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News Networks in Early Modern Europe
Library of the Written Word VOLUME 47
The Handpress World Editor-in-Chief Andrew Pettegree (University of St Andrews)
Editorial Board Ann Blair (Harvard University) Falk Eisermann (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preuβischer Kulturbesitz) Ian Maclean (All Souls College, Oxford) Angela Nuovo (University of Udine) Mark Towsey (University of Liverpool) Malcolm Walsby (University of Rennes ii)
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News Networks in Early Modern Europe Edited by
Joad Raymond Noah Moxham
LEIDEN | BOSTON
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Contents Acknowledgements xi List of Figures and Tables xiii Places and Dates xix Abbreviations and Other Conventions xx Notes on Contributors xxi 1 News Networks in Early Modern Europe 1 Joad Raymond and Noah Moxham
Part 1 Networks 2 European Postal Networks 19 Nikolaus Schobesberger, Paul Arblaster, Mario Infelise, André Belo, Noah Moxham, Carmen Espejo and Joad Raymond 3 The Lexicons of Early Modern News 64 Paul Arblaster, André Belo, Carmen Espejo, Stéphane Haffemayer, Mario Infelise, Noah Moxham, Joad Raymond and Nikolaus Schobesberger 4 News Networks: Putting the ‘News’ and ‘Networks’ Back in 102 Joad Raymond 5 Maps versus Networks 130 Ruth Ahnert 6 International News Flows in the Seventeenth Century: Problems and Prospects 158 Brendan Dooley 7 The Papal Network: How the Roman Curia Was Informed about South-Eastern Europe, the Ottoman Empire and the Mediterranean (1645–1669) 178 Johann Petitjean
The Iberian Position in European News Networks: A Methodological Approach 193 Javier Díaz Noci
Mapping the Fuggerzeitungen: The Geographical Issues of an Information Network 216 Nikolaus Schobesberger
The History of a Word: Gazzetta / Gazette 243 Mario Infelise
International Relations: Spanish, Italian, French, English and German Printed Single Event Newsletters Prior to Renaudot’s Gazette 261 Henry Ettinghausen
War News in Early Modern Milan: The Birth and the Shaping of Printed News Pamphlets 280 Massimo Petta
Elizabethan Diplomatic Networks and the Spread of News 305 Tracey A. Sowerby
Time in English Translations of Continental News 328 Sara Barker
Cartography, War Correspondence and News Publishing: The Early Career of Nicolaes van Geelkercken, 1610–1630 350 Helmer Helmers
News Exchange and Social Distinction 375 André Belo
‘Newes also came by Letters’: Functions and Features of Epistolary News in English News Publications of the Seventeenth Century 394 Nicholas Brownlees
‘My Friend the Gazetier’: Diplomacy and News in SeventeenthCentury Europe 420 Jason Peacey
Intelligence Offices in the Habsburg Monarchy 443 Anton Tantner
20 Authors, Editors and Newsmongers: Form and Genre in the Philosophical Transactions under Henry Oldenburg 465 Noah Moxham
part 3 Studies 21
News from the New World: Spain’s Monopoly in the European Network of Handwritten Newsletters during the Sixteenth Century 495 Renate Pieper
The Prince of Transylvania: Spanish News of the War against the Turks, 1595–1600 512 Carmen Espejo
‘Fishing after News’ and the Ars Apodemica: The Intelligencing Role of the Educational Traveller in the Late Sixteenth Century 542 Elizabeth Williamson
24 ‘It is No Time Now to Enquire of Forraine Occurrents’: Plague, War, and Rumour in the Letters of Joseph Mead, 1625 563 Kirsty Rolfe 25 ‘Our Valiant Dunkirk Romans’: Glorifying the Habsburg War at Sea, 1622–1629 583 Paul Arblaster 26 A Sense of Europe: The Making of this Continent in Early Modern Dutch News Media 597 Joop W. Koopmans
The Hinterland of the Newsletter: Handling Information in Space and Time 616 Mark Greengrass, Thierry Rentet and Stéphane Gal
28 ‘We have been Informed that the French are Carrying Desolation Everywhere’: The Desolation of the Palatinate as a European News Event 641 Emilie Dosquet 29 Promoting the Catholic Cause on the Italian Peninsula: Printed Avvisi on the Dutch Revolt and the French Wars of Religion, 1562–1600 675 Nina Lamal 30 The Acquisition and Handling of News on the French Wars of Religion: The Case of Hermann Weinsberg 695 Alexandra Schäfer 31
‘Secret and Uncertain’: A History of Avvisi at the Court of the Medici Grand Dukes 716 Sheila Barker
32 Words on the Street: Selling Small Printed ‘Things’ in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Venice 739 Laura Carnelos 33 Natural Disasters and the European Printed News Network 756 Carlos H. Caracciolo 34 The ‘Trouble of Naples’ in the Political Information Arena of the English Revolution 779 Davide Boerio 35 Public and Secret Networks of News: The Declaration of War of the Turks against the Empire in 1683 805 Stéphane Haffemayer
36 From Vienna, Prague or Poland? The Effects of Changing Reporting Patterns on the Ceremonial News of Transylvania, 1619–58 824 Virginia Dillon 37
The Venetian News Network in the Early Sixteenth Century: The Battle of Chaldiran 849 Chiara Palazzo Index 871
Acknowledgements This volume began life in 2011, with the award of a Leverhulme Trust Interna tional Network Grant to Joad Raymond. This supported a two-year project that involved five members, two administrative facilitators, six cities, twenty-nine associates, and a further forty conference delegates from eleven countries. All participants, those in this volume and those in the broader penumbra of the project, are indebted to the Leverhulme Trust for the opportunities it facilitated. We are also thankful for the generous additional award of an Open Access Fee which, we hope, will bring this research to a populous and fully international scholarly community. During our peregrination the network received support in various guises from the University of East Anglia, the Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp, Université Rennes 2, the University of Seville (to whom we owe particular thanks for travel bursaries for participants as well as for accommodating us), Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, the Fuggerzeitungen Project at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, and Queen Mary University of London. We were also hosted by Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Biblioteca Capitular y Colombina, and the Archivio di Stato di Venezia, and we are grateful for their time and hospitality. Laurel Brake and Andrew Pettegree supported the project from its very earliest days, and without their work it might never have been conceived. At uea the support of Edward Acton, Sarah Burbidge, Rowena Burgess and Cassy Spearing was invaluable. Interlocutors during the project not contributing to this volume include: Alessio Assonitis, Alex Barber, Alexander Buczynski, Angela McShane, Antonio Castillo Gómez, Arjan van Dixhoorn, Corinna Streckfuss, Daniel Pimenta, Oliveira de Carvalho, David Bagchi, David Magliocco, Dirk Imhof, Hans Cools, Inmaculada Casas Delgado, James Everest, Jan Hillgaertner, Jerry Brotton, Jorge Pedro Sousa, Katie Forsyth, Katrin Keller, Lloyd Bowen, Lodovica Braida, Marcus Nevitt, Marion Brétéché, Markman Ellis, Matthew Symonds, Melodee Beals, Michael Questier, Mike Braddick, Nadine Akkerman, Oswald Bauer, Paola Molino, Patricia Teixera, Paul Nelles, Rachael Scarborough King, Rosanne Baars, Sagrario López Poza, Sam Garland, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Sandy Wilkinson, Sarah Ward, Sarah Watkins, Sophie Pitman, Victoria Gardner, Warren Boutcher, Will Slauter and Will Tosh. The life of the project was a fascinating one, and it was constituted out of the intellectual generosity of an international community of scholars. Joad Raymond would also like to thank the Network Members, Paul Arblaster, Carmen Espejo, André Belo and Mario Infelise, for their inspirational work; and
Network Facilitators Noah Moxham and Lizzy Williamson for running the show(s). To Frances McDougall Raymond he owes special thanks for the spectacular conference cakes and much else besides. Noah Moxham owes particular thanks to Joad Raymond and Aileen Fyfe for their academic support and advice; and to Colette and Richard Moxham and to Sara Lyons, for everything. In addition to our many and varied, joint and several obligations to Lisa Jardine, we wish to express our tremendous sadness at the loss of an irreplaceable scholar and an invaluable mentor and friend.
List of Figures and Tables Figures 2.1 2.2 2.3
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13
The nodes in the flows of information across Italy 29 Ottavio Codogno’s scheme of postal routes 30 Nicolas Sanson, Carte géographicque des postes qui trauersent la France. A Paris … Par Melchior Tauernier …, 1632. (HMC01.6723), Historic Maps Collection, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library 35 Madrid to Antwerp 38 Main postal routes linking Spain with the rest of Europe 39 The alternative sea route from Madrid to Rome, via Barcelona and Genoa 40 Main postal routes within the Iberian peninsula 41 International news routes into Portugal in 1763, based on João Baptista de Castro’s Mappa de Portugal, 1762–3 44 The water routes for news, showing landfalls at Edinburgh, London, Dover and Plymouth 47 Post Roads in England, Scotland and Wales, c. 1675 52 Average travel times of post from London, 1570–1620 56 Post routes to south west England, showing main and subsidiary routes, with travel times to off-route locations 57 Sketch map of major European postal routes operating at various times during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Collaboratively compiled, at the Vienna workshop of the News Networks in Early Modern Europe research project, 13/9/12, by Paul Arblaster, Nikolaus Schobesberger, Mario Infelise, André Belo, Carmen Espejo, Joad Raymond and Noah Moxham, with input from Oswald Bauer 62 Detail from a sketch map of major European postal routes operating at various times during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Collaboratively compiled at the Vienna workshop of the News Networks in Early Modern Europe research project, 13/9/12 121 Jeroen Salman, ‘Network of booksellers and pedlars, Amsterdam 1690–1707’ 122 A force-directed network visualisation of the correspondence found in the State Papers Foreign dating from the reign of Mary i. The nodes numbered 1–6 are: (1) Mary i, (2) William Petre, (3) Philip ii of Spain, (4) John Mason, (5) Edward Carne, and (6) Nicholas Wotton 136
List of Figures and Tables
A graph plotting individuals’ betweenness rankings against their eigenvector centrality rankings (for the individuals with top 20 betweenness) 138 5.3 A network using the State Papers data in which edges are created between people if they have shared a location. The nodes numbered 1–4 are: (1) Peter Vannes, (2) Thomas Gresham, (3) William Grey, and (4) Nicholas Wotton 141 5.4 A network visualisation of Protestant correspondence, 1553–1558. Martyrs are marked with dark grey squares and so-called sustainers with light grey circles 144 5.5a–d These figures chart the network of correspondence involving or mentioning William Pickering over time: (5a) July–August 1553, (5b) March 1554–March 1555, (5c) March 1555–March 1558, and (5d) 10 March 1558–November 1558. Dark grey arrows signify letters exchanged within that period; pale grey arrows show previous correspondence 153 6.1 Comparison between Florence newsletter of 1621 from the Florence State Archive [=asf] and English coranto of the same year from the Florence Early English Newspapers corpus [=feen] 161 6.2 Hypothetical path of a story in 1621 162 6.3 First pages of the 1609 Strasbourg Relation showing stories from Cologne, Antwerp, Rome, Venice (courtesy of University of Heidelberg Library) 163 6.4 Flow pattern of stories in 1609 Relation 164 6.5 Comparison between Venetian newsletter and Bologna newspaper (underlining mine) 164 6.6 Hypothetical itinerary of news story in Bologna newspaper, using Blaeu Atlas (courtesy of ucla) and Jacopo de’ Barbari map of Venice (Wikimedia Commons) 166 6.7 Comparison of Ottoman news in London (Lancaster News Corpus [=lnc]), Hamburg (Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen [=SuUB]) and Paris (Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon [=bml]) in 1654 166 6.8 Possible itinerary of Ottoman news in early 1654 167 6.9 European reporting in 1654 concerning the Battle of Recife, Brazil. Crucial portions underlined. Sources are bml, lnc, SuUB and National Library of the Netherlands at The Hague [=nln] 167 6.10 Discourse fragments in Gazzetta di Bologna, 1 January 1648, ASVat., mss Ottoboniani 2450, fo. 2, emphasis added 176 6.11 Comparison of discourse elements in a Venetian avviso and in the Gazzetta di Bologna, emphasis added 177
List of Figures and Tables 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 15.1
21.1 21.2 21.3
Distribution map of places of dispatch (1568–1605) 223 Distribution map of places of dispatch for Fuggerzeitungen (1578) 224 Distribution map of places of dispatch for Fuggerzeitungen (1588) 225 Distribution map of places of dispatch for Fuggerzeitungen (1598) 226 Catchment area of information for Fuggerzeitungen from Vienna and Lyon 228 Catchment area of information for Fuggerzeitungen from Antwerp 229 Catchment area of information for Fuggerzeitungen from Cologne 230 Catchment area of information for Fuggerzeitungen from Rome 231 Catchment area of information for Fuggerzeitungen from Venice 232 The information network of the Fuggerzeitungen 234 Nicolaes van Geelkercken. Ducatus Iuliacensis, Clivensis en Bergensis cum Comitatu Marckensi et Ravenspergensi (Amsterdam: David de Meine, 1610). The duchies of Julich, Cleves, and Berg, with portrait cartouches showing the main contenders in the Julich-Cleves controversy: Rudolph ii, Archduke Leopold, Elector Johann Sigismund of Brandenburg and Elector Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz Neuburg. Permission Amsterdam University Library 355 fm 1283: Nicolaes van Geelkercken. Afbeelding van Gulik naer’t leven g econterfeyt (Amsterdam, 1610). Specifying all kinds of details, including particular trees and bridges, this 1610 print of the siege of Julich was based on fieldwork. Permission Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 356 Nicolaes van Geelkercken, VVaere afbeeldinghe van den machtigen Tocht der beyder legeren (Amsterdam, 1614). Sold in Amsterdam, London, and presumably in Germany as well, this map by Van Geelkercken intended to show the movements of the armies as the Julich crisis rekindled in 1614. Permission Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel 358 fm 1520. Barony van Breda, ‘t welck is een part van Brabandt, daer in te sien is de teghenwoordighe belegheringhe des Iaers 1624 ende 25. (Nicolaes van Geelkercken en Jan van Bergen, 1625). An accurate ordnance map produced during the siege of Breda. Permission Leiden University Library 361 Geelkercken, Nicolaes van. Tot lof zynder Prinslycke(r) eer Diens deughd Fama doet blycke(n) zeer (Leiden: Nicolaes van Geelkerck, 1612[?]). Portrait of Maurice of Orange with allegorical figures and depictions of his major victories. The date is doubtful because it is associated with Maurice rather than the print. Permission Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 372 Network of handwritten newsletters on Spanish America (1496–1560) 507 Network of handwritten newsletters on Spanish America (1561–80) 508 Network of handwritten newsletters on Spanish America (1581–98) 509
List of Figures and Tables
26.1 Front page of the Friday 10 April 1750 issue of the Opregte Groninger Courant, with news under the headings of Turkey, Poland and Prussia, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Great Britain and France 609 26.2 Back page of the Friday 10 April 1750 issue of the Opregte Groninger Courant, with the rest of the news from France, continued by news under the headings of Germany and neighbouring empires (in this case news from Vienna and Prague) and the Netherlands, finally followed by advertisements and production notes 610 26.3 Frontispiece of the Europische Mercurius from 1713 613 27.1 Surviving volumes of material in the Gordes Collection, Chantilly (Series K) 623 27.2 Surviving volumes by month 623 27.3 Monthly distribution of material in the Gordes Collection, June–December 1572 624 27.4 Map of Dauphiné 631 28.1 Stadtarchiv Worms 1B/48 G 658 28.2 Kurpfälzisches Museum Heidelberg, Kupferstichkabinett, S 4832 665 28.3 hab Wolfenbüttel Xb 1743 666 28.4 British Library London R216384 / Bodleian Library Oxford Vet. A3 f. 1595 667 32.1 Printers and booksellers’ shops in 1567. (Archivio Fotografico, Fondazione Musei Civici, Venice) 746 32.2 Distribution of peddlers in 1567. (Archivio Fotografico, Fondazione Musei Civici, Venice) 746 32.3 Tavolette e libri per li putti. Rome, 1647 (Private Collection, Milan) 750 32.4 Italianisch Savoischer Bielder und Novitaeten Kramer. Germany, Augsburg (?), 1706. Rare German engraving inspired by the original, Compra chi vuole avvisi di guerra, carte di guerra a buon mercato, a due bolognini l’una by G.M. Mitelli (1659?). (Private Collection, Milan) 752 34.1 An Exact Surveigh of the Street Lanes and Churches Contained within the Ruines of the City of London First Described in Six Plats by John Leake, Johne Lennings, William Marr, Will. Leyburn, Thomas Streete & Richard Shortgrove in December A0 1666. By Order of the Lord Mayor Aldermen and Common Councell of the Said City 798 34.2 Micco Spadaro, Piazza del Mercato during the Revolt of Masaniello, Naples, Museum of San Martino 799 34.3 Micco Spadaro, Beheading of Don Giuseppe Carafa. Naples, Museum of S. Martino 800 35.1 Information in the Gazette of Paris by city of origin for 1683 (number of news items) 806
List of Figures and Tables
35.2 Volume of news published in the Gazette in 1683 (number of words, by city of origin) 806 35.3 Nouvelles Extraordinaires de divers endroits, 25 March 1683 811 35.4 Microfilm of ‘Nouvelles de Vienne’ (diplomatic newsletter, 9–14 March 1683) 813 35.5 Manuscript of the Marquis de Sébeville’s ciphered letter of 11 March 1683 815 35.6 Volume (number of words in the different sources described above, 11–14 March 1683) 816 35.7 Delivery time of the diplomatic letters between Vienna and Versailles in 1683 822 36.1 Map indicating reporting cities for news stories of Transylvania, 1619–21 834 36.2 Map indicating reporting cities for news stories of Transylvania, 1643–5 834 36.3 Map indicating reporting cities for news stories of Transylvania, 1657–8 835 36.4 Locations cited within the text of stories from the Hereditary Lands, 1657–8 839 36.5 News transference between the major reporting locations of the Baltic reporting region, 1657–8 840 36.6 Number of items of ceremonial news by reporting region and period 842
Tables 2.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 9.1 17.1 17.2 20.1
Estimate of the costs of the Milan Gazette, 1659 32 Reporting on the Diamond Cross Affair, 1654, parallel portions numbered (lnc and SuUB) 169 Diamond Cross Affair, 1654: reporting from London and Paris, parallel portions numbered (lnc, bml) 170 Flight of King Charles i, viewed in two news sources, parallel portions numbered (lnc and Early English Books Online) 171 News centres on the four axes of news, as revealed in the Fuggerzeitungen 235 Occurrences of ‘letter’ and ‘letters’ (1620–91). The figures are measured pm (per million words) 400 Ten most frequently cited source locations of epistolary news in feen, lnc and zen corpora 402 Statistical breakdown of substantive articles in the Philosophical Transactions during the first and last three completed years of Oldenburg’s editorship 480
List of Figures and Tables
26.1 Frequency of the word ‘Europa’ in the copies of Dutch newspapers digitised by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library) in The Hague, The Netherlands, compared with the frequency of the word ‘Portugal’ (also spelled as ‘Portugael’ and ‘Portugaal’), a country that was far less in the news than all the neighbouring countries of the Dutch Republic 604 27.1 The movements of the Baron de Gordes (July–December 1572) 625 27.2 Comparative journey times of letters in the Gordes Collection. (a)ExtraDauphiné, (b)Intra-Dauphiné 629 36.1 Most frequently reporting locations in the newspapers of 1619–21 (percentage of total number of reports in each newspaper) 828 36.2 Most frequently reporting locations in the newspapers of 1643–5 (percentage of total number of reports in each newspaper) 829 36.3 Most frequently reporting locations in the newspapers of 1657–8 (percentage of total number of reports in each newspaper) 831 36.4 Number of discrete news stories on Transylvania from each reporting region and period 833
Places and Dates In a volume that not only covers a broad expanse of Europe over a long period but also needs to accommodate the scholarly conventions of contributors from an area almost as broad there needs to be a degree of flexibility in relation to naming. The naming of places has been an interestingly complicated issue. Where there are modern English names in general use for cities we have preferred these (Vienna rather than Wien or its numerous alternatives); otherwise we have preferred original names and spellings (though these have been made consistent), especially where they are commonly used in the historiography (Breslau, rather than Wroclaw, Thorn rather than Toruń). However, where there is a strong argument for preserving an unfamiliar name—in order to be consistent to sources or sympathetic to analysis—we have done so. Latitude has been granted to contributors to exercise discretion over what best suits their subject. Two calendars operated in Europe during this period, the Julian, used since the first century bc, and the Gregorian, introduced by Pope Gregory in 1582. While the Italian states, France, Spain and Portugal immediately adopted the Gregorian calendar, soon followed by the Roman Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and Hungary, other European states did not do so until much later; the protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire in 1700; Great Britain in 1752, and Greece in 1923. The Gregorian dealt with an imperfection in the Julian calendar, but the switch necessitated a significant alteration of the date. In 1582 the Gregorian calendar was ten days ahead of the Julian; after 1700 eleven days. This can result in confusion when tracing the movement of news around Europe, particularly when considering time delays and the speed of news. All chapters use the local calendar—n.s., new style, s.n., or stilo novo indicating the Gregorian; o.s., old style, s.v. or stilo veteri indicating the Julian— and explicit disambiguation appears where necessary.
Abbreviations and Other Conventions Names are given in their modern form, and have been anglicised when this form is in common usage. However, quotations have not been modernised, though u/v have mostly been standardised for ease of reading. bl bnf eebo hmso odnb sp stc
tna ustc Wing
British Library, London Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Early English Books Online Her / His Majesty’s Stationery Office Oxford Dictionary of National Biography State Papers, at The National Archives, Kew, London A.W. Pollard and G.R. Redgrave, Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland and Ireland and English Books Printed Abroad 1473–1640 (1926; revised edition, London, 1976–91) The National Archives, Kew, London Universal Short-Title Catalogue Donald Wing, Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and British America and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641–1700 (1945–51; revised edition, New York, 1972–98)
Notes on Contributors Ruth Ahnert is a Senior Lecturer in Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London. Her work focuses on the literature and culture of the Tudor period, with a specific emphasis on religious history and letter writing. She is the author of The Rise of Prison Literature in the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 2013), and editor of Re-forming the Psalms in Tudor England, a special issue of the journal Renaissance Studies (2015). Ruth has held fellowships at the Folger Shakespeare Library and Stanford Humanities Center. She has also been awarded an ahrc fellowship to work on ‘Tudor Networks of Power’, a collaborative project that applies quantitative network analysis to the study of the Tudor State Papers. Ruth is also working on an edition of The Letters of the Marian Martyrs with Thomas S. Freeman (Boydell and Brewer, forthcoming). Paul Arblaster holds a D.Phil. from Oxford University (2000) and teaches at the Marie Haps Faculty of Translation and Interpreting, Saint-Louis University, Brussels, and the Louvain School of Translation and Interpreting. He has published books on 17th century journalism in the Habsburg Netherlands (From Ghent to Aix, 2014), on the 17th century journalist Richard Verstegan (Antwerp & the World, 2004), and a History of the Low Countries (2nd edition 2012). His academic essays and articles concern early-modern news, communication, translation, exile, martyrology and monasticism. Sara Barker is a Lecturer in Early Modern History at the University of Leeds. Her first monograph Protestantism, Poetry and Protest: The Vernacular Writings of Antoine de Chandieu (c.1534–1591) (Ashgate, 2009) explored the different media forms used by a leading figure of the French Reformation. She has published on early modern translation and news, including a volume co-edited with Brenda M. Hosington, Renaissance Cultural Crossroads: Translation, Print and Culture in Britain, 1473–1640 (Brill, 2013) and is currently working on a project investigating international news pamphlets. Sheila Barker took her PhD in art history at Columbia University in 2002, and since 2010 she has directed the Jane Fortune Research Program on Women Artists at the Medici Archive Project. In relation to this program she has edited two forthcoming volumes: Artiste nel Chiostro (Memorie Domenicane, 2015), and Women
Notes on Contributors
Artists in Early Modern Italy: Careers, Fame, Collectors (Brepols, 2015). Additionally she pursues topics in the history of medicine, as in her essay, ‘Christine of Lorraine and Medicine at the Medici Court’, in Medici Women: the Making of a Dynasty in Grand Ducal Tuscany, ed. Giovanna Benadusi and Judith C. Brown (Toronto, 2015). André Belo (b. 1971) has a PhD in History (on printed and handwritten news in eighteenth century Portugal). He is Maître de Conférences or Associate Professor in the department of Portuguese Studies in the University of Rennes 2, France. From 2011 to 2013 he was a member of the ‘Early Modern News Networks’ project (dir. Joad Raymond). Main publications: As Gazetas e os livros (Lisbon, 2001); História & Livro e Leitura (Belo Horizonte, 2002, 2nd edition 2013), ‘Language as a Second Skin: the Representation of Black Africans in Portuguese Theatre (Fifteenth to Early Seventeenth Century)’, Renaissance and Reformation, 36 (2013). His current research interests are aspects of social identity and testimony in the Iberian world. Davide Boerio is a doctoral candidate in early modern European history at the Università di Teramo (Italy). His research focuses on the history, reception, and dissemination of information during mid-seventeenth-century political crises. In 2014, he was a Samuel Freeman Charitable Trust Fellow at the Medici Archive Project (Archivio di Stato di Firenze). He currently serves in the advisory board of the Birth of News program also at the Medici Archive Project. Nicholas Brownlees is Professor of English Language at the University of Florence. He is the cocompiler of the Florence Early English Newspapers Corpus and written extensively on news discourse in the early modern era. He is the author of The Language of Periodical News in Seventeenth Century England (2014, 2nd edition) and editor of News Discourse in Early Modern Britain (2006). He is founder of the CHINED series of conferences on historical news discourse . CHINED conferences have so far been held in Florence (2004), Zurich (2007), Rostock (2012), Helsinki (2014) and Porto (2015). Laura Carnelos is a specialisist in Book History and Library Science. She defended her PhD in 2010 at the University of Venice: its main topic was the production and distribution
Notes on Contributors
of the most widely circulated books within the Venetian Republic. It won the Pompeo Molmenti Prize for 2012. In February 2016 she started a two-year Marie Curie Individual Fellowship to work on ‘PATRIMONiT: From Cheap Print to Rare Ephemera: Sixteenth-Century Italian “Popular” Books at the British Library’ at cerl, under the supervision of Cristina Dondi, with the collaboration of the British Library and iccu (Rome). Carlos H. Caracciolo is a researcher at the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (ingv—Italy). He has been developing research in the field of Italian and Mediterranean Historical seismology, from medieval times until the twentieth century. Such study have led him to analyse one of the most important sources in this field, i.e. the news: circulation, networks, relationships between the different types of media (avvisi, gazettes, news pamphlets), and between news and other aspects of culture. His most recent articles in this field treat Bologna’s manuscript avvisi, and the market of printed news pamphlets (relazioni) in early modern Bologna. Javier Díaz Noci (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Sapin, 1964). Professor of Communication, Pompeu Fabra University (Barcelona, Spain), formerly lecturer of communication, University of the Basque Country (1994–2008). Has held visiting scholarships at the universities of Reno, Nevada (September 1997), Oxford (1998–9), Federal of Bahia (Brazil, 2005 and 2008). He is the author of a book on the origins of journalism in the Basque Country: El nacimiento del periodismo vasco. gacetas donostiarras de los siglos XVII y XVIII (The Birth of Basque Journalism. Gazettes from Saint Sebastian, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries), and of several book chapters and journal articles on the history of Spanish-language press in early modern period, including ‘Dissemination of News in the Spanish Baroque’, Media History, 18.3–4 (2012). Virginia Dillon teaches European and World History at Poly Prep Country Day School in Brooklyn, New York. She completed her D.Phil. on Transylvanian news in German language periodicals in the seventeenth century at the University of Oxford and is currently preparing to publish downloadable transcriptions and translations of a selection of these stories on the University of Hull’s digital repository, Hydra. Her research interests include communication networks in Central and Eastern Europe and patterns of linguistic variation.
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Brendan Dooley is Professor of Renaissance Studies at University College Cork, where he came after assignments at Harvard, Notre Dame, Jacobs University (Bremen), and the Medici Archive Project (Florence). Major publications include A Mattress Maker’s Daughter: The Renaissance Romance of Don Giovanni de’ Medici and Livia Vernazza (Harvard 2014); Morandi’s Last Prophecy and the End of Renaissance Politics (Princeton 2002); The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture (Johns Hopkins, 1999); and, as editor and contributor, The Dissemination of News and the Emergence of ‘Contemporaneity’ in Early Modern Europe (Ashgate 2010), and with Sabrina Baron, The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe (Routledge, 2001). Emilie Dosquet holds an ma in modern and early modern history as well as the agrégation (highest teaching French diploma); since 2010 she has been a PhD candidate at the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, under the supervision of Prof. Hervé Drévillon. Funded for three years by the Sorbonne and currently by the Fondation Thiers (Institut de France), her PhD project is entitled: Fire and Ink: the ‘Desolation of the Palatinate’ (1688/89). An histoire croisée of a European Event (Dutch Republic—England—France—Holy Roman Empire). Carmen Espejo is a Professor at University of Seville, Department of Journalism. Her research interest lies in the History of Early Modern Journalism, particularly through a European comparative approach. She chairs the Sociedad Internacional para el Estudio de las Relaciones de Sucesos (). She was a member of the research group ‘News Networks in Early Modern Europe’ directed by Joad Raymond (2011–13). She has published numerous papers in journals as European Review, Media History and svec among others, and books as La aparición del periodismo en Europa. Comunicación y propaganda en el Barroco (The birth of European Journalism), coedited with Roger Chartier. Henry Ettinghausen is Emeritus Professor of Spanish of the University of Southampton. In the 1970s his work on the autobiographies of two 17th century Spanish soldier adventurers brought him into contact with relaciones de sucesos, i.e. non-periodical news pamphlets that normally report single events in detail. A founder member of the ‘Sociedad Internacional para el Estudio de las Relaciones de Sucesos’ (siers), his publications include facsimile editions and studies of Spanish
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relaciones. Recently he has gone on to sketch out the characteristics of the earliest press across Europe: How the Press Began: The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe (2015; ). Stéphane Gal is Maître de Conférences and research director (hdr) in Modern History at the Université de Grenoble, a constituent member of its research laboratories larhra (Laboratoire de Recherches Historiques en Rhône-Alpes) and item (Innovation et Territoires de Montagne). His most recent book is CharlesEmmanuel de Savoie, la politique du précipice (Payot, 2012). Mark Greengrass is Emeritus Professor of Early Modern History at the University of Sheffield and Associate Research Fellow at the Centre Roland Mousnier, U.M.R. 8596— Université Paris iv Sorbonne cnrs. His most recent book is Christendom Destroyed: A History of Europe, 1517–1648 (Penguin, 2014). Stéphane Haffemayer is a Lecturer in Early Modern History at the University of Caen (France). He has published widely on news and the politics of information in the seventeenth century. His monograph L’Information dans la France du XVIIe siècle (Champion, 2002) proposes a quantitative and qualitative analyse of the Gazette of France. His paradigm of digitised instrumentation recently took new shape in the form of a database of the news of the Gazette in 1683, 1685 and 1689: with 2,000 pages, and 6,000 news items accessible online, it offers index-linked and informationally-enriched texts. See: . Co-manager of a anr research program Revolts and Revolutions before The Revolution (curr), he is the editor of Révoltes et Révolutions à l’écran (Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2015). His current research focusses on media and revolutions in France and England in the first half of the seventeenth century. Helmer Helmers is a Lecturer in Early Modern Dutch Literature and nwo Research Fellow at the University of Amsterdam. He received his PhD (cum laude) at the University of Leiden in 2011, and has published widely on Anglo-Dutch cultural and literary exchange in the seventeenth century. His monograph The Royalist Republic (Cambridge, 2015) analyses Dutch debates on the English Civil Wars and regicide. His current research project focuses on transnational publicity during the Thirty Years War.
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Mario Infelise is Professor at the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. He has been working extensively on book history, censorship, politics of information and news networks in Early Modern Europe. His more recent books include Prima dei giornali. Alle origini della pubblica informazione (Rome and Bari: Laterza, 2002), I libri proibiti da Gutenberg all’Encyclopédie (Rome and Bari: Laterza, 2013), I padroni dei libri. Il controllo sulla stampa nella prima età moderna (Rome and Bari : Laterza, 2014). Joop W. Koopmans is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Groningen (The Netherlands). His research concerns the relationship between early modern media and politics. He edited several volumes, e.g., Commonplace Culture in Western Europe in the Early Modern Period, iii: Legitimation of Authority (2011); Selling and Rejecting Politics in Early Modern Europe (2007) and News and Politics in Early Modern Europe, 1500–1800 (2005). Furthermore, he is co-editor of the Nieuwe Encyclopedie van Fryslân (2016), author of the Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands (3rd ed.; 2015), chair of the editorial board of De Vrije Fries nd chair of the Flemish-Dutch Society for Early Modern History (vnvng). Nina Lamal completed her PhD at the University of Leuven and the University of St Andrews in 2014. Her thesis examined Italian news reports, political debates and histories of the revolt in the Low Countries (1566–1648). Currently she is a research assistant at the Universal Short Title Catalogue in St Andrews. Her research focusses on early modern communication history and on the political and cultural ties between Italian states and the Low Countries. She is currently working on the first bibliography of Italian newspapers entitled Late with the News: Italian Engagement with Serial News Publications in the Seventeenth Century 1639–1700, which will be published by Brill in 2018. Noah Moxham is a postdoctoral research fellow in history at the University of St Andrews. His research interests lie mainly in the histories of science and the book. His PhD examined the links between early modern scientific organisation and publishing practices, and he has published several articles on science communication in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His current project is a social, cultural and economic history of the Royal Society’s Philosophical Transactions, the world’s longest-running scientific periodical.
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Chiara Palazzo received her PhD at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice in 2012, with a thesis entitled ‘Nuove d’Europa e di Levante. Il network veneziano dell’informazione nella prima età moderna. 1490–1520’. Since then she participates in seminars and workshops about news and news circulation in the sixteenth century (recently she presented a paper at the Workshop ‘News of Modernity: Early Modern Commercial News Networks’ in Manchester). Her current research interests include the Venetian diarists, Marin Sanudo and Girolamo Priuli. Jason Peacey is Professor of Early Modern British History at ucl, and is the author of Politicians and Pamphleteers. Propaganda in the Civil Wars and Interregnum (2004), and of Print and Public Politics in the English Revolution (2013). He also edited The Regicides and the Execution of Charles I (2001) and The Print Culture of Parliament, 1600–1800 (2007), and co-edited Parliament at Work (2002). He is currently working on Anglo-Dutch political culture in the seventeenth century, with a particular focus on the diplomacy of print and news, and overlapping and interlocking publics. Johann Petitjean is Maître de Conférences at the University of Poitiers (France). He received his PhD at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne in 2011—on forms, uses and dissemination of Mediterranean news in Italy from the battle of Lepanto to the Cretan War. His first book, L’intelligence des choses (Rome, 2013), focuses on politics of information, news networks and communication in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His current research concerns administration, litigations and communication in the Mediterranean. Massimo Petta obtained a PhD in Modern History at the University of Milan in 2005 with a thesis on the Royal Chamber Press of Milan in the seventeenth century. He has also explored the impact of printed information, especially news pamphlets, on early modern society. His work has focused especially on the relationship between events and narration and also on the propaganda value of news. Recently, he has examined the impact of the printed war news on patterns of news dissemination (‘Il racconto della battaglia. La guerra e le notizie a stampa nella Milano degli Austrias (secoli xvi–xvii)’, in Battaglie. L’evento, l’individuo, la memoria, ed. Alessandro Buono and Gianclaudio Civale [Palermo, 2014], coauthored with A. Buono) and the consolidation of the role of the printers in
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the dissemination of news (‘Networks of printers and the dissemination of news: the case of Milan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’, in Specialist Markets in the Early Modern Book World [Leiden, 2015], ed. Richard Kirwan and Sophie Mullins). Renate Pieper is Professor of economic and social history at the Karl-Franzens University of Graz. She has been working extensively on the history of news networks, handwritten newsletters and cultural transfer in the Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Empires during the early modern period. Her more recent books include Die Vermittlung einer neuen Welt (1493–1598) (Mainz, 2000), and Veronika HydenHanscho, Renate Pieper, Werner Stangl, eds., Cultural exchange and consumption patterns in the age of Enlightenment: Europe and the Atlantic World (Bochum, 2013). Joad Raymond is Professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London. His various books on history and print culture, include The Invention of the Newspaper: English Newsbooks, 1641–1649 (Oxford, 1996; 2005), Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge, 2003); Milton’s Angels: the Early-Modern Imagination (Oxford, 2010); and he has also edited various others, including The Oxford History of Popular Print Culture, vol. 1: Cheap Print in Britain and Ireland to 1660 (Oxford, 2011) and News Networks in SeventeenthCentury Britain and Europe (London, 2006). He directed the Leverhulme Trust research network News Networks in Early-Modern Europe (2011–13). He is presently writing a history of news communication in early modern Europe for Penguin Books. Thierry Rentet is Maître de Conférences in Modern History at the Université de Paris-13 (Villetaneuse). His interests include the study of correspondence networks in early-modern Europe. His most recent book is Anne de Montmorency, Grand Maître de François 1er (Rennes, 2011). Kirsty Rolfe is a Lecturer in Early Modern Literature at Queen Mary University of London. She has previously worked as Postdoctoral Research Associate for the Oxford Edition of the Sermons of John Donne, and as a research assistant on Volume 1 of The Correspondence of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, edited by Nadine Akkerman (Oxford, 2015). Her research focuses on the presentation of the
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Thirty Years War in English pamphlets. She is an associate at the Centre for Editing Lives and Letters (cell) at University College London. Alexandra Schäfer examined the mediality of the French Wars of Religion in her PhD thesis at the Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz). Her research focusses on the religious wars and peaces in Early Modern Europe, the representation of violence, and on the mass media. Currently she is working on a “Digital edition of Early Modern religious Peace Treaties” at the Leibniz-Institute for European History in Mainz. Nikolaus Schobesberger is archivist at the Vienna State and City archives. He obtained ma degrees in History, Historical Auxiliaries and Archival Science and Geographic Sciences at the University of Vienna and is currently studying there for a PhD in Arts and Humanities, Philosophy and Education. Between 2011 and 2013 he was predoctoral fellow of the project ‘The Fuggerzeitungen: An early modern informative medium and its indexing’ at the Austrian National Library. Tracey A. Sowerby is the author of Renaissance and Reform in Tudor England: The Careers of Sir Richard Morison c. 1513–1556 (Oxford, 2010). Her research focusses on Tudor diplomacy, political culture, humanism and religion and the interactions between them. She is pi on an international research network funded by the ahrc, ‘Textual Ambassadors: Cultures of Diplomacy and Literary Writing in the Early Modern World’, and on a barsea ‘Centres of Culture, Centres of Diplomacy’, exploring the role of diplomacy in cultural exchange at early modern courts. She currently writing a cultural history of Tudor diplomacy. Anton Tantner is ‘Privatdozent’ for Modern History at University of Vienna, Austria (since 2012). His recent books are: House Numbers: Pictures of a Forgotten History (London: Reaktion Books, 2015); Die ersten Suchmaschinen. Adressbüros, Fragämter, Intelligenz-Comptoirs (Berlin: Wagenbach, 2015); with Jana Herwig, Zu den historischen Wurzeln der Kontrollgesellschaft (=Wiener Vorlesungen im Rathaus; 177; Wien: Picus, 2014); and, ed. with Thomas Brandstetter and Thomas Hübel, Vor Google. Eine Mediengeschichte der Suchmaschine im analogen Zeitalter (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2012). His homepage is: .
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Elizabeth Williamson is the Encoding Fellow for A Digital Anthology of Early Modern English Drama, based at the Folger Shakespeare Library. From 2013–15 she was Digital Project Manager for Cultures of Knowledge (University of Oxford), developing the digital platform Early Modern Letters Online. She completed her PhD on early modern diplomatic correspondence at the Centre for Editing Lives and Letters (University of London) in 2012, following which she worked for ‘News Networks in Early Modern Europe’. Her current research looks at the archival afterlife and contemporary function of letters and letter-books, as part of a wider study on diplomacy and the history of political information.