1 Introduction to Modern Cosmology Joel Primack University of California, Santa Cruz2 Modern Cosmology A series of major discoveries has laid a lastin...

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Joel Primack University of California, Santa Cruz

Wednesday, September 4, 13

Modern Cosmology

A series of major discoveries has laid a lasting foundation for cosmology. Einstein’s general relativity (1916) provided the conceptual foundation for the modern picture. Then Hubble discovered that “spiral nebulae” are large galaxies like our own Milky Way (1925), and that distant galaxies are receding from the Milky Way with a speed proportional to their distance (1929), which means that we live in an expanding universe. The discovery of the cosmic background radiation (1965) showed that the universe began in a very dense, hot, and homogeneous state: the Big Bang. This was confirmed by the discovery that the cosmic background radiation has exactly the same spectrum as heat radiation (1989), and the measured abundances of the light elements agree with the predictions of Big Bang theory if the abundance of ordinary matter is about 4% of critical density. Most of the matter in the universe is invisible particles which move very sluggishly in the early universe (“Cold Dark Matter”). Most of the energy density is mysterious dark energy. Wednesday, September 4, 13

Experimental and Historical Sciences both make predictions about new knowledge, whether from experiments or from the past Historical Explanation Is Always Inferential Our age cannot look back to earlier things Except where reasoning reveals their traces Lucretius

Patterns of Explanation Are the Same in the Historical Sciences as in the Experimental Sciences Specific conditions + General laws ⇒ Particular phenomenon In history as anywhere else in empirical science, the explanation of a phenomenon consists in subsuming it under general empirical laws; and the criterion of its soundness is … exclusively whether it rests on empirically well confirmed assumptions concerning initial conditions and general laws. C.G. Hempel, Aspects of Scientific Explanation (1965), p. 240.

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Successful Predictions of the Big Bang

Text Text

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Expanding Universe

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Caution: 7Li may now be discordant Wednesday, September 4, 13

Cosmic Background Radiation

General Relativity

(Gravitation & Cosmology)

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Wednesday, September 4, 13

General Relativity and Cosmology John Wheeler:

GR: MATTER TELLS SPACE HOW TO CURVE Rµν – ½Rgµν = 8πGTµν + Λgµν

CURVED SPACE TELLS MATTER HOW TO MOVE duµ + Γµαβ uα uβ = 0 ds

Cosmological Principle: on large scales, space is uniform and isotropic. COBE-Copernicus Theorem: If all observers observe a nearly-isotropic Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), then the universe is locally nearly homogeneous and isotropic – i.e., is approximately described by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric ds2 = dt2 – a2(t) [dr2 (1 – kr2)-1 + r2 dΩ2] with curvature constant k = – 1, 0, or +1. Substituting this metric into the Einstein equation at left above, we get the Friedmann eq. Wednesday, September 4, 13

FriedmannRobertsonWalker Framework

Friedmann equation

(homogeneous, isotropic universe)

= 13.97 h70-1 Gyr f(0.3, 0.7) = 0.964

Matter: Radiation: Wednesday, September 4, 13

The Age of the Universe In the mid-1990s there was a crisis in cosmology, because the age of the old Globular Cluster stars in the Milky Way, then estimated to be 16±3 Gyr, was higher than the expansion age of the universe, which for a critical density (Ωm = 1) universe is 9±2 Gyr (with the Hubble parameter h=0.72±0.07). But when the HR Diagram for Two Globular Clusters data from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite became available in 1997, it showed that the distance to the Globular Clusters had been underestimated, which implied that their ages are instead only 12±3 Gyr. Wednesday, September 4, 13

The Age of the Universe In the mid-1990s there was a crisis in cosmology, because the age of the old Globular Cluster stars in the Milky Way, then estimated to be 16±3 Gyr, was higher than the expansion age of the universe, which for a critical density (Ωm = 1) universe is 9±2 Gyr (with the Hubble parameter h=0.72±0.07). But when the data from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite became available in 1997, it showed that the distance to the Globular Clusters had been underestimated, which implied that their ages are 12±3 Gyr. Several lines of evidence now show that the universe does not have Ωm = 1 but rather Ωtot = Ωm + ΩΛ = 1.0 with Ωm≈ 0.3, which gives an expansion age of about 14 Gyr. Moreover, age measurements based on radioactive decay of Thorium-232 (half-life 14.1 Gyr) measured in a number of stars gives a completely independent age of 14±3 Gyr. Similar measurements, based on detection in stars of Uranium-238 (half-life 4.47 Gyr), give ~13 Gyr. All the recent measurements of the age of the universe are thus in excellent agreement. It is reassuring that three completely different clocks – stellar evolution, expansion of the universe, and radioactive decay – agree so well. Wednesday, September 4, 13

History of Cosmic Expansion for General ΩM & ΩΛ

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History of Cosmic Expansion for General ΩM & ΩΛ

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History of Cosmic Expansion for ΩΛ= 1- ΩM

With ΩΛ = 0 the age of the decelerating universe would be only 9 Gyr, but ΩΛ = 0.7, Ωm = 0.3 gives an age of 14 Gyr, consistent with stellar and radioactive decay ages

now

past

future

Saul Perlmutter, Physics Today, Apr 2003 Wednesday, September 4, 13

LCDM Benchmark Cosmological Model: Ingredients & Epochs

Barbara Ryden, Introduction to Cosmology (Addison-Wesley, 2003) Wednesday, September 4, 13

Benchmark Model: Scale Factor vs. Time

Barbara Ryden, Introduction to Cosmology (Addison-Wesley, 2003) Wednesday, September 4, 13

Age of the Universe and Lookback Time

Gyr

For any values of Ωm,0, ΩΛ,0, and h use Ned Wright’s CosmoCalc (also available as an iPhone app)

Redshift z = (λo −λe) / λe These are for the Benchmark Model Ωm,0=0.3, ΩΛ,0=0.7, h=0.7. Wednesday, September 4, 13

Brief History of the Universe • • • • •

• • • •

Cosmic Inflation generates density fluctuations Symmetry breaking: more matter than antimatter All antimatter annihilates with almost all the matter (1s) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis makes light nuclei (10 min) Electrons and light nuclei combine to form atoms, and the cosmic background radiation fills the newly transparent universe (380,000 yr) Galaxies and larger structures form (~0.5 Gyr) Carbon, oxygen, iron, ... are made in stars Earth-like planets form around 2nd generation stars Life somehow starts (~4 Gyr ago) and evolves on earth

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Mapping the large scale structure of the universe ...

19 Wednesday, September 4, 13

GALAXIES MAPPED BY THE SLOAN SURVEY

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Cosmic Horizon (The Big Bang) Cosmic Background Radiation Cosmic Dark Ages Bright Galaxies Form Big Galaxies Form Earth Forms Milky Way

When we look out in space we look back in time… Wednesday, September 4, 13

Cosmic Spheres of Time

Evolution of Densities of Radiation, Matter, & Λ

= (1+z)-1

z = redshift Dodelson, Chapter 1

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Wednesday, September 4, 13 1965ApJ...142..414D

1965ApJ...142..414D

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis BBN was conceived by Gamow in 1946 as an explanation for the formation of all the elements, but the absence of any stable nuclei with A=5,8 makes it impossible for BBN to proceed past Li. The formation of carbon and heavier elements occurs instead through the triple-α process in the centers of red giants (Burbidge2, Fowler, & Hoyle 57). At the BBN baryon density of 2×10-29 Ωb h2 (T/T0)3 g cm-3 ≈ 2 ×10-5 g cm-3, the probability of the triple-α process is negligible even though T ≈ 109K.

time

time

neutrino-baryon interactions freeze out as densities drop

Kolb & Turner

Thermal equilibrium between n and p is maintained by weak interactions, which keeps n/p = exp(-Q/T) (where Q = mn–mp = 1.293 MeV) until about t ≈ 1 s. But because the neutrino mean free time tν-1 ≈ σν ne± ≈ (GFT)2(T3) is increasing as tν ∝T-5 (here the Fermi constant GF ≈10-5 GeV-2), while the horizon size is increasing only as tH ≈ (Gρ)-½ ≈ MPl T-2 , these interactions freeze out when T drops below about 0.8 MeV. This leaves n/(p+n) ≈ 0.14. The neutrons then decay with a mean lifetime 887 ± 2 s until they are mostly fused into D and then 4He. The higher the baryon density, the higher the final abundance of 4He and the lower the abundance of D that survives this fusion process. Since D/H is so sensitive to baryon density, David Schramm called deuterium the “baryometer.” He and his colleagues also pointed out that since the horizon size increases more slowly with T-2 the larger the number of light neutrino species Nν contributing to the energy density ρ, BBN predicted that Nν ≈ 3 before Nν was measured at accelerators by measuring the width of the Z0 . Wednesday, September 4, 13

Ken Kawano’s (1992) BBN code is available at http://www-thphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/users/SubirSarkar/bbn.html Wednesday, September 4, 13

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Matter and Energy Content of the Universe

Imagine that the entire universe is an ocean of dark energy. On that ocean sail billions of ghostly ships made of dark matter... Wednesday, September 4, 13

Matter and Energy Content of the Universe

Dark Matter Ships on a

ΛCDM

Dark Energy Ocean

Double Dark Theory

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Imagine that the entire universe is an ocean of dark energy. On that ocean sail billions of ghostly ships made of dark matter...

5 INDEPENDENT MEASURES AGREE: ATOMS ARE ONLY 4½% OF COSMIC DENSITY Galaxy Cluster in X-rays

WMAP Cosmic Microwave Background

Relative Height

Angular Power Spectrum

Deuterium Abundance + Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Absorption of Quasar Light

& WIGGLES IN GALAXY P(k) Wednesday, September 4, 13

BAO WIGGLES IN GALAXY P(k) Sound waves that propagate in the opaque early universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of matter, providing a “standard ruler” whose length can be computed using straightforward physics and parameters that are tightly constrained by CMB observations. Measuring the angle subtended by this scale determines a distance to that redshift and constrains the expansion rate. The detection of the acoustic oscillation scale is one of the key accomplishments of the SDSS, and even this moderate signal-to-noise measurement substantially tightens constraints on cosmological parameters. Observing the evolution of the BAO standard ruler provides one of the best ways to measure whether the dark energy parameters changed in the past.

M. White lectures 08 Wednesday, September 4, 13

BAO WIGGLES IN GALAXY P(k)

CMB SDSS Galaxy ξ(k) D. Eisenstein+05

SDSS Galaxy P(k) W. Percival 06

Ωm h2 Ωm h2 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.105

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0.024 0.024 0.024 0.0 Pure ΛCDM

Deuterium absorption at redshift 2.525659 towards Quasar Q1243+3047 Lyman Limit System

The detection of Deuterium and the modeling of this system seem convincing. This is just a portion of the evidence that the Tytler group presented in this paper. They have similarly convincing evidence for several other Lyman limit systems in quasar spectra.

Kirkman, Tytler, Suzuki, O’Meara, & Lubin 2004 Wednesday, September 4, 13

Damped Lyman Alpha System

The baryon density

Precision Measures of D/H

ASSUMING$STANDAND$BIG$BANG$NUCLEOSYNTHESIS$

100$Ωb,0$h2(BBN)$=$2.202$±$0.045$ 100$Ωb,0$h2(CMB)$=$2.205$±$0.028$

For h = 0.7, Ωb,0 = 0.045 20

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21

Released March 21, 2013

90

18

6000

1

Double Dark Theory

5000

0.2

Ωb,0

0.1

0.07

Temperature-Temperature

= 0.048

4000

D [µK2]

European Space Agency PLANCK Satellite Data

Angular scale

3000 2000 1000

Fig. 10. Planck T T power spectrum. The points in the upper panel show the maximum-likelihood estimates of the primary CMB spectrum computed as described in the text for the best-fit foreground and nuisance parameters of the Planck+WP+highL fit listed in Table 5. The red line shows the best-fit base ⇤CDM spectrum. The lower panel shows the residuals with respect to the theoretical 0 error bars are computed from the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted across each band (see Eqs. 36a and model. The 10 50uncertainties500 1000 1500 2000 2500 36b), and include2beam uncertainties and in the foreground model parameters.

Multipole moment, Fig. 19. The temperature angular power spectrum of the primary CMB from Planck, showing a precise measurement of seven acoustic peaks, that are well fit by a simple six-parameter ⇤CDM theoretical model (the model plotted is the one labelled [Planck+WP+highL] in Planck Collaboration XVI (2013)). The shaded area around the best-fit curve represents cosmic variance, including the sky cut used. The error bars on individual points also include cosmic variance. The horizontal axis is logarithmic up to ` = 50, and linear beyond. The vertical scale is `(` + 1)Cl /2⇡. The measured spectrum shown here is exactly the same as the one shown in Fig. 1 of Planck Collaboration XVI (2013), but it has been rebinned to show better the low-` region.

Temperature-Polarization

PolarizationPolarization

tected by Planck over the entire sky, and which therefore contains both Galactic and extragalactic objects. No polarization in6000 formation is provided for the sources at this time. The PCCS di↵ers from the ERCSC in its extraction philosophy: more e↵ort 5000 has been made on the completeness of the catalogue, without reducing notably the reliability of the detected sources, whereas 4000 the ERCSC was built in the spirit of releasing a reliable catalog 3000 suitable for quick follow-up (in particular with the short-lived Fig. in the text. The red lines show the polarization spectra from Wednesday, September 4, 1311. Planck T E (left) and EE spectra (right) computed as described Herschel telescope). The greater amount of data, di↵erent selec-

Angular scale

D [µK2]

90

18

1

Double Dark 0.1 0.2 Theory

BBN Predicted vs. Measured Abundance s of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li

7Li

IS NOW DISCORDANT unless stellar diffusion destroys 7Li Wednesday, September 4, 13

Particle Data Group, 2012

BBN is a Prototype for Hydrogen Recombination and DM Annihilation All three are examples of the universe dropping out of equilibrium!

Recombination

thermal equilibrium

Dodelson, Modern Cosmology, p. 72 Wednesday, September 4, 13

Dark Matter Annihilation The weak shall inherit the universe!

thermal equilibrium

The weaker the cross section, the earlier freezeout occurs, and the larger the resulting dark matter density.

Dodelson, Modern Cosmology, p. 76 Wednesday, September 4, 13

Dark Matter Annihilation The abundance today of dark matter particles X of the WIMP variety is determined by their survival of annihilation in the early universe. Supersymmetric neutralinos can annihilate with each other (and sometimes with other particles: “co-annihilation”). Dark matter annihilation follows the same pattern as the previous discussions: initially the abundance of dark matter particles X is given by the equilibrium Boltzmann exponential exp(mX/T), but as they start to disappear they have trouble finding each other and eventually their number density freezes out. The freezeout process can be followed using the Boltzmann equation, as discussed in Kolb and Turner, Dodelson, Mukhanov, and other textbooks. For a detailed discussion of Susy WIMPs, see the review article by Jungman, Kamionkowski, and Griest (1996). The result is that the abundance today of WIMPs X is given in most cases by (Dodelson’s Eqs. 3.59-60)

Here xf ≈ 10 is the ratio of mX to the freezeout temperature Tf, and g*(mX) ≈ 100 is the density of states factor in the expression for the energy density of the universe when the temperature equals mX

The sum is over relativistic species i (see the graph of g(T) on the next slide). Note that more X’s survive, the weaker the cross section σ. For Susy WIMPs the natural values are σ ~ 10-39 cm2, so ΩX ≈ 1 naturally. This is known as the “WIMP miracle.” Wednesday, September 4, 13

This 2x increase corresponds to minimal supersymmetry with a ~1 TeV threshold

Wednesday, September 4, 13

Supersymmetry is the basis of most attempts, such as superstring theory, to go beyond the current “Standard Model” of particle physics. Heinz Pagels and Joel Primack pointed out in a 1982 paper that the lightest supersymmetric partner particle is stable because of Rparity, and is thus a good candidate for the dark matter particles – weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Michael Dine and others pointed out that the axion, a particle needed to save the strong interactions from violating CP symmetry, could also be the dark matter particle. Searches for both are underway. Wednesday, September 4, 13

Supersymmetric WIMPs When the British physicist Paul Dirac first combined Special Relativity with quantum mechanics, he found that this predicted that for every ordinary particle like the electron, there must be another particle with the opposite electric charge – the anti-electron (positron). Similarly, corresponding to the proton there must be an anti-proton. Supersymmetry appears to be required to combine General Relativity (our modern theory of space, time, and gravity) with the other forces of nature (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions). The consequence is another doubling of the number of particles, since supersymmetry predicts that for every particle that we now know, including the antiparticles, there must be another, thus far undiscovered particle with the same electric charge but with spin differing by half a unit.

Wednesday, September 4, 13

Supersymmetric WIMPs When the British physicist Paul Dirac first combined Special Relativity with quantum mechanics, he found that this predicted that for every ordinary particle like the electron, there must be another particle with the opposite electric charge – the anti-electron (positron). Similarly, corresponding to the proton there must be an anti-proton. Supersymmetry appears to be required to combine General Relativity (our modern theory of space, time, and gravity) with the other forces of nature (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions). The consequence is another doubling of the number of particles, since supersymmetry predicts that for every particle that we now know, including the antiparticles, there must be another, thus far undiscovered particle with the same electric charge but with spin differing by half a unit.

after doubling

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SUPERSYMMETRY The only experimental evidence for supersymmetry is that running of coupling constants in the Standard Model (dashed lines in firgure) does not lead to Grand Unification of the weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions, while with supersymmetry the three couplings all do come together at a scale just above 1016 GeV. The figure assumes the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with sparticle masses between 250 GeV and 1 TeV. Other arguments for SUSY include: helps unification of gravity since it controls the vacuum energy and moderates loop divergences (fermion and boson loop divergences cancel), solves the hierarchy problem, and naturally leads to DM with Ω ~ 1.

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figs from S. P. Martin, A Supersymmetry Primer, arXiv:hep-ph/9709356v5

Supersymmetric WIMP (δ) annihilation is related by crossing to WIMP Direct Detection by Elastic Scattering

Primack, Seckel, & Sadoulet Ann Rev Nucl Part Sci 1988 Wednesday, September 4, 13

Experiments are Underway for Detection of WIMPs

Primack, Seckel, & Sadoulet (1988) Wednesday, September 4, 13

and also AXIONs The diagram at right shows the layout of the axion search experiment now underway at the University of Washington. Axions would be detected as extra photons in the Microwave Cavity.

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Direct Dark Matter Search Improvement x102 in 10 years

x103 in 5 years!

☐ XENON1000

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