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ODU Digital Commons Libraries Faculty & Staff Publications
Old Dominion University Library: History Jean A. Major Old Dominion University
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W hen the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary opened in 1930, all facilities were housed in Larchmont School, a 1912 elementary school then unused . The library, in 1931 consisting of 200 books mostly donated by Norfolk residents, was housed in Room 18 of the school. This collection was characterized as "several shelves of books" and was judged so limited that professors would bring 25 or 30 books from their personal collections at the beginning of each semester to be placed in classrooms. With the authorization of the college's Board of Visitors, an application for a loan and grant totaling $240,000 was made to the federal Public Works Administration during this time period. The plan was for the Norfolk Division to build a lecture/gymnasium building and a stadium with the funds, 30 percent of which would be a grant and the remainder a loan. The PWA provided $100,000 in a grant and loan for the construction of the new building and declined to support the construction of the stadium. Ground was broken for the building on May 31, 1935. Library Reading Room, Administration Building, 1942
The Administration Building, as the new structure was named, was com pleted in September 1936 and included a library in the south end of the first floor of the building. The remaining space was used for administrative of fices, six classrooms, separate gymnasiums for men and women, and a swimming pool. The library space was a single room with tables and chairs to seat 60 users, as well as the total holdings of 1,945 volumes shelved around the wall. The library's collection was classified according to the Dewey decimal system and cataloged with printed cards secured from the Library of Congress.
of the wooden stacks at closing time, pulling strings to put out each incan descent light bulb in turn. Space formerly used for the college bookshop was cannibalized in 1956 to provide an annex to the existing library space. With this annex, additional seating would be acquired, as well as office and stor age space for a second full-time librarian, a cataloger:
The library's capacity in the Administration Building was doubled in 1942 with the conversion of the men's locker room to stack space. At a cost of $8,000, the division created space to house 25,000-35,000 volumes and to increase reader capacity from 60 to 114 seats, creating a library consisting of a reading room, an adjoining stack room and a tiny office. For the first time, a service desk was constructed. Funding for this project came from the division's first appropriation from the commonwealth's general fund.
For the first few years of operation, Frances Beale Saunders, instructor in English, looked after the library, seeing that books were shelved and order was maintained, in addition to her teaching responsibilities. In 1936 the library moved from the original Larchmont School building to the newly constructed Administration Building; as the "librarian," Ms. Saunders may possibly have contributed to planning for the facility and execution of the move.
In the early 1950s, public opinion favoring a four-year institution for the Tidewater area grew into a civic crusade, and hopes for the further develop ment of the Norfolk Division became more ambitious. Four-year degree programs continued to be planned and developed, even as it became appar ent that a new library and a greatly expanded collection were urgent needs in order for the Norfolk Division to be accredited as a four-year college. As early as the 1951 Southern Association regional accreditation of the division as a junior college, the library facilities and collections were subject to serious crit icism by the visiting committee. In correspondence soon after, Lewis Webb admitted, " ... we were criticized for inadequate lighting in the main reading room. Since our library is used at night they felt that we should have good ar tificial illumination, and we have since purchased fluorescent lights for all of our library reading and research rooms."
It was not until the 1937-38 school year that the Norfolk Division had its first full-time trained librarian, Dorothy Elizabeth Pierce, a 1937 graduate of William and Mary with a major in library science. Ms. Pierce, an alumna of the Norfolk Division, heard about the job by word-of-mouth and pursued it in person. She reported, in a recent interview, that there was not competition for the work, that she apparently was the only applicant. She noted that the salary and the situation in general were not appealing to an experienced li brarian. After she spoke with the Dean of the Division, he checked her performance as a student with several former professors at the division and hired her at a salary of $750 for the first year: A letter from Oean of the Division William T. Hodges, to College President John Stewart Bryan sug gests the struggle required to secure trained staffing. Hodges begins a sentence by saying, "When you finally yielded to my importunities for a Norfolk Division librarian in September, 1937.... "
Space for the library in the Administration Building continued to be added in small increments. In 1952 the library's space in the Administration Building was described as a two-story facility, with the reading room and stacks on the first floor and a periodical room, reserve room and listening room located on the second floor: While this exceeded any earlier space allocations, contem porary photos show the space to be a dimly lighted book storage area with wooden stacks and study tables crowded with readers. In fact, William Pollard, librarian from 1955 to 1966, tells of walking up and down each aisle
Dorothy Pierce served as librarian from 1937 until 1948. Her work during the time consisted of ordering and accessioning new books, putting materials on reserve, checking things in and out, and helping the students, for the most part. After her first three or four years, two or three student assistants, as well as a WPA-sponsored book mender, were added to operate the library, and after the mid-1940s, she had two full-time assistants. Although Pierce never held academic rank-her title always was Librarian-she was regarded as a faculty member "right from the start,• she reports. Her catalog listing among
the faculty changed over time, but she never experienced a promotion process, just an increase in salary and a change in the faculty group with which she was listed. In 1946 she was listed among assistant professors, and her name appeared with associate professors in 1948. Dorothy Pierce married a fellow faculty member at the division, Ralph Ladd, in 1948, moved to Boston with him, and began a 30-plus-year career as a librarian at Boston University. Before leaving, she identified a prospective replacement, talked with her and introduced her to the administration of the division. The person was Louise Bethea, who served as the librarian of the Norfolk Division from 1948 to 1954. Equipped with a professional degree in library science from Emory University, she had worked as a librarian at the Norfolk Naval Base and the College of William and Mary, as well as other academic libraries in the region. In the last year of her tenure as division librarian, a transition was evident. Because the Norfolk Division was preparing to become a four-year institution, the school in 1953 recruited a new librarian with experience working in a larger institution, and Bethea moved on to work at Wake Forest College and the North Carolina State Library. It was planned that James A Servies, recruited from the University of Miami, Florida, would work for about two years in the library at William and Mary, learning the collection there, selecting additions to the book collection for the division, and planning the anticipated library building in Norfolk. For the interim, the Norfolk Division recruited William C. Pollard from the University of Georgia to serve as acting librarian from September 1954 until Servies' arrival in Norfolk, and then to continue as the librarian for technical processes there. As time passed, Servies chose to remain on the library staff in Williamsburg, and William Pollard was appointed the college librarian at Norfolk in the summer of 1955. William Pollard was recruited in the manner standard for the time, when demand for librarians was much greater than the supply of professionally educated personnel. Thinking that William and Mary would be an interesting and appealing place to work, Pollard wrote to the library there to inquire about available positions. He learned that a position at the Norfolk Division was available and engaged in a telephone interview before taking the job; there was no on-site interview. A year later, when James Servies decided to remain in Williamsburg, the Norfolk Division elevated William Pollard to be college librarian without further recruitment.
The library staff included a second librarian beginning in 1955. Marianne Martin served as circulation-reference librarian from 1955 till 1960, when she resigned because of failing health. Her position was taken by Elizabeth deBedts, then working as a reference librarian. The first cataloger was appointed in September 1956. After two years, she was followed by Louise Bethea, who returned in 1958 to serve as cataloger until 1968.
COLLECTIONS Throughout the prewar and wartime years, expenditures for library materials were astonishingly low. In 1937-38, for example, operating expenditures for the library totaled $809.39! Of this combination of budgeted funds and contributions, almost half came from contributions of various kinds: $100 from the Tri Kappa social club, $104 in profit from a dance given for the benefit of the library, $171 in profits of the college lunch counter. With a small book collection and much of it donated in less than mint condition, the librarian experienced a continuous need to mend books, and she did. Administrative correspondence between Norfolk and the home campus in Williamsburg gives illuminating details of the early hardscrabble years of the Norfolk Division. The division was started with the understanding that all expenses would be covered by income from student fees; there was no commitment for a state appropriation or subsidy from the home campus. This financial arrangement was feasible while the division operated only from the
Library Stacks, Administrative Building, circa
original Larchmont School building. However, the construction of the Administration Building brought significant new expenses: debt service, doubling of maintenance costs, all expenses associated with furnishing and equipping the new building, and the costs of finishing the construction. As a result, funding for operations was scant, and the division began to carry a deficit. During this period, the Dean of the Faculty observed, "The teaching is further hampered by the meagerness of the library In spite of Dr. Swem's admirable practice of sending duplicates, and in spite of the President's personal generosity, the collection of books at the Norfolk Division remains hopelessly inadequate. When funds are available, a regular appropriation for the purchase of books should take precedence of everything except the adjustment of the salaries of the Division staff." There are indications of a "liberal" state legislative appropriation in 1942-43 to support a real program of book purchasing for the first time. In 1946-47, the first year of increases in enrollment after World War II, the librarian's report reads , "Library resources have had to be stretched to the utmost to accommodate the oversized student body To supplement the seating space in the library, a room in one of the barracks has been converted into a study room ." In addition , the collection was increased both with added funding and because accelerated publishing after the war increased the availability of books. In 1954, the Legislature still had not appropriated any money for the purchase of books, and the library collection was only 25,000 volumes. James
Servies' assessment of the collection, though, was positive, as he wrote to William Pollard in the recruitment process, "I was pleasantly surprised to see how good the collection was, all things considered. By 'all things' I mean the limited budget, poor physical conditions, and the great reliance on gifts." Seeking a means to assemble a suitable library, a group of faculty members in 1954 approached the division's Advisory Committee through John S. Alfriend, the president of the National Bank of Commerce in Norfolk. The faculty requested that the Advisory Committee mount a local fund-raising effort to purchase books so that the library could meet accreditation standards. With support from the committee, Alfriend initiated a campaign, the college's first, to improve the library's holdings by raising $100,000 in cash contributions. Both local business organizations and citizens were targeted for support. When the fund drive was officially closed in December 1955, contributions of more than $80,000 in cash and nearly 20,000 donated volumes had been received. The college's Educational Foundation grew out of this drive for library books. The campaign to collect donated books had only limited success, according to Pollard . Although the library received 20,000 volumes through this effort, the material was of very uneven quality, and much was not added to the collection because it was not suitable. In addition , there was no available shelving space in the library, and the library lacked a full-time cataloger to do the requisite processing. Hence, the 20,000 donated volumes were stored in their original boxes in a sub-basement space under the gymnasium in the Administration Building. Given Norfolk's climate, many volumes must have been damaged because of moisture, and many others, deemed unsuitable, were stored indefinitely in the sub-basement.
The college had requested $750,000 in the 1953 legislative session to build a new library, but the funds were not included in the Governor's budget proposal. As part of a legislative compromise in 1954, however, the Norfolk Division received $375,000 for a new library, as well as $500,000 to build a classroom building . Lewis Webb, then director of the division , arrived at a plan to achieve these two objectives with the money appropriated . The state
was persuaded to combine the appropriations for the two buildings in order to construct a single dual-function building. The first floor would house the library, while the second was to be used for classroom space. No permanent partitions were planned on the second floor; in order to maintain the necessary flexibility for its eventual conversion to library space. An appropriate and desirable site for the Hughes Library was negotiated with local government. The southwest corner of Hampton Boulevard and 49th Street was regarded as a convenient and accessible location for the
Construction under way on new Library Building located on north side of 48th Street, 1958.
new library, with the anticipated southward expansion of the campus. Pilings would be required in that location, though, and the appropriation did not include adequate funding for pilings to support the building. With advocacy from the Duckworth city administration, the college received the land as a donation from the city of Norfolk, as well as a $100,000 contribution to cover the cost of constructing pilings. Finally, the Norfolk Redevelopment and Housing Authority cleared substandard housing in the area to accommodate campus expansion. William Carter Pollard, the college librarian since 1955, was responsible for planning the library building. He visited several new library buildings and talked with their library staffs about various approaches to common problems. In addition, William G. Harkins, then librarian of the College of William and Mary, was consulted frequently, and the local architects were advised by Kilham and O'Connor, the architects of the Princeton University Library. These consultations proved essential because the local architects had not built a library before. A modular plan with openness and light gradually emerged as the design for the library, based on the sum of the consultations.
Hughes Library Exterior
The new library for the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary was constructed in 1958-1959. The first campus building with contemporary lines, the Hughes Library was designed by Norfolk architects Louis A. Oliver and Herbert L. Smith, Ill. The building's most distinctive feature was a solar screen exterior, a filigree design constructed of 13,615 glazed ceramic tiles. The purpose of t~e screen was to shade windows from direct sunlight and make it possible to air-condition the building economically. The architect most prominently associated with the use of solar screens was Edward Durrell Stone, designer of the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi and the American Pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair, and Stone acted as a consultant on the Hughes building project. In 1958, the Hughes Library was awarded an honorable mention for design excellence by the Virginia chapter of the American Institute of Architects. The library was named for Robert Morton Hughes, a prominent Norfolk attorney and rector of William and Mary's Board of Visitors from 1906 to 1918. Hughes was a powerful advocate for the establishment of the Norfolk Division. A long-time contributor to the college library, his personal library was bequeathed to the college at his death in 1940. The library was planned as a two-story structure with 26,000 square feet on each floor and a total book capacity of 150,000 volumes. On opening day, two well-lighted, congenial reading areas with 400 seats and open stacks with a capacity for 90,000 volumes made up the first floor of the building, while the second floor consisted of 15 classrooms and faculty offices for the English Department. A 150-seat auditorium also was located on the second floor, to be used for meetings, parties and literary events. The auditorium was first used to hold the Hughes Library dedication ceremony on October 17, 1959. One office was built in the Hughes Library, to house the college librarian and his secretary. A work area for technical services was located at the back of the building, near the loading dock. Later a caged area was created in the
book stacks for additional workspace. Other staff had no dedicated workspace or office space, consistent with the prevailing style of library buildings in the mid-1950s, but there was a staff lounge with a stove, a refrigerator and some seating.
publications, adding considerable resources over time. Even so, when Brewster E. Peabody was appointed director of the library at Old Dominion College in 1966, the library's collection consisted of a modest 120,000 volumes and occupied only the first floor of Hughes Hall.
Pollard was successful in staffing the library with professionally trained personnel. Louise Bethea returned to the division to become the chief cataloger in 1958; Marianne Martin served as the first circulation librarian from 1955 till 1960, and Benjamin Clymer was appointed head of reference in 1960, serving until 1981 . When Marianne Martin experienced severe health problems, Elizabeth deBedts was named as circulation librarian in 1959. All of these librarians worked as classified staff, within Virginia's classified personnel system, and only Pollard himself was treated as faculty, attending faculty meetings and the like.
Developing the library's collection was the primary responsibility of the college librarian, William Pollard, during his 1955-1966 tenure. He solicited requests from departmental faculty on a one-on-one basis and received considerable support in building the collection. "I didn't have to go out and beg anybody to help us build a collection," Pollard commented in a recent interview. Collection building was considered the responsibility of the library staff during this period, though; this growth phase predated the period when faculty began to regard collection development as their prerogative. Pollard followed the collecting process through to acquisitions, also, as his specialty in librarianship was acquisitions.
From the modest start of three librarians in 1959, the library's staff grew during the Hughes Library period. When Brewster Peabody became the library's director in 1966, the staff numbered 19, including five librarians. When the library moved from Hughes in 1976, the staff was made up of 60 staff members, including 19 librarians.
Lewis Webb characterized the library's collection in a 1961 letter to Chancellor Chandler as follows, "On the whole, the collection falls somewhat short of the minimal standards recommended by Clapp and Jordan. This deficiency is most obvious in the total number of books. Periodical holdings are a high percentage of the total collection and are well above minimal standards in most fields." Familiar methods were implemented to hasten the growth of the library collection in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The monetary gifts of the Alfriend campaign ( 1954-1955), amounting to $80,000, were used to develop the library collection. Over time, the Library of Congress made surplus books available to other libraries, and the Hughes Library acquired a large quantity of books from the Library of Congress during the late 1950s. Duplicates and other unneeded volumes were purchased from established university libraries when possible. In 1964, the library was designated a depository for federal government documents, for documents of the Atomic Energy Commission and for National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Funding for the library collection was meager during much of the 1960s. In the 1964-1966 biennium, the Governor's budget contained an appropriation of only $100,000 for library books, periodicals and binding, an actual decrease from the amount spent in the previous biennium. The Virginia Higher Education Study Commission's staff report, published in 1965, noted that Virginia academic libraries did not regularly receive annual increases in acquisitions funds to keep pace with scholarly needs and recommended that the state's practice be altered in this regard. Later; when the self-study for the 1972 Southern Association reaccreditation was prepared, the collection consisted of about 200,000 volumes, weighted disproportionately toward journals, with too few books. During the 1966-67 academic year; the first ac-
Circulation Desk, Hughes Library,
quisitions librarian, Adrienne Schellings, was appointed . This development led to a reorganization of the acquisitions process, reportedly resulting in the elimination of order-searching backlogs and the remedying of other neglected departmental problems. Following a significant expansion of the curriculum during the 1960s, the institution's name was changed to Old Dominion University on September 1, 1969. Earlier that year, the Board of Visitors voted to mount a major public fund drive to benefit the collections of Hughes Library. Provost John B. Johnson noted , ''The continued soundness of every academic program, both undergraduate and graduate, depends upon the elimination of these growing library deficiencies at the earliest possible moment. " The citizens of Norfolk remained keenly interested in the growth and development of Old Dominion College and University, and Norfolk's prominent citizens were recruited for leadership of this campaign to raise $1 .5 million over five years. It was hoped that the collection could be more than doubled in size with purchases made possible through the fund drive campaign , led by E. T. Gresham, Sr. The preparatory phase of the library fund drive was initiated during th e spring of 1969, and pledges were secured from key donors at that time. The public phase of the drive was scheduled to begin in Fall 1969. The total fund s collected through the 1969 library fund drive are not known , although evidence suggests that the final figure was approximately $600,000 pledged and $300 ,000 actually collected . Two major collecting projects were financed through the fund drive. The key academic library bibliography, Books for College Libraries, was checked for titles the library did not own, and the unowned books were purchased. In addition, each department in the university was allocated a sum annually to purchase backfiles of periodicals in their disciplines; in this way, a retrospective library collection was built gradually. Because of the library staffing requirements to process a high number of orders, the available funds were allocated over three years : 1969-70, 1970-71 , and 1971-72. In 1971 and 1972, the library began to work toward the implementation of a blanket order plan for monographic acquisitions. The most prominent company offering this service, Richard Abel & Co., made a presentation to the University Senate Library Committee in February 1972. The committee unanimously recommended that the full Senate support the proposed adoption of the Abel plan , and the recommendation was forwarded . During the
years when the plan was in effect, the library received good coverage of English language monographs, with prompt delivery and consistent coverage in all subject areas of interest. Despite some austerity years during the 1970s, other years of abundance propelled the library toward a 500,000-volume collection by the end of the Hughes Library period in 1976. There were years when acquisitions funds were available for the library to add as many as 40,000 to 65,000 volumes to the library collection. New sources such as the U.S. Book Exchange were tapped, too. This was the period in which the library established a separate acquisitions department for the first time. The director, Brewster Peabody, expressed considerable satisfaction that "the library collections are increasing in scope and value as research media." Much retrospective collection-building was possible during that time with the commercial availability of periodical backfiles, microform projects and other reprint projects of the period. Old Dominion University established an art library in 1963 in the Fine Arts Building, as a result of the interest of Elise Hofheimer, a Norfolk native and philanthropist. When Mrs. Hofheimer began to audit art history courses in the early 1960s, facilities were limited for use of the art department's slide collection and other resources for study. Because Mrs. Hofheimer saw that art students needed a study area and lounge, she began to work toward the establishment of such a facility. The first art library was started with outside funding, including a generous gift from Mrs. Hofheimer and her husband , Henry Clay Hofheimer. The art library collection grew with purchases by the university library and gifts from Mrs. Hofheimer. A special collections area also was established in the Hughes Library. In August 1966, Provost John B. Johnson Jr. approved the designation of a room in the library, previously used for meetings of the Board of Visitors, for an archives and rare book room .
The head of reference, Ben Clymer, organized interlibrary loan service for the first time in 1960. Without a teletype, a development which came a few years later, communication of borrowing requests was done by mail and with the use of standardized multi-part typed forms. Locating desired materials and verifying ownership was done mainly by sending out feelers to see what
library had a specific item. Great bibliographic projects to supply such information nationally were yet in the future.
problems, and management of the serial union list was transferred to the State Library.
In 1964, a statewide buildup of library resources was initiated with a $100,000 appropriation. This program instigated the beginning of the Library Advisory Council (LAC) of the State Council of Higher Education in Virginia (SCH EV), which administered the program. The LAC held its first meeting on September 24, 1963. The program had two major components:
Again in 1972, the Library Advisory Committee of SCHEV had an appropriation to foster library cooperation among higher education institutions. Much of the $125,000 appropriated for fiscal year 1973 was earmarked for two book purchase programs. The first, Basic Books ($67,000), continued funding for a cooperative book purchasing program, while Conference Books, funded at $50,000, covered the cost of purchasing publications from conference exhibitors at greatly discounted prices.
The interlibrary teletype network (TWX) connected the major libraries of the state with five teletype stations to transmit requests for interlibrary borrowing. Installation of these TWX machines would enable the major Virginia academic libraries to tie into the national interlibrary loan communications network linked through teletype. During the first year of operation, 48-hour turnaround times were achieved and $38,000 in funding was allocated to start this project. The TWX network was operated under the auspices of the LAC until August 1968, when responsibility was transferred to the State Library. The State Library continued its operation until 1980, when OCLC use was substituted for the TWX. The Consolidated Book Purchasing Program, funded with $60,000, initiated a process in which recently published books in eight subjects were selected from Choice for the collections of Virginia's small statesupported colleges and community colleges. A committee selected titles, and each of the 15 participating institutions annually received about 1,000 books with Library of Congress printed catalog cards. This program was instituted with a meeting of the Library Advisory Council on April 16, 1964, and William C. Pollard, librarian at Old Dominion, chaired the committee. Among the libraries benefiting from the project were VMI, Mary Washington, James Madison, Radford, Longwood, Christopher Newport and Old Dominion. By 1971, only the community colleges were participating in the project, and it was discontinued in 1974.
Through efforts of the Library Advisory Council, a project to produce a Virginia union list of serials was initiated in 1969. As time passed, there were difficulties in completing the project; the size was growing, and libraries were having difficulty checking and verifying their serial holdings statements. After publication of the first six-volume edition in 1972, updating caused more
The library directors of the institutions making up the Tidewater Consortium for Higher Education began to meet in 1975-76, and that year the group instituted a recipr.pcal borrowing agreement for registered borrowers of participating libraries.
STATUS OF LIBRARIANS With the departure of William Pollard to become the librarian at the College of William and Mary, Old Dominion recruited a new library director, Brewster E. Peabody, in 1966. Peabody's tenure coincided with considerable activity affecting the professional status of librarians at Old Dominion University. As part of the Virginia Higher Education Study Commission, Errett W. McDiarmid, a professor of library science at the University of Minnesota, carried out a survey of Virginia academic libraries in 1965. Titled Library Services in Virginia's Institutions of Higher Education, the McDiarmid report addressed a broad spectrum of fundamental issues in the operation of academic libraries. It was noted that Virginia was one of only nine states in which academic librarians were not awarded faculty status. Instead, librarians' positions in state-supported institutions were treated as classified staff within the state's personnel series, and limitations were attached to such things as salary ranges, insurance, retirement, vacation leave and sick leave. These limitations, especially salary ranges that were not competitive, were posing barriers to recruiting . All institutions had vacancies that couldn't be filled at the existing salaries. McDiarmid recommended, therefore, that all but entry level librarians' positions be treated as teaching and research po-
sitions with faculty status so that better-qualified librarians could be recruited and retained.
guidelines for appointment and promotion in December 1975, and a library constitution and by-laws were formulated.
The next record of progress to resolve this issue, however, is four years hence. The General Professional Advisory Committee, made up of presidents of state institutions, worked with the state personnel director and SCHEV staff, in January 1969, to formulate a plan to award faculty rank and salary scale for "certain professional librarian positions." In July 1969, all professional library positions in academic libraries in Virginia were removed from the classified personnel system with official approval of the Governor. Each publicly supported institution handled this change in status differently, however, so librarians in some were awarded faculty rank and tenure-track status, while the status of others was changed to administrative faculty. Records show that three librarians, all with more than 1O years service at Old Dominion, were granted tenure at this time, even though administrative faculty.
The McDiarmid recommendation concerning faculty status was advanced on the grounds that recruitment and retention of better-qualified librarians would result. It was Library Director Brewster Peabody's judgment that this result had taken place. In his 1969--70 annual report, Peabody commented, "The granting of academic rank as of July 1, 1969, has had the results I predicted in last year's report. We have been able to hire two well-qualified persons with considerable experience in the positions of Science/ Technology Reference Librarian and Documents Librarian. We have also employed two recent graduates of library schools and have been able for the first time to draw upon a national spectrum of candidates. "
Librarians' status situation continued to evolve in the early to mid-1970s. Late in 1971 , librarians were pressed to decide whether they wanted to work as tenure-track faculty or to join the administrative faculty, retaining all benefits except access to tenure. In reaching a decision concerning this choice, the long history of working as classified staff provided an influential frame of reference. As classified staff, librarians received automatic promotions, across-the-board salary increases and considerable job security, for example. The faculty requirement to build a record and undergo peer review for tenure and promotion proved to be a cultural gap that was hard to close. Finally, on December 7, 1971, the librarians voted to become administrative faculty. According to Provost John B. Johnson, the eight librarians without tenure petitioned the Promotion and Tenure Committee of the University Senate in February 1972, to be classified as administrators. The petition was approved in March 1972. When the librarians had taken the step of petitioning to become administrative faculty, guidelines for the assignment of ranks (Librarian I through IV) and requirements for promotion through these ranks had yet to be formulated. Records of this period suggest that the situation suffered from an absence of leadership, an experienced guide through the transition. It was not until 1974, at the urging of Provost Charles Burgess, that the librarians developed and submitted documentation to govern the assignment of ranks and annual or extended contracts. The Board of Visitors accepted these
The Old Dominion University Library Council was established in October 1975 as an advisory body to the library director, Brewster Peabody. Started after a long period of study, the Library Council functioned with a membership of all 19 librarians and five representatives of the classified staff. Regular meetings were held for joint discussions of issues between the library's administration and the librarians, and communications in the library improved notably. While official developments were recorded and documented, there were informal indications that librarians' real status at Old Dominion University merited further elevation. •
When a Southern Association accrediting report noted that the mathematics collection needed strengthening, the president arranged for a mathematics professor, not a librarian, to devote a considerable amount of time to selecting materials to build up the math collection.
In 1969, the Provost requested that the Library Committee recommend a formula for allocating acquisitions funds for books and periodicals among the departments of the university. This reportedly was the first year of Senate Library Committee involvement in library fund allocations. Until then, the allocation to colleges had been done by the Provost himself, and deans of all colleges allocated acquisitions funds among the departments in their colleges.
It was reported in October of 1973 that the president was not in favor of blanket ordering, but felt instead that faculty should select books to be purchased.
T I E S-------
The Hughes Library opened for use in 1959, with library use on the first floor and classrooms making up the second. The second-floor classrooms remained in use by other academic departments until 1966. By the time that the library secured use of the second floor, Library Director William Pollard already had notified the college's administration in 1965 that books, staff and seating capacity would be exhausted in five years. As predicted, 20,000 volumes of bound periodicals were put into storage in the old gymnasium (administration building) in the 1970-1971 academic year, with the declaration, "This is only the beginning." A shuttle ran between the gymnasium and the library early each morning to carry books to and from the storage area.
Director of the Library Brewster E. Peabody oversaw the planning of the library building and the move to the new facility, as well as the rapid expansion of the library's collection and staff during his 10 years' service to the university. He resigned effective August 31 , 1976. Provost Charles 0 . Burgess responded to Peabody's resignation stating, "You may legitimately take great pride in the development of the Library during your tenure as Director, not only in size but also in efficiency and genuine professionalism."
Planning for the next library building was initiated in 1970 when Brewster Peabody appointed Ben Clymer to develop a program statement for the new building and to coordinate the planning process. Library personnel were consulted and a Faculty Library Building Committee began meeting in June 1971 . The Southern Association provided additional impetus to this work with their recommendation that Old Dominion give special attention to progressing with a new library building. Richard Perrine, an architect and library administrator at Rice University, acted as the building consultant for the project, working closely with Brewster Peabody and Ben Clymer. The new library was approved for funding during the 1971-72 legislative session, but the appropriation was to be $4.6 million, not the $7.2 million sought by the university. The architectural firm of Williams and Tazewell designed the building, and construction began in 1972-73. At the time of bidding for the actual construction , the university experienced good fortune: the two bids both came in under the funding in hand. Consequently, the university was able to include three alternates in the project, as well as the fundamental building proposed. As the building neared completion in 1975, gaps in funding for furniture and equipment were being reported . An appropriation of $144,000 was received that year to complete the equipping of the building. The necessary equipment included an electronic book detection system and the inauguration of SOLINET automated bibliographic system, which was planned for implementation at the time of occupancy of the new building. Library staff took great pleasure at these initial steps into the world of library technology.
The new building was attractive and comfortable for students. The library staff, for their part, took advantage of adequate workspace and believed that services improved because they had sufficient working space. The building was a four-floor structure with a major library unit on each floor and a separate area for each unit. The expansion of the library can be appreciated by reviewing the list of distinct operational units made possible by the new main library: circulation, reference, government documents, science and technology, acquisitions, and administration.
Reading Room, Hughes Library, 1975
Library Exterior, 1980.
T I M E S 1976-1998
Cynthia B. Duncan, then the director of the library at Northeast Louisiana University in Monroe, Louisiana, was appointed director of the Old Dominion University Library effective January 1977. In addition to occupying a new facility, the library program experienced many substantive service changes under her administration.
LIBRARY AUTOMATION Cynthia Duncan brought with her the introduction of library automation and, thus, gave the Old Dominion library the reputation of a pacesetter. Old Dominion University Library joined SOLINET, the Southeastern Library Network, in 1976 and installed two dedicated terminals for use of OCLC, the bibliographic utility, one for the cataloging department and one for acquisitions. Once the library was equipped to prepare cataloging records with OCLC, the retrospective conversion of the existing collection to machinereadable form was started in October 1977; it took most of 1978 to complete. At the same time, current acquisitions were being cataloged in machine-readable form for eventual use in an automated library system. These steps prepared the library to adopt an automated form of public access catalog in time. The year 1979 brought the production of a COM catalog-that is, computer output microfiche. It was the first product of the machine-readable cataloging made possible by the adoption of OCLC. This entirely new library catalog was introduced gradually, with a "test" catalog of 220,000 records and a microfiche reader available at a workstation in the reference department. Users were given advance notice of the introduction of COMCAT, as it was called, and interest reportedly was high. Once the COM catalog was fully implemented, the library's card catalog was removed in August 1979. Within 18 months of full implementation, copies of the COM catalog were located in
the Webb Center, Rogers and Gresham residence halls and 20 departments. Old Dominion's COM catalog was ballyhooed as the world's largest COMCAT in the summer of 1981 ! The first systems to automate internal library processes were introduced during this time, too, and Duncan led the Old Dominion library to early adoption of a book circulation system. From the initial funding of the automation project in the 1978-1980 biennial budget to complete changeover from manual circulation took almost five years! After the procurement process, the computer was installed in July 1981 by DataPhase Systems Inc., and the library started to create the database, to label materials with barcodes, and to make the necessary links for checking out materials. The test phase of book circulation took place in November 1981, with full circulation beginning in January 1982. Old Dominion was the first library in Virginia to reach this milestone. The second generation of internal library automation came to the library in 1987 with the selection of an integrated system developed by GEAC Computer Corp. While the initial ALIS system automated book check out mainly, the new system would create an online public catalog for self-service use by library patrons. The database was created in early 1988, and the new online catalog and book check out system were ready for use by the fall semester of that year. Old Dominion University Library's third automated system was selected and implemented during 1995, and INNOPAC by Innovative Interfaces Inc., was used. A well-regarded product with all major library functions automated,
INNOPAC permitted the library to automate acquisitions, serials control and reserve materials for the first time. In addition, the system offered well-designed modules for a public access catalog and book check out processes. The catalog was introduced in January 1996.
LIBRARY COLLECTIONS The history of uneven, unstable funding for library acquisitions continued during the contemporary period of library development. In 1981, John W. Moore, then vie~ president for educational services, stated, "The University has requested additional state funding for library needs in every biennial budget request since 1970. Requests were not successful, and it was necessary to reallocate funds internally and supplement with private funds to avoid cuts which would have had a very serious impact." Even with an insufficient level of funding, the library moved a collection of 425,000 volumes into the new building in May 1976. Within the next 20 years, the collection nearly doubled, to a count of 800,000 volumes. The growth of resources can be attributed in part to the library's use of blanket order plans. The university's use of blanket order plans, later called approval plans, was uneven at first. They were used some years during the 1960s and 1970s, but records show a periodic absence of the necessary funding, and then the library missed the full coverage which approval plans have offered. In May 1978, however, both American and British publications began to be acquired through the use of approval plans, and the practice has become established in the library since that time. In earlier times, the library's acquisitions budget was distributed according to plans made by the Provost, and faculty in individual departments selected books. During the 1974-1978 time period, though, the Senate Library Committee developed and refined a formula for the distribution to departments of funds for retrospective book purchases; by this time, current publishing was covered by approval plans. This formula or its successors determined departmental fund allocations from 1977 forward.
COMCAT Reading Stations, University Library, 1980
The University Archives, established in 1974, was reviewed at the December 9, 1976, meeting of the Board of Visitors and its mission clarified. The board stated that personal papers were to be emphasized in collecting, especially
papers representing people and events of the geographical area that Old Dominion serves. The University Archives became a part of the library in April 1979. This move enabled the university to provide a secure repository for historically significant records and staffing to assist users. The library gained valuable documents for research in local and regional history, as well as a rich photograph collection of the university's early history. All too quickly, though, the space housing the University Archives became filled to capacity, and the library was unable to accept new collections for a period of about 10 years. The art library collection grew with purchases by the university library and gifts from Mrs. Hofheimer. In 1980-81, the library space in the Fine Arts Building was expanded and renovated. At the conclusion of her second term on the university's Board of Visitors, Linda Hofheimer Kaufman established a collection endowment in honor of her mother, Elise Hofheimer: A dedication ceremony took place in the spring of 1982, in which the library was formally named the Elise N. Hofheimer Art Library. The collection of journals and other serial publications had reached a level of expense high enough in the 1991-92 academic year to use 85 percent of the library's entire acquisitions budget. The library, with the Senate Library Committee, reviewed all current subscriptions and determined that $100,000 worth of subscriptions had to be canceled in order to maintain balance in the acquisitions program. A cancellation process was carried out, and 513 journal subscriptions were discontinued. All librarians were assigned the added role of bibliographers beginning in 1991 or 1992, and each was assigned to work with two or three departments for all collection development purposes. To foster the growth of a collection development function even further, a collection development officer was appointed within the library's staff in 1995. Through internal reorganization, Pamela Morgan, formerly the head of collection management, assumed the new position and proceeded to develop a highly effective collection development program. Major elements put in place by Morgan included the preparation of a bibliographers' manual, training for bibliographers, formulation of collection development policies, and an ongoing collection assessment program. The library's collection of bound journals, always arranged by title, were reshelved in Summer 1983, and shelved in call number order so that all journals in the same subject area appeared together in the book stacks.
The Center for Research Libraries, long an essential source of unique or rare research materials among major university libraries, had been an occasional resource for interlibrary loans at Old Dominion University. With the development of mature doctoral programs and the recruitment of faculty with ambitious research programs, the library needed to become part of the center: An associate membership was initiated in 1994.
The university library recruited its first library instruction librarian, Margaret Smith, in 1978. During her brief stay, Smith made a beginning for the instruction program then~developed and operated by Cynthia Wright Swaine. After conducting sessions in a large conference room for two years, Swaine and the acting head of reference, Charlotte Millis, designed a dedicated classroom for the program; it was used beginning in October 1981. The classroom was equipped with movable seating and prepared for projection, and many dozens of classes were introduced to the techniques of information retrieval and use in the facility. Online bibliographic search services were introduced nationwide in the late 1970s, and the Old Dominion University Library was again in the forefront. Arrangements with the primary vendors of online bibliographic services (ORBIT and DIALOG) took place during 1978, with demonstrations for inter-
View from Circulation Desk, University Library, Late 1970's
ested faculty and deans, as well as the library staff. Actual search services were introduced in Spring 1979, after the requisite preparation-buying a terminal, training reference librarians to perform the searches, and setting up cost recovery mechanisms.
Searching products for bibliographic databases advanced at the same pace as library systems, and the Old Dominion University Library moved to the second generation of automated reference searching in January 1989. Index and abstract databases began to be available in CD-ROM format, permitting the library to purchase the CD-ROM indexes and the workstations for their use. Self-service searching was made available without telecommunications line charges and costs for individual items retrieved .
During the library's recent history, many cooperative ventures have grown out of the library directors council of the Tidewater Higher Education Consortium, a legislatively mandated consortium which began to meet during the 1975-76 academic year. For example:
The growth of electronic capabilities, including the Internet, opened new service avenues to the library in the 1990s. A home page on the World Wide Web was developed in early 1996 and expanded continually as resources and services developed . The scope of the library's instructional workshops broadened to include Internet training for students and faculty and the introduction of new technological resources and techniques to faculty. The reference collection evolved from "mediated" searching of electronic databases in 1978 to self-service bibliographic sources on CD-ROMs by 1989. The biggest jump in capability and scope, however, occurred with the introduction of the Virtual Libraryof Virginia (VIVA) in 1995. VIVA brought networked bibliographic and full text reference materials to an ever-increasing number of workstations in the reference room , as well as remotely through the campus network. In 1994, Old Dominion University was designated as Virginia's lead institution for the provision of technology-based distance education to citizens in all parts of the commonwealth, and an extensive program of televised course instruction was initiated. Distance education provided a significant impetus to adoption of ever more information technology in the library. It also called for the development of instructional programs for information access, speedy mastery of skills in teaching on television , telephone reference services, and the capacity to do a high volume of document delivery. The library staff rose to the challenge, with services that received compliments from faculty in many departments and appreciation from those managing the new distance education programs.
PERATIVE p RO GRAMS
The consortium instituted a courier service to deliver interlibrary loan materials to member institutions; the service was introduced in February 1977.
The Union Catalog of Current Acquisitions, a union COM catalog, was funded by a grant from SCHEV to display current acquisitions of the 18 participating libraries. Old Dominion University Library served as the coordinating institution and maintained the master database.
Reciprocal borrowing privileges were instituted in January 1979. A user from any consortium member institution was permitted to borrow materials by showing a student or faculty identification card and a driver's license.
The Virginia Plan for Academic Library Cooperation ( 1976) was developed under the auspices of the State Council of Higher Education in Virginia with substantive input from task forces of the Library Advisory Council. Its recommendations were aimed at enhanced sharing of local library resources. Key initiatives recommended: •
Assigning a high priority to the conversion of retrospective holdings of major libraries to machine-readable form so that they appear in the OCLC catalog.
Developing a statewide collection development policy.
Providing at least one retrospective run of every journal indexed in standard indexes in one library in the state.
Continued publication of the Virginia union list of serials.
Building a storage facility for lesser-used bound journals.
"Rush" interlibrary loan service was instituted in August 1989, made possible by a grant from SCHEV, the State Council of Higher Education in Virginia. Each of the commonwealth's 15 senior public colleges and universities was given funds for a telefacsimile machine to transmit interlibrary loan requests and receive photocopied material from other libraries. The Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA), initiated in 1994 by the Library Advisory Council of SCHEV, was a pioneering cooperative collection development project at the outset, and it remains an envied feature of Virginia library service. With funding from the Virginia General Assembly, the Library Advisory Council organized cooperative purchasing of emerging electronic information resources and disseminated access through a site on the World Wide Web. The project had many benefits, including increases in available titles and the equalization of resources across all Virginia colleges and universities.
STATUS OF LIBRARIANS When Cynthia Duncan became the library director in January 1977, her appointment represented breakthroughs on several fronts. She was the first Ph.D.-holder to be appointed to the staff of the library. She was the first woman director of the library. Dr: Duncan held the highest-ranking academic appointment for a woman in Old Dominion's history. Soon after, early in 1979, a reorganization of the university administration resulted in a title change for Duncan. She became Dean of Library Services at that time, and the library's second level administrators, Henry Stewart and Terence Walton, became associate dean and assistant dean, respectively. With that reorganization , the dean of library services began to report to the vice president for educational services and planning. In a subsequent administrative change, Duncan began reporting directly to the vice president for academic affairs as of July 1, 1981 . On October 23, 1975, the Library Council was founded as the first formal organization of the library's professional staff. It was advisory to the library director and , reportedly, worked well as a sounding board for the librarians. With its establishment, Hughes News, The Voice of the ODU Library Council, began publication in December 1975. Shortly after the 1977 ap-
pointment of Cynthia Duncan, the council reportedly was "in hopes of meeting with Dr. Duncan soon to strengthen lines of communication with the Administration." Instead, the Library Council publication carried a notice in the November/December 1978 issue of a bylaws revision that limited scheduled meetings of the council to one each semester: A retired librarian later observed, "I think that this was probably somewhat disappointing to the staff members because we had spent a long time establishing lines of communication ... possibly there had been a lack of recognition that there was a staff in the library that wanted to be a part of the change and growth and to have the opportunity to contribute to that." Cynthia Duncan appointed an Administrative Advisory Council in early 1977. Made up chiefly of middle managers, it functioned as adviser to the director in development of management decisions. Soon after, Duncan appointed three committees to consider management issues: Goals and Objectives, Reorganization , and Space Utilization. These staff committees were the first ever recorded to develop recommendations about issues of managing the library. Authority and responsibility for the growth and development of the library's collection was not yet given over to librarians when Duncan was appointed in 1977. She noted, in her first annual report, that authority for purchases to improve the library's collection was mainly held by and exercised by faculty, whose choices too much reflected their specialized interests and needs. The resulting collection was uneven and inadequate, and Duncan argued that the time had come for the librarians to take over primary responsibility for the growth of the library's collection . The following year, a portion of acquisitions funds was transferred to the control of the library: those funds to purchase general works, reference materials and journals. This is the first known instance of librarians at Old Dominion, other than early directors, being given significant authority to develop the library collection . Other book purchases, however, remained the responsibility of departmental faculty, working with a librarian acting as collection development liaison . Meanwhile, the library's representation in the University Senate continued its problematic history. In April 1976, the library's seat in the Senate was threatened with elimination , due to a reorganization that fa iled to recognize the faculty status of librarians. With strong representation from head of reference Ben Clymer, the library retained its representation in the Faculty Senate.
As Old Dominion University's emphasis on technological skills and technology-enhanced instruction grew, library staff at several levels became increasingly involved in campus-wide technology planning. Skills in technology management, as well as in database development, became essential to the university's progress, and librarians possessed the requisite skills.
FACILITIES The art library, located since the early 1960s in the Fine Arts Building, was expanded and renovated in the 1980-81 academic year, and Linda Hofheimer Kaufman established a collection endowment in honor of her mother. In 1988, the university began to develop plans for a new Fine & Performing Arts Building, in which the offices of the art history faculty and the art department would be located. Space was created also for the art library in the new building. After three years' temporary relocation in the main library, the Elise Hofheimer Art Library was located in the Fine & Performing Arts Building as of June 12, 1991. This new library was equipped with a slide viewing room, two faculty studies and a book security system, as well as attractive space to house collections and users.
as the Information Technology Instruction Center; the Digital Services Center, and the conference center for programs and seminars sponsored by the library and other academic departments. Much of the shelving was compact shelving, installed in the addition area of each floor, for maximum capacity to shelve the library's collections. Morel Fry, the library's administrative services librarian, was charged with managing the building expansion and renovation process, from planning with the help of several staff committees through construction and furnishings to the wrap-up and inspection at the end. Because the project called for construction of the addition first, followed by a complete renovation of the original library, Ms. Fry had to manage a series of major moves of services, collections, electronic equipment and staff with no interruption of service. ~
The 1976 main library building had reached capacity by 1981, and the required pre-planning study for an addition was carried out in 1989. Cynthia Duncan retired as University Librarian in August 1991, before funding became available to plan and build an addition to the existing building. With the appointment of Jean A. Major as University Librarian in July 1992, a librarywide planning process was initiated with the preparation of a building program document. The library expansion and renovation project was intended to achieve three objectives: create space to shelve collections for 15 years' growth, provide seating for 2,000 readers, and make up-to-date telecommunications connections available throughout.
University Library Exterior, 1991
A Boston architectural firm, Perry Dean Rogers & Partners, planned the 76,000-square-foot addition to the 1976 library, and construction began in January 1996. The new section was a wrap-around on three sides of the existing building, resulting in a new fa9ade facing the interior of the campus. At the same time, the original interior was gutted and redesigned for contemporary needs. The handsome four-story concrete building, with cherry and brushed aluminum interior accents, housed facilities for new services, such
1998FACILITIES The new and renovated main library opened for full service with the start of the fall semester of 1998. The airy, spacious building with up-to-date furnishings and equipmert created considerable excitement as students and faculty returned and inspected the "finished product." In addition to very significant upgrades and improvements in established library services, the building was designed to make associated technological services available. A student computer lab was installed in cooperation with the Office of Computing and Communication Services, and a virtual classroom for televised instruction to Reference Desk, Perry Library, 1999
students at higher education centers was created in Summer 1999. Soon after the opening of the library, the number of public Internet workstations doubled, and the reference room offered 48 stations for access to networked information resources. On April 15, 1999, in conjunction with a meeting of the Board of Visitors, the library building was dedicated as the Patricia W. and J. Douglas Perry Library in honor of Patricia and Douglas Perry, generous benefactors of the university and the library. Patricia Perry, a 1989 honors graduate of Old Dominion University, served at the time on the Board of Visitors, while Douglas Perry served on the board of trustees of the Educational Foundation of Old Dominion University. The F. Ludwig Diehn Composers Room, an entirely new venture for the University Library, was dedicated on December 19, 1997. A gift from the composer and Norfolk resident, Ludwig Diehn, the composers room was designed as a research facility in 20th century music for scholars, conductors and performers. Collections of manuscripts, recordings of performances, papers and memorabilia of prominent contemporary composers are housed in the room, which is an addition to the Diehn Fine & Performing Arts Center. Collections in time are expected to become a resource for the preparation of musical performances and research. The established music listening library was incorporated into the Diehn facility at the same time.
a national trend in access methods for special collections, electronic finding aids for the major special collections were created and displayed on the library's World Wide Web home page, thus disseminating holdings information for the use of local researchers and scholars elsewhere.
AUTOMATION The Old Dominion University Library continued to adopt emerging technology for significant service improvements in the late 1990s. A mature and far-reaching digital library program was developed, making 24-hour remote access to fundamental library services available: hundreds of full text journals and other online collections, electronic document delivery, catalog access to an increasing collection of electronic resources, reserve materials in electronic form, and Web-based instruction in information access. The Digital Services Center in the Perry Library also was instituted at the time of the move. This facility was designed to foster collaboration with individual faculty to integrate information technology resources and techniques into instruction. A full schedule of individual collaborative projects evolved, and the librarians associated with Digital Services presented an ever-growing list of workshops and seminars for faculty technology training.
LIBRARY COLLECTIONS Library resources for the university's research programs began significant growth around the time of the Perry Library opening. With the support of a mature program of collection development, specific needs were identified and remedies planned. Journal subscriptions were expanded for selected disciplines, and VIVA full text journal holdings increased the breadth of available resources. The late-90s university capital campaign resulted in healthy increases to the library's endowment for future expanded purchasing. After a hiatus of more than 10 years, the Tidewater history special collections area resumed active operation. New collections were acquired and processed, and public service hours were reinstituted in Fall 1998. As part of
Information Technology Instruction Center, Perry Library, 1999
SERVICES The university's growing distance education program created new opportunities for library services, supported primarily by digital technology. The library used its World Wide Web site to organize information resources and services, and students at home or in remote instructional sites used their computers equipped with an Internet browser for access to these essential resources. An instructional site called Start Your Research Here! was particularly well received. The library's program of service to distance education programs and participants received recognition from the broader library community and high praise from faculty involved in teaching distant learners.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Early Librarians LOUISE BETHEA served as librarian from 1948 to 1954 before leaving to work at Wake Forest College and the North Carolina State Library. She returned to the Norfolk Division in 1958 to serve as the cataloger and remained until her retirement in 1968. She was a graduate of the library school at Emory University. ~
COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS - - - - - - VIVA, the Virtual Library of Virginia, continued to be the major vehicle for library cooperation, and its programs of group purchase of information resources resulted in highly effective cooperative collection development among Virginia's academic libraries. As an outgrowth of VIVA collecting, a project titled Guidelines for Cataloging VIVA Electronic Collections was developed under the leadership of ODU librarians and disseminated through the VIVA Web site. These guidelines were adopted by the University of California system and commended by library associations in Japan and Australia, resulting in welcome visibility for VIVA.
The Old Dominion University Library ended its 70th year a mature, forwardlooking and highly effective library. Its growth has been impressive, and library staff are poised now to develop even more ambitious services for the 21st century.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN CLYMER served as head of the reference department in the library of Old Dominion University from 1960 until his retirement in 1981 . After his retirement, Clymer continued service to the university in the advancement office and acted in community and university theater productions. Ben Clymer was a graduate of the University of North Carolina library school.
ELIZABETH deBEDTS became the reference librarian for the Norfolk Division in 1959, after serving as a librarian at the University of Oregon for six years. For many years, she served as the head of circulation , beginning in 1960, and retired in 1979 as the head of special collections. Her library education was taken at the University of North Carolina. DOROTHY P. LADD (formerly Dorothy E. Pierce), became the Norfolk Division's first professionally trained librarian in 1937 when she was recruited with an undergraduate library science degree from William and Mary. When she left Norfolk in 1948, she began a long career at Boston University, where she retired as Deputy in 1983. She graduated from Columbia University's library school.
MARIANNE MARTIN served as the circulation-reference librarian from 1955 until 1960, when she resigned because of failing health. . .. continued
BREWSTER PEABODY came from Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville to become library director in 1966; he remained until 1977. He later served in the gift section of the Library of Congress. He received his library education at the University of Michigan. WILLIAM C. POLLARD was recruited from the University of Georgia in September 1954 to serve as the acting librarian for a year; then he was to become the technical processing librarian. When the librarian originally recruited , James Servies, chose instead to remain in Williamsburg at William and Mary, Pollard was appointed the college librarian at Norfolk in 1955. His education in librarianship was taken at Florida State University. In 1966, Pollard left Old Dominion to become the college librarian at William and Mary. ADRIENNE SCHELLINGS became the acquisitions librarian in 1965 and was promoted to head of acquisitions in 1966. She served as interim director of the library from July 1976 to December 1976. A graduate of Old Dominion College, Schellings held a library science degree from Rutgers University. She retired from the library in 1982.
SELECTED R E F E R E NC ES The College of William and Mary in Norfolk. Annals: The First Decade: 1930-1940. Revised ed. Robert C. McClelland , compiler. Norfolk, VA: 1955.
_ _ _ _ _ _ . Annals: The Second Decade: 1940 - 1950. Robert C. McClelland , compiler. Norfolk, VA: 1955. _ _ _ _ _ _ . Annals: The Third Decade: 1950 -1960. Robert C. McClelland , compiler. Norfolk, VA: 1960. DeBedts, Elizabeth S. Associate Professor Emeritus of Library Science, Old Dominion University. Interview. February 14, 2000.
Hughes News [library staff newsletter]. 1975-1976. Ladd , Dorothy P Interview. August 12, 1999. Molnar, John. Letter, December 30, 1999. Norfolk, VA. University Archives , Old Dominion University. Office of the President. _ _ _ _ _ . Oral History Collection . _ _ _ _ _ _ . Records of the Norfolk Division (1930-1962) and Old Dominion College (1962-1969). Old Dominion University. Institutional Self-Study for Reaccreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Norfolk, VA: 1981 .
_ _ _ _ _ _ . Self-Study Report Prepared for the Commission on Colleges, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Norfolk, VA: 1971 .
Pollard , William C. College Archivist, Mary Baldwin College. Interview. December 2, 1999.
Rutyna , Richard A. , and Kuehl, John W. Old Dominion University, Heritage and Horizons. Norfolk, VA: The Donning Company, 1987. Schellings, Adrienne. Interview, May 22, 2001 . Alfriend, John S. . .... . ... . .. 11 State Council of Higher Education for Virginia. Library Advisory Committee. Minutes of Meetings: September 24, 1963-September 13, 1991 . Virginia : 1991 . Sweeney, James R. Old Dominion University: A Half Century of Service. Norfolk, VA: Old Dominion University, 1980.
Bethea, Louise .... . . . 8, 9, 16, 43 Bryan, John Stewart. ... ... .. .. 7 Burgess, Charles 0 . . .. . .. 22, 25
McDiarmid, Errett W. .. . . . ... . 21 Major, Jean A. . ... . . ... . . ... 36 Martin, Marianne ... .. .. 9, 16, 43 Millis, Charlotte . ... .. ... ..... 31 Moore, John W. ... .. ........ 29 Morgan, Pamela . . .. ... .... .. 30