1 GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS Mathematics Test Practice Book This practice book contains one actual, full-length GRE Mathematics Test test-taking str...

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Mathematics Test Practice Book This practice book contains 䡲 one actual, full-length GRE® Mathematics Test 䡲 test-taking strategies

Become familiar with 䡲 test structure and content 䡲 test instructions and answering procedures

Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who took the test at a GRE administration.

This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board.

www.ets.org/gre

Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report. This book contains important information about scoring.

®

Copyright © 2008 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logos, LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING., GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States of America and other countries throughout the world.

Table of Contents Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests ........................ 3 Development of the Subject Tests........................ 3 Content of the Mathematics Test ........................ 4 Preparing for a Subject Test.................................. 5 Test-Taking Strategies .......................................... 5 What Your Scores Mean ....................................... 6

The GRE Board recommends that scores on the Subject Tests be considered in conjunction with other relevant information about applicants. Because numerous factors influence success in graduate school, reliance on a single measure to predict success is not advisable. Other indicators of competence typically include undergraduate transcripts showing courses taken and grades earned, letters of recommendation, and GRE General Test scores. For information about the appropriate use of GRE scores, see the GRE Guide to the Use of Scores at ets.org/gre/stupubs.

Practice Mathematics Test .................................. 9 Scoring Your Subject Test .................................. 65 Evaluating Your Performance ............................. 68 Answer Sheet...................................................... 69

Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests The GRE Subject Tests are designed to help graduate school admission committees and fellowship sponsors assess the qualifications of applicants in specific fields of study. The tests also provide you with an assessment of your own qualifications. Scores on the tests are intended to indicate knowledge of the subject matter emphasized in many undergraduate programs as preparation for graduate study. Because past achievement is usually a good indicator of future performance, the scores are helpful in predicting success in graduate study. Because the tests are standardized, the test scores permit comparison of students from different institutions with different undergraduate programs. For some Subject Tests, subscores are provided in addition to the total score; these subscores indicate the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation, and they may help you plan future studies.

Development of the Subject Tests Each new edition of a Subject Test is developed by a committee of examiners composed of professors in the subject who are on undergraduate and graduate faculties in different types of institutions and in different regions of the United States and Canada. In selecting members for each committee, the GRE Program seeks the advice of the appropriate professional associations in the subject. The content and scope of each test are specified and reviewed periodically by the committee of examiners. Test questions are written by committee members and by other university faculty members who are subject-matter specialists. All questions proposed for the test are reviewed and revised by the committee and subject-matter specialists at ETS. The tests are assembled in accordance with the content specifications developed by the committee to ensure adequate coverage of the various aspects of the field and, at the same time, to prevent overemphasis on any single topic. The entire test is then reviewed and approved by the committee.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

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Subject-matter and measurement specialists on the ETS staff assist the committee, providing information and advice about methods of test construction and helping to prepare the questions and assemble the test. In addition, each test question is reviewed to eliminate language, symbols, or content considered potentially offensive, inappropriate for major subgroups of the testtaking population, or likely to perpetuate any negative attitude that may be conveyed to these subgroups. Because of the diversity of undergraduate curricula, it is not possible for a single test to cover all the material you may have studied. The examiners, therefore, select questions that test the basic knowledge and skills most important for successful graduate study in the particular field. The committee keeps the test up-todate by regularly developing new editions and revising existing editions. In this way, the test content remains current. In addition, curriculum surveys are conducted periodically to ensure that the content of a test reflects what is currently being taught in the undergraduate curriculum. After a new edition of a Subject Test is first administered, examinees’ responses to each test question are analyzed in a variety of ways to determine whether each question functioned as expected. These analyses may reveal that a question is ambiguous, requires knowledge beyond the scope of the test, or is inappropriate for the total group or a particular subgroup of examinees taking the test. Such questions are not used in computing scores. Following this analysis, the new test edition is equated to an existing test edition. In the equating process, statistical methods are used to assess the difficulty of the new test. Then scores are adjusted so that examinees who took a more difficult edition of the test are not penalized, and examinees who took an easier edition of the test do not have an advantage. Variations in the number of questions in the different editions of the test are also taken into account in this process. Scores on the Subject Tests are reported as threedigit scaled scores with the third digit always zero. The maximum possible range for all Subject Test total scores is from 200 to 990. The actual range of scores for a particular Subject Test, however, may be smaller. For Subject Tests that report subscores, the maximum possible range is 20 to 99; however, the actual range of

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subscores for any test or test edition may be smaller. Subject Test score interpretive information is provided in Interpreting Your GRE Scores, which you will receive with your GRE score report. This publication is also available at ets.org/gre/stupubs.

Content of the Mathematics Test The test consists of approximately 66 multiple-choice questions drawn from courses commonly offered at the undergraduate level. Approximately 50 percent of the questions involve calculus and its applications— subject matter that can be assumed to be common to the backgrounds of almost all mathematics majors. About 25 percent of the questions in the test are in elementary algebra, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and number theory. The remaining questions deal with other areas of mathematics currently studied by undergraduates in many institutions. The following content descriptions may assist students in preparing for the test. The percents given are estimates; actual percents will vary somewhat from one edition of the test to another. Calculus—50% 䡲 Material learned in the usual sequence of elementary calculus courses—differential and integral calculus of one and of several variables—includes calculus-based applications and connections with coordinate geometry, trigonometry, differential equations, and other branches of mathematics Algebra—25% 䡲 Elementary algebra: basic algebraic techniques and manipulations acquired in high school and used throughout mathematics 䡲 Linear algebra: matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, vector spaces, linear transformations, characteristic polynomials, and eigenvalues and eigenvectors 䡲 Abstract algebra and number theory: elementary topics from group theory, theory of rings and modules, field theory, and number theory

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

Additional Topics—25% 䡲 Introductory real analysis: sequences and series of numbers and functions, continuity, differentiability and integrability, and elementary topology of ⺢ and ⺢n 䡲 Discrete mathematics: logic, set theory, combinatorics, graph theory, and algorithms 䡲 Other topics: general topology, geometry, complex variables, probability and statistics, and numerical analysis The above descriptions of topics covered in the test should not be considered exhaustive; it is necessary to understand many other related concepts. Prospective test takers should be aware that questions requiring no more than a good precalculus background may be quite challenging; such questions can be among the most difficult questions on the test. In general, the questions are intended not only to test recall of information but also to assess test takers’ understanding of fundamental concepts and the ability to apply those concepts in various situations.

Preparing for a Subject Test GRE Subject Test questions are designed to measure skills and knowledge gained over a long period of time. Although you might increase your scores to some extent through preparation a few weeks or months before you take the test, last minute cramming is unlikely to be of further help. The following information may be helpful. 䡲 A general review of your college courses is probably the best preparation for the test. However, the test covers a broad range of subject matter, and no one is expected to be familiar with the content of every question. 䡲 Use this practice book to become familiar with the types of questions in the GRE Mathematics Test, taking note of the directions. If you understand the directions before you take the test, you will have more time during the test to focus on the questions themselves.

Test-Taking Strategies The questions in the practice test in this book illustrate the types of multiple-choice questions in the test. When you take the actual test, you will mark your answers on a separate machine-scorable answer sheet. Total testing time is two hours and fifty minutes; there are no separately timed sections. Following are some general test-taking strategies you may want to consider. 䡲 Read the test directions carefully, and work as rapidly as you can without being careless. For each question, choose the best answer from the available options. 䡲 All questions are of equal value; do not waste time pondering individual questions you find extremely difficult or unfamiliar. 䡲 You may want to work through the test quite rapidly, first answering only the questions about which you feel confident, then going back and answering questions that require more thought, and concluding with the most difficult questions if there is time. 䡲 If you decide to change an answer, make sure you completely erase it and fill in the oval corresponding to your desired answer. 䡲 Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring. 䡲 Your score will be determined by subtracting one-fourth the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers. If you have some knowledge of a question and are able to rule out one or more of the answer choices as incorrect, your chances of selecting the correct answer are improved, and answering such questions will likely improve your score. It is unlikely that pure guessing will raise your score; it may lower your score. 䡲 Record all answers on your answer sheet. Answers recorded in your test book will not be counted. 䡲 Do not wait until the last five minutes of a testing session to record answers on your answer sheet.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

5

What Your Scores Mean Your raw score — that is, the number of questions you answered correctly minus one-fourth of the number you answered incorrectly — is converted to the scaled score that is reported. This conversion ensures that a scaled score reported for any edition of a Subject Test is comparable to the same scaled score earned on any other edition of the same test. Thus, equal scaled scores on a particular Subject Test indicate essentially equal levels of performance regardless of the test edition taken. Test scores should be compared only with other scores on the same Subject Test. (For example, a 680 on the Computer Science Test is not equivalent to a 680 on the Mathematics Test.) Before taking the test, you may find it useful to know approximately what raw scores would be required to obtain a certain scaled score. Several factors influence the conversion of your raw score to your scaled score, such as the difficulty of the test edition and the number of test questions included in the computation of your raw score. Based on recent editions of the Mathematics Test, the following table gives the range of raw scores associated with selected scaled scores for three different test editions. (Note that when the number of scored questions for a given test is greater than the number of actual scaled score points, it is likely that two or more raw scores will convert to the same scaled score.) The three test editions in the table that follows were selected to reflect varying degrees of difficulty. Examinees should note that future test editions may be somewhat more or less difficult than the test editions illustrated in the table.

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Range of Raw Scores* Needed to Earn Selected Scaled Score on Three Mathematics Test Editions that Differ in Difficulty Raw Scores Scaled Score Form A Form B Form C 800 49 47 45 700 39 36 35 600 28 25 25 500 18 14 16 Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score 66 66 66 *Raw Score = Number of correct answers minus one-fourth the number of incorrect answers, rounded to the nearest integer.

For a particular test edition, there are many ways to earn the same raw score. For example, on the edition listed above as “Form A,” a raw score of 28 would earn a scaled score of 600. Below are a few of the possible ways in which a scaled score of 600 could be earned on the edition:

Examples of Ways to Earn a Scaled Score of 600 on the Edition Labeled as “Form A”

Raw Score 28 28 28

Questions Answered Correctly 28 32 36

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

Questions Answered Incorrectly 0 15 30

Questions Not Answered 38 19 0

Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score 66 66 66

PRACTICE TEST To become familiar with how the administration will be conducted at the test center, first remove the answer sheet (pages 69 and 70). Then go to the back cover of the test book (page 64) and follow the instructions for completing the identification areas of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin the test, note the time and begin marking your answers on the answer sheet.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

7

FORM GR0568

68 GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS®

MATHEMATICS TEST

Do not break the seal until you are told to do so.

The contents of this test are conﬁdential. Disclosure or reproduction of any portion of it is prohibited.

THIS TEST BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN FROM THE ROOM. Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. GRE, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, ETS, EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE and the ETS logos are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.

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MATHEMATICS TEST Time—170 minutes 66 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. In each case, select the one that is the best of the choices offered and then mark the corresponding space on the answer sheet. Computation and scratch work may be done in this examination book. Note: In this examination: (1) All logarithms with an unspecified base are natural logarithms, that is, with base e. (2) The set of all real numbers x such that a x b is denoted by >a, [email protected] (3) The symbols ⺪, ⺡, ⺢, and ⺓ denote the sets of integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers, respectively.

1. In the xy-plane, the curve with parametric equations x (B) p

(A) 3

(C) 3p

(D)

3 2

cos t and y

(E)

sin t , 0 t p , has length

p 2

2. Which of the following is an equation of the line tangent to the graph of y (A) y

x

(B) y

x 1

(C) y

x2

(D) y

2x

(E) y

2x 1

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10

x e x at x

0?

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3. If V and W are 2-dimensional subspaces of ⺢ 4 , what are the possible dimensions of the subspace V © W ? (A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) 0 and 1 only

(D) 0, 1, and 2 only

(E) 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4

4. Let k be the number of real solutions of the equation e x x 2 0 in the interval >0, [email protected], and let n be the number of real solutions that are not in >0, [email protected] Which of the following is true? (A) k

0 and n

1

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(B) k

1 and n

0

(C) k

n

1

(D) k ! 1

(E) n ! 1

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5. Suppose b is a real number and f x graphed above. Then f 5 (A) 15

(B) 27

(C) 67

3 x 2 bx 12 defines a function on the real line, part of which is

(D) 72

(E) 87

6. Which of the following circles has the greatest number of points of intersection with the parabola x2 (A) x2 y 2

1

(B) x2 y 2

2

(C) x2 y 2

9

(D) x2 y 2

16

(E) x2 y 2

25

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y 4?

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3

Ô3 x 1 dx

7.

(A) 0

(B) 5

(C) 10

(D) 15

(E) 20

8. What is the greatest possible area of a triangular region with one vertex at the center of a circle of radius 1 and the other two vertices on the circle? (A)

1 2

(B) 1

(C)

2

(D) p

J K L

(E)

1 2 4

1

Ô0

1 x 4 dx

1

Ô0

1 x 4 dx

1

1 x8 dx

Ô0

9. Which of the following is true for the definite integrals shown above? (A) J L 1 K (B) J L K 1 (C) L J 1 K (D) L J K 1 (E) L 1 J K

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10. Let g be a function whose derivative g is continuous and has the graph shown above. Which of the following values of g is largest? (A) g 1

(B) g 2

(C) g 3

(D) g 4

11. Of the following, which is the best approximation of 1.5 266 (A) 1,000

(B) 2,700

(C) 3,200

(D) 4,100

(E) g 5

32

?

(E) 5,300

12. Let A be a 2 2 matrix for which there is a constant k such that the sum of the entries in each row and each column is k. Which of the following must be an eigenvector of A ? I.

1 0

II.

0 1

III.

1 1

(A) I only

(B) II only

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(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III

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13. A total of x feet of fencing is to form three sides of a level rectangular yard. What is the maximum possible area of the yard, in terms of x ? (A)

x2 9

(B)

x2 8

(C)

x2 4

(D) x 2

(E) 2x 2

14. What is the units digit in the standard decimal expansion of the number 725 ? (A) 1

(B) 3

(C) 5

(D) 7

(E) 9

15. Let f be a continuous real-valued function defined on the closed interval > 2, [email protected] Which of the following is NOT necessarily true? (A) f is bounded. (B)

Ô

3

2

f t dt exists.

(C) For each c between f 2 and f 3 , there is an x °> 2, [email protected] such that f x (D) There is an M in f (E) lim

h0

f h f 0 exists. h

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> 2, [email protected] such that

Ô

3

2

f t dt

c.

5M .

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16. What is the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the x-axis the region in the first quadrant of the 1 xy-plane bounded by the coordinate axes and the graph of the equation y ? 1 x2 (A)

p 2

(B) p

(C)

p2 4

(D)

p2 2

(E)

17. How many real roots does the polynomial 2 x 5 8 x 7 have? (A) None

(B) One

(C) Two

(D) Three

(E) Five

18. Let V be the real vector space of all real 2 3 matrices, and let W be the real vector space of all real 4 1 column vectors. If T is a linear transformation from V onto W, what is the dimension of the subspace ^v °V : T v 0` ? (A) 2

(B) 3

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(C) 4

(D) 5

(E) 6

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19. Let f and g be twice-differentiable real-valued functions defined on ⺢. If f of the following inequalities must be true for all x 0 ? (A) f x (B) f

x

g x for all x

0, which

g x x

g

x

(C) f x

f 0

(D) f

x

f 0

(E) f

x

f

g x

0

g 0

g x g

g 0 x

g

0

20. Let f be the function defined on the real line by

f x

x 2 x 3

if x is rational if x is irrational.

If D is the set of points of discontinuity of f, then D is the (A) empty set (B) set of rational numbers (C) set of irrational numbers (D) set of nonzero real numbers (E) set of real numbers

21. Let P1 be the set of all primes, 2, 3, 5, 7, . . . , and for each integer n, let Pn be the set of all prime multiples of n, 2 n, 3n, 5n, 7n, . . . . Which of the following intersections is nonempty? (A) P1

P23

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(B) P7

P21

(C) P12

P20

(D) P20

P24

(E) P5

P25

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22. Let C ⺢ be the collection of all continuous functions from ⺢ to ⺢. Then C ⺢ is a real vector space with pointwise addition and scalar multiplication defined by

f g x

f x g x and rf x

rf x

for all f , g °C ⺢ and all r, x °⺢. Which of the following are subspaces of C ⺢ ? I.

^ f : f is twice differentiable and f x 2 f x 3 f x

II. ^g : g is twice differentiable and g x

3g x for all x `

III. ^h : h is twice differentiable and h x

h x 1 for all x `

(A) I only

(B) I and II only

23. For what value of b is the line y (A)

10 e

(B) 10

(C) I and III only

(A) e 1

(B) e2

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(D) II and III only

10 x tangent to the curve y (D) e10

(C) 10e

24. Let h be the function defined by h x

26

0 for all x `

x2 x t

Ô0

(C) e2 e

e

(E) I, II, and III

ebx at some point in the xy-plane?

(E) e

dt for all real numbers x. Then h 1 (D) 2e2

(E) 3e2 e

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27

25. Let ^an `n

1

be defined recursively by a1

(A) 15 31

26. Let f x, y

(B) 30 31

1 and an 1 (C)

31 29

n n 2 a (D)

32 30

n

for n 1. Then a30 is equal to (E)

32! 30! 2!

x 2 2 xy y3 for all real x and y. Which of the following is true?

(A) f has all of its relative extrema on the line x

y.

(B) f has all of its relative extrema on the parabola x

y2 .

(C) f has a relative minimum at 0, 0 . (D) f has an absolute minimum at

23 , 23 .

(E) f has an absolute minimum at 1, 1 .

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27. Consider the two planes x 3 y 2 z intersection of these planes?

7 and 2 x y 3z

0 in ⺢3 . Which of the following sets is the

(A) ¨ (B)

^0, 3, 1 `

(C)

^ x, y, z : x

t, y

(D)

^ x, y, z : x

7t , y

(E)

^ x, y, z : x 2 y z

7 2t , t °⺢`

3t, z

3 t, z

1 5t , t °⺢`

7`

28. The figure above shows an undirected graph with six vertices. Enough edges are to be deleted from the graph in order to leave a spanning tree, which is a connected subgraph having the same six vertices and no cycles. How many edges must be deleted? (A) One

(B) Two

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(C) Three

(D) Four

(E) Five

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29. For all positive functions f and g of the real variable x, let f

苲g

(B)

f

苲

g

f x g x

if and only if lim x

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of f (A) f 2 苲 g 2

苲 be a relation defined by

(C) e f

1.

苲g?

苲 eg

(D) f

g

苲 2g

(E) g 苲 f

30. Let f be a function from a set X to a set Y. Consider the following statements. P: For each x X , there exists y Y such that f x Q: For each y Y , there exists x X such that f x R: There exist x1, x2 X such that x1 x2 and f x1

y. y. f x2 .

The negation of the statement “ f is one-to-one and onto Y ” is (A) P or not R (B) R or not P (C) R or not Q (D) P and not R (E) R and not Q

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31. Which of the following most closely represents the graph of a solution to the differential equation (A)

(B)

(D)

(E)

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dy dx

1 y4 ?

(C)

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and , are defined on a nonempty set S, and that the 32. Suppose that two binary operations, denoted by following conditions are satisfied for all x, y, and z in S: y and x y are in S. y z x y z and x y y x

(1) x (2) x (3) x

y

z

x

y

z.

Also, for each x in S and for each positive integer n, the elements nx and x n are defined recursively as follows: 1x

x1

x and

if kx and x k have been defined, then k

1 x

kx

x and x k

1

xk

x.

Which of the following must be true? I. x II. n x III. x m (A) I only

y

n

y xn

xn

y n for all x and y in S and for each positive integer n.

nx

ny for all x and y in S and for each positive integer n.

xm

n

(B) II only

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36

for each x in S and for all positive integers m and n. (C) III only

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II, and III

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33. The Euclidean algorithm is used to find the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two positive integers a and b .

input(a) input(b) while b > 0 begin r := a mod b a := b b := r end gcd := a output(gcd) When the algorithm is used to find the greatest common divisor of a = 273 and b = 110, which of the following is the sequence of computed values for r ? (A) 2, 26, 1, 0 (B) 2, 53, 1, 0 (C) 53, 2, 1, 0 (D) 53, 4, 1, 0 (E) 53, 5, 1, 0

34. The minimal distance between any point on the sphere x 2 y 1 z 3 2

sphere x 3 y 2 z 4 2

(A) 0

(B) 4

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38

2

(C)

27

2

2

2

1 and any point on the

4 is (D) 2 2 1

(E) 3 3 1

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35. At a banquet, 9 women and 6 men are to be seated in a row of 15 chairs. If the entire seating arrangement is to be chosen at random, what is the probability that all of the men will be seated next to each other in 6 consecutive positions? (A)

1 È15Ø ÉÊ 6 ÙÚ

(B)

6! È15Ø ÉÊ 6 ÙÚ

(C)

10! 15!

(D)

6! 9! 14!

(E)

6!10! 15!

36. Let M be a 5 5 real matrix. Exactly four of the following five conditions on M are equivalent to each other. Which of the five conditions is equivalent to NONE of the other four? (A) For any two distinct column vectors u and v of M, the set ^u, v` is linearly independent. (B) The homogeneous system M x (C) The system of equations M x

0 has only the trivial solution. b has a unique solution for each real 5 1 column vector b.

(D) The determinant of M is nonzero. (E) There exists a 5 5 real matrix N such that NM is the 5 5 identity matrix.

37. In the complex z-plane, the set of points satisfying the equation z 2

z 2 is a

(A) pair of points (B) circle (C) half-line (D) line (E) union of infinitely many different lines

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38. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of ⺢ and let f : A following must be true? (A) C

1

f

(B) D

f

f

1

B, which of the

D

1

f C

C

(D) f

1

f C

f

1

f

f

A and D

f C

(C) f

(E) f

B be a function. If C

D

f 1

1

D

D

39. In the figure above, as r and s increase, the length of the third side of the triangle remains 1 and the measure of the obtuse angle remains 110°. What is lim s r ? s r

(A) 0 (B) A positive number less than 1 (C) 1 (D) A finite number greater than 1 (E) ∞

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40. For which of the following rings is it possible for the product of two nonzero elements to be zero? (A) The ring of complex numbers (B) The ring of integers modulo 11 (C) The ring of continuous real-valued functions on >0, [email protected] (D) The ring ^a b 2 : a and b are rational numbers` (E) The ring of polynomials in x with real coefficients

41. Let C be the circle x2 y 2

1 oriented counterclockwise in the xy-plane. What is the value of the line integral

vÔ C 2 x y dx x 3 y dy ? (A) 0

(B) 1

(C)

p 2

(D) p

(E) 2 p

42. Suppose X is a discrete random variable on the set of positive integers such that for each positive integer n, the 1 probability that X n is n . If Y is a random variable with the same probability distribution and X and Y 2 are independent, what is the probability that the value of at least one of the variables X and Y is greater than 3 ? (A)

1 64

(B)

15 64

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(C)

1 4

(D)

3 8

(E)

4 9

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43. If z

e2 p i 5 , then 1 z z 2 z3 5z 4 4 z 5 4 z 6 4 z 7 4 z8 5z 9 (B) 4e3p i

(A) 0

5

(C) 5e 4 p i

5

(D) 4e2 p i

5

(E) 5e3 p i

5

44. A fair coin is to be tossed 100 times, with each toss resulting in a head or a tail. If H is the total number of heads and T is the total number of tails, which of the following events has the greatest probability? (A) H

50

(B) T 60 (C) 51 H 55 (D) H 48 and T 48 (E) H 5 or H 95

45. A circular region is divided by 5 radii into sectors as shown above. Twenty-one points are chosen in the circular region, none of which is on any of the 5 radii. Which of the following statements must be true? I. Some sector contains at least 5 of the points. II. Some sector contains at most 3 of the points. III. Some pair of adjacent sectors contains a total of at least 9 of the points. (A) I only

(B) III only

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(C) I and II only

(D) I and III only

(E) I, II, and III

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46. Let G be the group of complex numbers 1, i, 1, i under multiplication. Which of the following statements are true about the homomorphisms of G into itself? z defines one such homomorphism, where z denotes the complex conjugate of z.

I. z

z 2 defines one such homomorphism.

II. z

III. For every such homomorphism, there is an integer k such that the homomorphism has the form z (A) None

(B) II only

(C) I and II only

(D) II and III only

47. Let F be a constant unit force that is parallel to the vector 2

on a particle that moves along the path given by t , t , t 1 4

(A)

(B)

1 4 2

(C) 0

(D)

zk .

(E) I, II, and III

1, 0, 1 in xyz-space. What is the work done by F

3

between time t

2

(E) 3 2

0 and time t

1?

48. Consider the theorem: If f and f are both strictly increasing real-valued functions on the interval 0, lim f x . The following argument is suggested as a proof of this theorem.

, then

x

(1) By the Mean Value Theorem, there is a c1 in the interval 1, 2 such that f c1

f 2 2

f 1 1

f 2

f 1

0.

(2) For each x

2, there is a cx in 2, x such that

(3) For each x

2,

(4) For each x

2, f x

f x x

f 2 2

f cx

f 2

x

f x x

f 2 2

f cx .

f c1 since f is strictly increasing.

2 f c1 .

(5) lim f x x

Which of the following statements is true? (A) The argument is valid. (B) The argument is not valid since the hypotheses of the Mean Value Theorem are not satisfied in (1) and (2). (C) The argument is not valid since (3) is not valid. (D) The argument is not valid since (4) cannot be deduced from the previous steps. (E) The argument is not valid since (4) does not imply (5).

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49. Up to isomorphism, how many additive abelian groups G of order 16 have the property that x for each x in G ? (A) 0

(B) 1

50. Let A be a real 2

(C) 2

(D) 3

x

x

x

0

(E) 5

2 matrix. Which of the following statements must be true?

I. All of the entries of A2 are nonnegative. II. The determinant of A2 is nonnegative. III. If A has two distinct eigenvalues, then A2 has two distinct eigenvalues. (A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) II and III only

51. If x denotes the greatest integer not exceeding x, then (A)

e e

2

1

(B)

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1 e

1

(C)

e

1

0

(D) 1

e

x e

x

(E) I, II, and III

dx

(E)

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52. If A is a subset of the real line ⺢ and A contains each rational number, which of the following must be true? ⺢.

(A) If A is open, then A

⺢.

(B) If A is closed, then A

(C) If A is uncountable, then A

⺢.

(D) If A is uncountable, then A is open. (E) If A is countable, then A is closed.

4 z as a function defined on ⺢3 , subject to the constraint

53. What is the minimum value of the expression x x2

y2

(A) 0

z2

2?

(B)

(C)

2

(D)

34

(E)

35

5 2

54. The four shaded circles in Figure 1 above are congruent and each is tangent to the large circle and to two of the other shaded circles. Figure 2 is the result of replacing each of the shaded circles in Figure 1 by a figure that is geometrically similar to Figure 1. What is the ratio of the area of the shaded portion of Figure 2 to the area of the shaded portion of Figure 1 ? (A)

1 2 2

(B)

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1 1

2

(C)

4 1

2

(D)

2

2 1

2

(E)

2

2 1

2

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55. For how many positive integers k does the ordinary decimal representation of the integer k ! end in exactly 99 zeros? (A) None

(B) One

(C) Four

(D) Five

(E) Twenty-four

56. Which of the following does NOT define a metric on the set of all real numbers? (A) d x, y

^

(B) r x, y

min ^ x y , 1`

0 2

if x y if x y

(C) s x, y

x y 3

(D) t x, y

x y x y 1

(E) w x, y

x y 2

57. The set of real numbers x for which the series

2n

Ç nn n1! x x2 n n 1

converges is

(A) ^0` (B) ^ x : 1 x 1` (C) ^ x : 1 x 1` (D)

^x :

e x e`

(E) ⺢

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58. Suppose A and B are n n invertible matrices, where n 1, and I is the n are similar matrices, which of the following statements must be true? 2 I and B

I. A

n identity matrix. If A and B

2 I are similar matrices.

II. A and B have the same trace. III. A

1

and B

(A) I only

1

are similar matrices.

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and III only

59. Suppose f is an analytic function of the complex variable z f z

2x

3y

x

(E) I, II, and III

iy given by

ig x, y ,

where g x, y is a real-valued function of the real variables x and y. If g 2, 3 (A)

14

(B)

9

(C) 0

(D) 11

1, then g 7, 3

(E) 18

60. The group of symmetries of the regular pentagram shown above is isomorphic to the (A) symmetric group S5 (B) alternating group A5 (C) cyclic group of order 5 (D) cyclic group of order 10 (E) dihedral group of order 10

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61. Which of the following sets has the greatest cardinality? (A) ⺢ (B) The set of all functions from ⺪ to ⺪ (C) The set of all functions from ⺢ to ^0, 1` (D) The set of all finite subsets of ⺢ (E) The set of all polynomials with coefficients in ⺢

62. Let K be a nonempty subset of ⺢n , where n ! 1. Which of the following statements must be true? I. If K is compact, then every continuous real-valued function defined on K is bounded. II. If every continuous real-valued function defined on K is bounded, then K is compact. III. If K is compact, then K is connected. (A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III

63. If f is the function defined by f x

ÎÑ xe x2 x 2 Ï ÑÐ0

if x 0 if x 0,

at how many values of x does the graph of f have a horizontal tangent line? (A) None

(B) One

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(C) Two

(D) Three

(E) Four

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64. For each positive integer n, let f n be the function defined on the interval >0, [email protected] by f n x

xn . Which 1 xn

of the following statements are true? I. The sequence

^ fn `

converges pointwise on >0, [email protected] to a limit function f.

II. The sequence

^ fn `

converges uniformly on >0, [email protected] to a limit function f.

f n x dx Ô lim f n x dx n Ô0 0 n

III. lim

(A) I only

1

1

(B) III only

(C) I and II only

(D) I and III only

(E) I, II, and III

65. Which of the following statements are true about the open interval 0, 1 and the closed interval >0, [email protected] ? I. There is a continuous function from 0, 1 onto >0, [email protected] II. There is a continuous function from >0, [email protected] onto 0, 1 . III. There is a continuous one-to-one function from 0, 1 onto >0, [email protected] (A) None

(B) I only

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(C) II only

(D) I and III only

(E) I, II, and III

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66. Let R be a ring with a multiplicative identity. If U is an additive subgroup of R such that ur °U for all u °U and for all r ° R, then U is said to be a right ideal of R. If R has exactly two right ideals, which of the following must be true? I. R is commutative. II. R is a division ring (that is, all elements except the additive identity have multiplicative inverses). III. R is infinite. (A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III

STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this test.

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63

NOTE: To ensure prompt processing of test results, it is important that you fill in the blanks exactly as directed.

I

SUBJECT TEST A. Print and sign your full name in this box:

PRINT: ___________________________________________________________________ (LAST) (FIRST) (MIDDLE) SIGN: ____________________________________________________________________ 6. TITLE CODE

Copy this code in box 6 on your answer sheet. Then fill in the corresponding ovals exactly as shown.

Copy the Test Name and Form Code in box 7 on your answer sheet.

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Mathematics TEST NAME ___________________________________ GR0568 FORM CODE ____________________________________

GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS SUBJECT TEST B. The Subject Tests are intended to measure your achievement in a specialized field of study. Most of the questions are concerned with subject matter that is probably familiar to you, but some of the questions may refer to areas that you have not studied. Your score will be determined by subtracting one-fourth the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers. Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring. If you have some knowledge of a question and are able to rule out one or more of the answer choices as incorrect, your chances of selecting the correct answer are improved, and answering such questions will likely improve your score. It is unlikely that pure guessing will raise your score; it may lower your score. You are advised to use your time effectively and to work as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult for you. Go on to the other questions and come back to the difficult ones later if you can. YOU MUST INDICATE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination book, but you may write in the book as much as you wish to work out your answers. After you have decided on your response to a question, fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. BE SURE THAT EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE OVAL. Mark only one answer to each question. No credit will be given for multiple answers. Erase all stray marks. If you change an answer, be sure that all previous marks are erased completely. Incomplete erasures may be read as intended answers. Do not be concerned that the answer sheet provides spaces for more answers than there are questions in the test. Example:

Sample Answer

What city is the capital of France? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Rome Paris London Cairo Oslo

A

B

C

D

E

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CORRECT ANSWER PROPERLY MARKED IMPROPER MARKS

DO NOT OPEN YOUR TEST BOOK UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

®

64

Educational Testing Service Princeton, New Jersey 08541

Scoring Your Subject Test The Mathematics Test scores are reported on a 200 to 990 score scale in ten-point increments. The actual range of scores is smaller, and it varies from edition to edition because different editions are not of precisely the same difficulty. However, this variation in score range is usually small and should be taken into account mainly when comparing two very high scores. In general, differences between scores at the 99th percentile should be ignored. The score conversion table on page 67 shows the score range for this edition of the test only. The worksheet on page 66 lists the correct answers to the questions. Columns are provided for you to mark whether you chose the correct (C) answer or an

incorrect (I) answer to each question. Draw a line across any question you omitted, because it is not counted in the scoring. At the bottom of the page, enter the total number correct and the total number incorrect. Divide the total incorrect by 4 and subtract the resulting number from the total correct. Then round the result to the nearest whole number. This will give you your raw total score. Use the total score conversion table to find the scaled total score that corresponds to your raw total score. Example: Suppose you chose the correct answers to 34 questions and incorrect answers to 15. Dividing 15 by 4 yields 3.75. Subtracting 3.75 from 34 equals 30.25, which is rounded to 30. The raw score of 30 corresponds to a scaled score of 640.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

65

Worksheet for the GRE Mathematics Test, Form GR0568 Answer Key and Percentages* of Examinees Answering Each Question Correctly

QUESTION Number Answer 1 B 2 E 3 D 4 B 5 B

P+ 84 84 83 74 95

RESPONSE C I

QUESTION Number Answer 36 A 37 D 38 A 39 B 40 C

P+ 47 52 43 42 48

6 7 8 9 10

C C A A B

73 78 73 62 84

41 42 43 44 45

E B E D D

53 48 26 41 68

11 12 13 14 15

E C B D E

56 57 60 75 68

46 47 48 49 50

E C A D B

42 28 37 33 34

16 17 18 19 20

D B A C D

47 63 54 61 61

51 52 53 54 55

B B C E D

30 35 29 25 28

21 22 23 24 25

C B A E A

74 51 49 50 60

56 57 58 59 60

E E E A E

38 30 26 29 43

26 27 28 29 30

A D D C C

39 66 64 52 62

61 62 63 64 65

C D D D B

36 34 14 36 35

31 32 33 34 35

A D D E E

55 56 88 52 52

66

B

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RESPONSE C I

Total Correct (C) Total Incorrect (I) Total Score: C – I/4 = ____________ Scaled Score (SS) = ____________

* The P+ column indicates the percent of Mathematics Test examinees who answered each question correctly; it is based on a sample of December 2005 examinees selected to represent all Mathematics Test examinees tested between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007.

66

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

Score Conversions and Percents Below* for GRE Mathematics Test, Form GR0568 TOTAL SCORE Raw Score

Scaled Score

%

Raw Score

Scaled Score

%

65-66 64 62-63 61 59-60 58 56-57 55 53-54 52 51

900 890 880 870 860 850 840 830 820 810 800

99 98 97 96 95 94 92 91 89 88 86

28-29 27 26 25

630 620 610 600

48 46 44 41

49-50 48 46-47 45 44 42-43 41 40 38-39 37

790 780 770 760 750 740 730 720 710 700

84 83 81 79 77 75 72 71 68 66

23-24 22 21 20 19 18 16-17 15 14 13

590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500

38 36 33 30 28 25 22 19 17 15

36 35 33-34 32 31 30

690 680 670 660 650 640

64 61 59 57 54 52

12 11 10 8-9 7 6 5 4 3 2

490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400

13 12 10 8 6 5 4 4 3 2

0-1

390

1

*Percent scoring below the scaled score is based on the performance of 9,848 examinees who took the Mathematics Test between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007. This percent below information was used for score reports during the 2008-09 testing year.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

67

Evaluating Your Performance Now that you have scored your test, you may wish to compare your performance with the performance of others who took this test. Both the worksheet on page 66 and the table on page 67 use performance data from GRE Mathematics Test examinees. The data in the worksheet on page 66 are based on the performance of a sample of the examinees who took this test in December 2005. This sample was selected to represent the total population of GRE Mathematics Test examinees tested between July 2004 and June 2007. The numbers in the column labeled “P+” on the worksheet indicate the percentages of examinees in this sample who answered each question correctly. You may use these numbers as a guide for evaluating your performance on each test question. The table on page 67 contains, for each scaled score, the percentage of examinees tested between July 2004 and June 2007 who received lower scores. Interpretive data based on the scores earned by examinees tested in this three-year period will be used by admissions officers in the 2008-09 testing year. These percentages appear in the score conversion table in a column to the right

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of the scaled scores. For example, in the percentage column opposite the scaled score of 640 is the number 52. This means that 52 percent of the GRE Mathematics Test examinees tested between July 2004 and June 2007 scored lower than 640. To compare yourself with this population, look at the percentage next to the scaled score you earned on the practice test. It is important to realize that the conditions under which you tested yourself were not exactly the same as those you will encounter at a test center. It is impossible to predict how different test-taking conditions will affect test performance, and this is only one factor that may account for differences between your practice test scores and your actual test scores. By comparing your performance on this practice test with the performance of other GRE Mathematics Test examinees, however, you will be able to determine your strengths and weaknesses and can then plan a program of study to prepare yourself for taking the GRE Mathematics Test under standard conditions.

MATHEMATICS TEST PRACTICE BOOK

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742862

SHADED AREA FOR ETS USE ONLY

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8. TEST BOOK SERIAL NUMBER

your test book)

FORM CODE (on back cover of

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7. TEST NAME (on back cover of

MH/wan07190

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6. TITLE CODE

00101-02954 • TF77E70

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Copyright ® 2007 by Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541 All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

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GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS ® -

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Use only a pencil with soft, black lead (No. 2 or HB) to complete this answer sheet. Be sure to fill in completely the space that corresponds to your answer choice. Completely erase any errors or stray marks. E D C B A

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Item responses continued on reverse side.

SIDE 2

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT Please write the following statement below, DO NOT PRINT. “I certify that I am the person whose name appears on this answer sheet. I also agree not to disclose the contents of the test I am taking today to anyone.” Sign and date where indicated.

SUBJECT TEST

COMPLETE THE CERTIFICATION STATEMENT, THEN TURN ANSWER SHEET OVER TO SIDE 1. SIGNATURE:

DATE:

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B. sign your full name here:

B

A

Year

A. Fill in both ovals here . . .

A

Day

To cancel your scores from this test administration, you must:

TR

115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

.

IF YOU DO NOT WANT THIS ANSWER SHEET TO BE SCORED

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If you want to cancel your scores from this test administration, complete A and B below. You will not receive scores for this test. No record of this test or the cancellation will be sent to the recipients you indicated, and there will be no scores for this test on your GRE file.

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