝐿𝑡

0 𝜀𝑟 𝑤

𝐿𝑤 0 𝜀𝑟 𝑡

(B) 𝑍0 < �𝜀

𝐿𝑡

0 𝜀𝑟 𝑤

(D) 𝑍0 < �𝜀

𝐿𝑤 0 𝜀𝑟 𝑡

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GATE 2016 Electronics and Communication Engineering (Set 2)

Q.54

A microwave circuit consisting of lossless transmission lines T1 and T2 is shown in the figure. The plot shows the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient Γ as a function of frequency 𝑓. The phase velocity of the signal in the transmission lines is 2 × 108 m/s.

The length 𝐿 (in meters) of T2 is ________ Q.55

A positive charge 𝑞 is placed at 𝑥 = 0 between two infinite metal plates placed at 𝑥 = −𝑑 and at 𝑥 = +𝑑 respectively. The metal plates lie in the 𝑦𝑧 plane.

The charge is at rest at 𝑡 = 0, when a voltage +𝑉 is applied to the plate at – 𝑑 and voltage −𝑉 is applied to the plate at 𝑥 = +𝑑. Assume that the quantity of the charge 𝑞 is small enough that it does not perturb the field set up by the metal plates. The time that the charge 𝑞 takes to reach the right plate is proportional to

(A) 𝑑 / 𝑉

(B) √𝑑 / 𝑉

(C) 𝑑 / √𝑉

(D) �𝑑/𝑉

END OF THE QUESTION PAPER EC (2)

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