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Latin American Music for Flute and Guitar Saturday, February 17, 2018 from 3:30-4:20pm | Room 6 Jennifer Lapple, flute & Matt Trkula, guitar John Walker, guest speaker This recital explores the versatility of flute and guitar within the context of Latin American music and composers endorsed by Cayambis Music Press. Author and guest speaker, Dr. John L. Walker, will speak to his book “Top 5 Trends in Latin American Chamber Music: A Guide to Performance” as a reference for our program. Attendees will gain an informed rehearsal and practice guide for embracing the style, mood and character of each composition. Comments are inspired by direct quotes and performance suggestions from the composers! Visit www.cayambismusicpress.com for more information and to download a FREE version of this book.
¿Transformación? for Flute and Guitar (2009)* Dualismos for Flute and Guitar (2006)* Yacaré, Fantasy for Flute and Guitar (2015)* Sonatina Ecuatorial for Flute and Guitar (2000) Moderato Mesto Rondo
Demian Galindo (b. 1980) Alvaro Zúñiga Roncal (b. 1978) Luis Pérez Valero (b. 1977) Marcelo Beltrán F. (b. 1965)
*United States Premieres
Cayambis Music Press Cayambis Music Press was founded in 2013 with the purpose of promoting Latin American chamber music. Cayambis Music Press publishes a large number of original titles by composers throughout that region as well as Latin American classical music for voice and piano and for solo piano. Their catalog also includes works by North American composers and a number of compositions by 19th century composers. The Cayambis people lived in the area around Quito, Ecuador, before the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors. The distinctive photograph on the cover of all their publications is that of an equatorial monument, La Bola de Guachalá, located not too far from Quito. www.cayambismusicpress.com
Demian Galindo, Composer and bassist
Born in Guadalajara, Mexico, Galindo studied composition at the Universidad de Guadalajara. Output includes works for: cello/piano; flute/guitar; mixed quintet; flute /clarinet /piano/two guitars/ violin/ viola/cello/contrabass; brass quintet; string quartet; bass clarinet/piano; symphonic choral works and vocal quintet. He has also composed for film, theater and audiovisual media and is an advocate for music and contemporary art. Currently, he is on faculty at Universidad de Guadalajara as an instructor of composition. Special podcast, “Latin American Voices” features an interview with Galindo on Cayambis Music Press.
¿Transformación? for Flute and Guitar
This work is best suited to the first trend in Latin American Chamber Music: …re-imaginations of dance music. Even before chamber music began to exist in Latin America, composers would use the melodies and rhythms of popular dance types, such as salsas, zamacuecas or choros, as the basis for compositions that were not meant to accompany dancers; rather, these were intended for a more formal type of presentation, usually in the salon of some well-to-do patron of the arts or perhaps even on a concert stage (Walker, 2016, p. 6). In the words of Galindo, “this work begins with a wrathful musical moment that, in the process of being transformed into a son, is soon forgotten.” Expressive markings include “Allegro violento,” “Tranquillo” and “son.” A Mexican son is a social dance often including a stomping rhythm on a raised platform to provide percussion. Galindo adds: … if you’re Mexican and you hear a live “son” with all the heel shoes stomping rhythmically, the traditional mariachi playing and everybody singing and whistling, you can’t avoid the feeling of your heart being expanded and sometimes you can’t help dripping a joy tear or two out of your eyes. Galindo suggests focusing on the intention behind this work to best portray the “transformation”: …let me explain myself: I lived a moment of big anger back in 2009 (violent allegro), that afterwards, when meditating about it, I thought it doesn’t worth the time invest in that feeling (tranquillo), so I started thinking which will be the best way to canalize the sensation, music was the answer (as many times has been). Hence, when the anger tempest went away, a feeling of lightness came to myself (“son”). I think that if you’re going to dance or play a “Son” you have to be very light in spirit and pure of mind….I just want to add that one of the things that I enjoy the most of composing is to be able to get people together in order to make something beautiful as music is, to share, moments, space and time in the same place. Which are the chances for that to happen if it wasn’t for music? ♪ Performance considerations from the presenters: 1. Use percussive attacks for the accented notes and play off of the energy of the guitar. In practice, isolate the accented notes to create a unique rhythmic energy of their own. This will help shape the line and highlight the relationship of the accented notes with the guitar part. 2. For the wind effects on the flute, blow over the tone hole for the best projection (use a shh sound). *Excerpt of score and audio file of complete work are available on www.cayambismusicpress.com 2
Álvaro Zúñiga Roncal, Composer
Born in Lima, Peru, Zúñiga studied composition at the National Conservatory of Music and film and television music in the Brasilia School of Music’s 29th International Summer Classes. Zúñiga has composed for a variety of instrumental and vocal combinations, including: clarinet/saxophone/piano; flute/guitar; voice/piano; flute/vibraphone/tubular bells; and solo instruments (flute, clarinet, percussion). His chamber opera, “Sacrificio, el ultimo salto de Nijinsky,” was recently performed in Virginia by the Cayambis Sinfonietta and his opera, “GerMania, La Gran Fiesta” was premiered in Helsinki, Finland. Currently, he teaches music theory at Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú.
Dualismos for Flute and Guitar
This work is best suited to the fourth trend in Latin American Chamber Music: …from about the 1960s and continuing to the present day, many composers have found inspiration in indigenous cultural resources. They are influenced by the extra musical elements—or even just the language—of indigenous communities (Walker, 2016, p. 25). Dualism refers to the division of something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects. Many philosophers hold to a dualism of mind and matter, or mind and body. For many theologians, the two principles are those of good and evil. Dualismos is inspired by the short story, “Canción para que se vaya tu sombra” by Eduardo González Viaña [Song to let your shadow go away]. Each part had a subtitle taken from this tale. Part I It was a captivating and heartbreaking voice. They sang as people sing to those who, because of an ancestral punishment, God has denied them the miracle of death.
Part II And after hearing this song you can stand up, knock on the door and leave, and at the door there will be no shadow waiting for you. Perhaps.
Zúñiga’s suggestions for portraying these themes in the music: …I would like to mention that in this work an open strings sonority of the guitar predominates, therefore, without vibrato. For this reason, I suggest that the flute has a moderate vibrato to create a necessary contrast with the “dead sound” of the guitar. An exception is in Part II, m. 3-8 “molto vibrato” for the guitar. …[the effect in Part II in the guitar] “play towards the left side of the left hand” is to produce an indeterminate and “agudo” [acute] sound, which a very short resonance. Similar to “Charango,” a Peruvian instrument. ♪ Performance considerations from the presenters: 1. The haunting lyricism and vocal-like rhythmic episodes portray the essence of the dualistic tendencies in this work. It is best to practice each musical episode independently to generate the most impact within its appropriate context. 2. Special effects consideration: instead of “key slaps” in Part I, add subtle bursts of air.
Luis Pérez Valero,
Composer, director, cultural promoter Born in Lara, Venezuela, Pérez Valero holds two Master’s degrees, one in Hispanic and Latin American Music from Madrid’s Complutense University (2012), and another in music from the Simón Bolívar University (2009), and a bachelor’s degree in music with a specialization in composition from the University of Musical Studies (2005). Extensive output ranges from solo instruments, to mixed ensembles and various instrumental quartets (incl. works for flute choir, flute/harp and alto flute!). He has also directed choirs and orchestra and currently works as a professor, composer and researcher at the University of the Arts in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Yacaré, Fantasy for Flute and Guitar This work is best suited to the second trend in Latin American Chamber Music: There are many compositions that mimic, or are inspired by, the natural or man-made sounds typically heard in Latin America. Sounds of nature typically heard in Latin America, such as those originating from the jungles (bird songs, frogs, insects) or distinct weather episodes are juxtaposed with man-made sounds such as those coming from street vendors, passing cars or the spoken language (Walker, 2016). This work is inspired by a short story entitled “La Guerra de los Yacaré” (The War of the Yacaré) by the Uruguayan writer Horacio Quiroga. The yacaré is a species of caiman found in the central and southern parts of South America. Although adults can reach lengths of up to thirteen feet they are generally not considered to be fatally dangerous to humans. Through the use of ascending and descending intervals this piece seeks to recreate the animal’s insinuating movement while the flute’s long-held pitches are used to represent the animal’s powerful gaze. At the same time, harmonic and rhythmic movement in the guitar represents the flowing waters of a river, which is where the yacaré is often found. A very descriptive piece, the work is at the same time both intense and serene (Cayambis Music Press). Pérez Valero’s performance suggestions: …this composition belongs to a group of works that are called 'Bestearios'. The Wikipedia says: "A bestiary, or bestiarum vocabulum, is a compendium of beasts. Originating in the Ancient world, bestiaries were made popular in the Middle Ages in illustrated volumes that described various animals and even rock". I used this idea to create a set of works that are published in Cayambis Music Press: Danta's Game and Yacaré, for flute and guitar. I prefer the grace notes on the beat. I would like a rhythm very fast. That’s like symbolizing the bite, fast and accurate of the Yacaré. The value should be very short. The rubato should be like the movement of the body, heavy [and] fast….The bass sound on the guitar is very important. It's like every movement of the legs (Or paws). The music should simply move forward in a lilting and continuous manner. ♪ Performance considerations from the presenters: 1. Isolate bass notes in guitar part during rehearsals to get a better sense of the harmonic motion 2. Note the phrasing patterns as they mimic the unpredictable movement of the yacaré 4
Marcelo Beltrán F., Composer, arranger
Born in Quito, Ecuador, Beltrán is a self-taught composer whose compositions have been premiered at international music and film festivals. His output ranges from solo instruments with piano, large ensembles and concert band. In addition to his work as a composer and arranger for Quito’s department of musical development, Beltrán has taught guitar at several institutions, such as the National Conservatory and the Universidad de los Hemisferios, and has also directed Quito’s Guitar Ensemble. Currently, Beltrán works as a composer and arranger for the Fundación Teatro Nacional Sucre.
Sonatina Ecuatorial for Flute and Guitar
This work is best suited to the first trend in Latin American Chamber Music, “…re-imaginations of dance music…” [See page 2 for original description]. Beltrán underscores the incorporation of dance music in this work: There are specific references to Ecuadorian mestizo folk music, principally in the rhythmic base, but also in the pentatonic background, although not so far. Movement I: Moderato The first movement develops the basic rhythmic pattern and structure of a “tonada” (eight-sixteenthsixteenth-eight – eight-eight-eight) -Beltrán
Movement II: Mesto The second movement is a mixture of “pasillo” and “yaraví” -Beltrán
Movement III: Rondo In the “rondó” the refrain is based in a “sanjuanito”, the first episode is also a sanjuanito, but with a decreased tempo which reminds a “pasillo,” and the second episode, allegro, is based on an “albazo” -Beltrán
In Ecuador, tonada is a type of music and dance derived from the dancing genre. It is written in a minor key and in a 6/8 beat pattern. It is characterized by the metric superposition of the 6/8 melodic pattern and 3/4 beat pattern.
In Ecuador, the pasillo is a national music symbol, often reflecting nostalgic feelings of the beauty of Ecuadorian landscapes and the bravery of the Ecuadorian people. A yaravi is an Andean genre that is of a lyrical elegiac character with a principal theme of anguish or lost of unrequited love.
A sanjuanito is an Andean musical genre, which is danced. It is a joyful and danceable genre that runs on the festivities of the mestizo and indigenous culture. An albazo is a type of music from the mountains of Ecuador. It is of creole and mestizo origin. It has a happy rhythm and is usually played with guitar and requinto (flute) as well as a diversity of instrumentation: accordion, piano, harp, or wind ensembles.
[In the moderato] Grace notes are always placed on the beat, and I think of them as very light and graceful. -Beltrán
[In the Mesto] I would say melancholic too….with a very light rubato, nevertheless feel free to play just as you feel it. -Beltrán
[In the rondo] an appropriate tempo in the “allegro” would be the same as refrain. The quarter note on the refrain becomes dotted quarter note on the allegro. These rhythmic counterparts are based on the hemiola (3/4 vs. 6/8), which is present in most our mestizo folk music, particularly in the “albazo.” –Beltrán
♪ Performance considerations from the presenters: 1. Direct your attention to the rhythmic challenges first. Work slowly, individually, and then slowly, together, examining all aspects of the rhythmic variations. 2. LISTEN as much as possible to the various musical/dance influences to inspire your ear and your performance! 5