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LEARNING AND TEACHING: DIFFERENTIATED LEARNING Dyslexia – for Teacher Librarians Presented by Kellie-Jane Winter BEd. (Arts), PGradDipEd, GradDipPsy, BA (Hons Psy)
What do you know about Dyslexia? TRUE OR FALSE ■ Dyslexia is associated with low intelligence and low cognitive ability? There is no correlation between dyslexia, a brain-based heritable learning disorder, and intelligence. In fact, there are many adults who have above average intellectual abilities and talents that enable them to compensate for weak reading skills. ■ Dyslexia is a visual disorder marked by reversal of letters? While some individuals with dyslexia transpose letters, dyslexia is a language processing disorder which includes difficulty associating particular sounds or phonemes with particular letters or symbols.
What do you know about Dyslexia? TRUE OR FALSE ■ Dyslexia is a childhood disorder, most people grow out of it. Dyslexia is a life-long disorder marked by difficulties with word decoding and reading speed. Adult symptoms of dyslexia often include slow reading, spelling difficulties, mispronunciations, imprecise language, and challenges in reading comprehension. ■ Dyslexia is an untreatable learning disorder. There are successful treatments for dyslexia. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown improvement in brain function and reading skills following empirical-based interventions. Academic adjustments can promote full participation in school life. Often strengths emerge as individuals with dyslexia are provided with reasonable accommodations.
What is it like to have Dyslexia?
Specific Learning Disorder – DSM 5 1. …. impairment in reading includes possible deficits in: Word reading accuracy Reading rate or fluency
2. …. with impairment in written expression includes possible deficits in: Spelling accuracy Grammar and punctuation accuracy Clarity or organisation of written expression 3. …. with impairment in mathematics includes possible deficits in: Number sense Memorisation of arithmetic facts Accurate or fluent calculation Accurate math reasoning Note: Dyslexia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterised by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities.
Attending SPELD. What does the day look like? ■ A preliminary interview at the beginning of the day
■ A standardised cognitive (IQ) test ■ A battery of educational tests ■ A comprehensive feedback session
Dyslexia diagnosis Cognitive Assessments: ■ Wechsler Preschool and Primary School Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) (children 2.6 to 7.3 years old) ■ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC- IV) (children 6 to 16.11 years old)
■ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).
Dyslexia diagnosis Educational Assessments: ■ Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II),
■ Neale Analysis of Reading Ability-III, ■ Edwards Reading Test, ■ ACER Word Identification Tests,
■ SA Spelling Test, ■ ACER Literacy Tests, ■ The Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery
What works for one will work for all ■ What works for a child diagnosed with a specific learning difficulty will assist everyone else! ■ Introduce strategies to the entire class ■ Remember: Those who need the strategy will use it, and those that don’t won’t ■ Give the students freedom to use what works
Organisation ■ Diary (Outlook, Smartphone)
■ Online resources (OneNote, school’s LMS) ■ Colour code folders ■ Sticky notes (paper and online) ■ Email address (teachers, friends) ■ Break the task down – Set timelines – Set rewards
Working Memory ■ Don’t always believe the people selling the software – http://junglememory.com ■ Software (Phonemic awareness): – https://www.nessy.com/uk/ – http://www.wordshark.co.uk/index.aspx ■
Software ■ Dragon Naturally Speaking (Voice to text)
■ Ginger (Intelligent spell checker)
In the library ■ Ensure all compulsory English texts are available as audio books ■ Stock audio books just for student’s reading pleasure
■ Have available large print books (assists with decoding) ■ Try to have books that match IQ not just reading ability ■ Install text-to-speech software on all library computers
■ Ensure each library computer has a set of headphones ■ Vision Australia Library
Handouts ■ Use these fonts (size 12 to 14 point): – Arial – Comic Sans – Verdana – Sassoon ■ Use bold to highlight. Using italics or underlining can make reading difficult ■ Use line spacing between paragraphs to break up text ■ Use wide margins and headings
■ Use boxes to emphasise or highlight important text
Assessment ■ Be prepared to modify assessments – Shorter word count, scaffolding, verbal response ■ Allow extra reading time during exams, perhaps even a scribe – Time to move or stand up, maybe even a scribe ■ Allow students to gather information in different ways – YouTube, voice recordings, audio books ■ Ask yourself does this really need to be hand written? ■ Remember: Poor spelling is NOT an indication of low IQ. – Don’t mark down for poor spelling