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GRE REVISED SYLLABUS 2013 1. GRE GENERAL TEST
ANALYTICAL WritingThis section grabs an idea of your critical thinking and analytical writing skills, and portrays your ability to articulate and support complex ideas clearly. This section consists of two analytical writing tasks: A- 45-minute ―Present Your Perspective on an Issue‖ task, and B- 30-minute ―Analyze an Argument‖ task.
VERBAL TestIt measures your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize material information obtained from it, analyze relationships among various parts of the sentences and recognize relationships among words and concepts. The Verbal section consists ofAnalogies, Antonyms, Sentence Completions and Reading comprehension.
Quantitative TestIt comes with an idea to measure our PROBLEM-SOLVING skills, focusing on basic concepts of Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry and Data Analysis.
2. GRE SUBJECT TEST
GRE BIOCHEMISTRY, CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SYLLABUS-
I. BIOCHEMISTRY — 36%
Chemical and Physical Foundations
Thermodynamics and kinetics Redox states Water, pH, acid-base reactions and buffers Solutions and equilibria Solute-solvent interactions Chemical interactions and bonding Chemical reaction mechanisms
Structural Biology: Structure, Assembly, Organization and Dynamics
Small molecules Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and complex lipids) Supramolecular complexes (e.g., membranes, ribosomes and multi-enzyme complexes)
Catalysis and Binding
Enzyme reaction mechanisms and kinetics Ligand-protein interaction (e.g., hormone receptors, substrates and effectors, transport proteins and antigen-antibody interactions)
Major Metabolic Pathways
Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation Anabolism Catabolism Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules
Bioenergetics (including respiration and photosynthesis)
Energy transformations at the substrate level Electron transport Proton and chemical gradients Energy coupling (e.g., phosphorylation and transport)
Regulation and Integration of Metabolism
Covalent modification of enzymes Allosteric regulation Compartmentalization Hormones
Biophysical approaches (e.g., spectroscopy, x-ray, crystallography, mass spectroscopy) Isotopes Separation techniques (e.g., centrifugation, chromatography and electrophoresis) Immune techniques
II. CELL BIOLOGY — 28%
Methods of importance to cellular biology, such as fluorescence probes (e.g., FRAP FRET and GFP) and imaging will be covered as appropriate within the context of the content below.
Cellular Compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Organization, Dynamics and Functions
Cellular membrane systems (e.g., structure and transport across membrane) Nucleus (e.g., envelope and matrix) Mitochondria and chloroplasts (e.g., biogenesis and evolution)
Cell Surface and Communication
Extracellular matrix (including cell walls) Cell adhesion and junctions Signal transduction Receptor function Excitable membrane systems
Cytoskeleton, Motility and Shape
Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems Motor function, regulation and diversity
Protein, Processing, Targeting and Turnover
Translocation across membranes Posttranslational modification Intracellular trafficking Secretion and endocytosis Protein turnover (e.g., proteasomes, lysosomes, damaged protein response)
Cell Division, Differentiation and Development
Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis Meiosis and gametogenesis Fertilization and early embryonic development (including positional information, homeotic genes, tissue-specific expression, nuclear and cytoplasmic interactions, growth factors and induction)
environment, stem cells and polarity)
III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS — 36%
Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance Transformation, transduction and conjugation Recombination and complementation Mutational analysis Genetic mapping and linkage analysis
Chromatin and Chromosomes
Karyotypes Translocations, inversions, deletions and duplications Aneuploidy and polyploidy Structure Epigenetics
Genome structure Physical mapping Repeated DNA and gene families Gene identification Transposable elements Bioinformatics Proteomics Molecular evolution
DNA replication DNA damage and repair DNA modification DNA recombination and gene conversion
The genetic code Transcription/transcriptional profiling RNA processing Translation
Positive and negative control of the operon Promoter recognition by RNA polymerases Attenuation and anti-termination Cis-acting regulatory elements Trans-acting regulatory factors Gene rearrangements and amplifications Small non-coding RNA (e.g., siRNA, microRNA)
Genome replication and regulation Virus assembly Virus-host interactions
Restriction maps and PCR Nucleic acid blotting and hybridization DNA cloning in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Sequencing and analysis Protein-nucleic acid interaction Transgenic organisms Microarrays
GRE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH TEST SYLLABUS-
Literary Analysis (40–55%)
Interpretation of passages of prose and poetry. Such questions may involve recognition of conventions and genres, allusions and references, meaning and tone, grammatical structures and rhetorical strategies, and literary techniques.
Recognition of date, author or work by style and/or content (for literary theory identifications see IV below). Cultural and Historical Contexts (20–25%) Knowledge of literary, cultural and intellectual history as well as identification of author or work through a critical statement or biographical information. Also identification of details of character, plot or setting of a work.
History and Theory of Literary Criticism (10–15%)
Identification and analysis of the characteristics and methods of various critical and theoretical approaches.
The GRE Mathematics Test Syllabus-
CALCULUS — 50%
Material learned in the usual sequence of elementary calculus courses — differential and integral calculus of one and of several variables — includes calculus-based applications and connections with coordinate geometry, trigonometry, differential equations and other branches of mathematics.
ALGEBRA — 25%
Elementary algebra: basic algebraic techniques and manipulations acquired in high school and used throughout mathematics Linear algebra: matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, vector spaces, linear transformations, characteristic polynomials and eigenvalues and eigenvectors Abstract algebra and number theory: elementary topics from group theory, theory of rings and modules, field theory and number theory
ADDITIONAL TOPICS — 25%
Introductory real analysis: sequences and series of numbers and functions, continuity, differentiability and integrability, and elementary topology of R and Rn Discrete mathematics: logic, set theory, combinatory, graph theory and algorithms Other topics: general topology, geometry, complex variables, probability and statistics, and numerical analysis.
GRE PHYSICS TEST SYLLABUS-
CLASSICAL MECHANICS — 20%
(Such as kinematics, Newton's laws, work and energy, oscillatory motion, rotational motion about a fixed axis, dynamics of systems of particles, central forces and celestial mechanics, three-dimensional particle dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, non-inertial reference frames, elementary topics in fluid dynamics)
ELECTROMAGNETISM — 18%
(such as electrostatics, currents and DC circuits, magnetic fields in free space, Lorentz force, induction, Maxwell's equations and their applications, electromagnetic waves, AC circuits, magnetic and electric fields in matter)
(Such as the laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic processes, equations of state, ideal gases, kinetic theory, ensembles, statistical concepts and calculation of thermodynamic quantities, thermal expansion and heat transfer)
QUANTUM MECHANICS — 12%
(such as fundamental concepts, solutions of the Schrödinger equation (including square wells, harmonic oscillators, and hydrogenic atoms), spin, angular momentum, wave function symmetry, elementary perturbation theory)
ATOMIC PHYSICS — 10%
(Such as properties of electrons, Bohr model, energy quantization, atomic structure, atomic spectra, selection rules, black-body radiation, x-rays, atoms in electric and magnetic fields)
SPECIAL RELATIVITY — 6%
(Such as introductory concepts, time dilation, length contraction, simultaneity, energy and momentum, fourvectors and Lorentz transformation, velocity addition)
LABORATORY METHODS — 6%
(Such as data and error analysis, electronics, instrumentation, radiation detection, counting statistics, interaction of charged particles with matter, lasers and optical interferometers, dimensional analysis, fundamental applications of probability and statistics)
SPECIALIZED TOPICS — 9%
Nuclear and Particle physics (e.g., nuclear properties, radioactive decay, fission and fusion, reactions, fundamental properties of elementary particles), Condensed Matter (e.g., crystal structure, x-ray diffraction, thermal properties, electron theory of metals, semiconductors, superconductors), Miscellaneous (e.g., astrophysics, mathematical methods, computer applications)
GRE CHEMISTRY TEST SYLLABUS-
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY — 15%
Data Acquisition and Use of Statistics — Errors, statistical considerations
General Chemistry — Periodic trends, oxidation states, nuclear chemistry Ionic Substances — Lattice geometries, lattice energies, ionic radii and radius/ratio effects Covalent Molecular Substances — Lewis diagrams, molecular point groups, VSEPR concept, valence bond description and hybridization, molecular orbital description, bond energies, covalent and van der Waals radii of the elements, intermolecular forces Metals and Semiconductors — Structure, band theory, physical and chemical consequences of band theory Concepts of Acids and Bases — Bronsted-Lowry approaches, Lewis theory, solvent system approaches Chemistry of the Main Group Elements — Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds Chemistry of the Transition Elements — Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds, coordination chemistry Special Topics — Organometallic chemistry, catalysis, bioinorganic chemistry, applied solid-state chemistry, environmental chemistry
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY — 30%
Structure, bonding and Nomenclature — Lewis structures, orbital hybridization, configuration and stereochemical notation, conformational analysis, systematic IUPAC nomenclature, spectroscopy (IR and 1H and 13C NMR) Functional Groups — Preparation, reactions, and inter-conversions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, sulphides, thiols, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines Reaction Mechanisms — Nucleophilic displacements and addition, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, electrophilic additions, electrophilic aromatic substitutions, eliminations, Diels-Alder and other cycloadditions
Reactive Intermediates — Chemistry and nature of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes, enols Organometallics — Preparation and reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents, lithium organocuprates, and other modern main group and transition metal reagents and catalysts Special Topics — Resonance, molecular orbital theory, catalysis, acid-base theory, carbon acidity, aromaticity, anti-aromaticity, macromolecules, lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, terpenes, asymmetric synthesis, orbital symmetry, polymers
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY — 30%
Thermodynamics — First, second, and third laws, thermochemistry, ideal and real gases and solutions, Gibbs and Helmholtz energy, chemical potential, chemical equilibria, phase equilibria, colligative properties, statistical thermodynamics Quantum Chemistry and Applications to Spectroscopy — Classical experiments, principles of quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, molecular spectroscopy Dynamics — Experimental and theoretical chemical kinetics, solution and liquid dynamics, photochemistry
Neurons Sensory Structures and Processes Motor Structures and Functions Central Structures and Processes Motivation, Arousal, Emotion Cognitive Neuroscience Neuromodulators and Drugs Hormonal Factors Comparative and Ethology States of Consciousness Theories, Applications and Issues
Stress, Conflict, Coping Diagnostic Systems Assessment Causes and Development of Disorders Neurophysiological Factors Treatment of Disorders Epidemiology Prevention Health Psychology Culture and Gender Issues Theories, Applications and Issues
Nature-Nurture Physical and Motor Perception and Cognition Language Intelligence Social and Personality Emotion Socialization, Family and Cultural Influences Theories, Applications and Issues
Theories Structure Assessment Personality and Behaviour Applications and Issues
Social Perception, Cognition, Attribution, Beliefs Attitudes and Behaviour Social Comparison, Self Emotion, Affect and Motivation Conformity, Influence and Persuasion Interpersonal Attraction and Close Relationships Group and Intergroup Processes Cultural and Gender Influences Evolutionary Psychology, Altruism and Aggression Theories, Applications and Issues
OTHER AREAS — 17% General (4–6%)
History Industrial-Organizational Educational
Measurement and Methodology (11–13%)
Psychometrics, Test Construction, Reliability, Validity Research Designs Statistical Procedures Scientific Method and the Evaluation of Evidence Ethics and Legal Issues Analysis and Interpretation of Findings
GRE BIOLOGY TEST SYLLABUS-
CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (33–34%)
Fundamentals of cellular biology, genetics and molecular biology are addressed. Major topics in cellular structure and function include metabolic pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics and cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic organization and maintenance, and the regulation of gene expression. The cellular basis of immunity and the mechanisms of antigen-antibody interactions are included. Distinctions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are considered where appropriate. Attention is also given to experimental methodology.
Cellular Structure and Function (16–17%)
Biological compounds Macromolecular structure and bonding Abiotic origin of biological molecules
Enzyme activity, receptor binding and regulation Major metabolic pathways and regulation
Respiration, fermentation and photosynthesis Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules Hormonal control and intracellular messengers
Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces
Transport, endocytosis and exocytosis Electrical potentials and transmitter substances Mechanisms of cell recognition, cell junctions and plasmodesmata Cell wall and extracellular matrix
Organelles: structure, function, synthesis and targeting
Nucleus, mitochondria and plastids Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles Lysosomes, peroxisomes and vacuoles
Cytoskeleton, motility and shape
Actin-based systems Microtubule-based systems Intermediate filaments Bacterial flagella and movement
Cell cycle, growth, division and regulation (including signal transduction) Methods
Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: mechanisms
The operon Promoters and enhancers Transcription factors RNA and protein synthesis Processing and modifications of both RNA and protein Gene expression and regulation: effects Control of normal development Cancer and oncogenes Whole genome expression (e.g., microarrays) Regulation of gene expression by RNAi (e.g., siRNA)
Cellular basis of immunity Antibody diversity and synthesis Antigen-antibody interactions
Bacteriophages, animal viruses and plant viruses
Viral genomes, replication, and assembly Virus-host cell interactions
Recombinant DNA methodology
Restriction endonucleases Blotting and hybridization Restriction fragment length polymorphisms DNA cloning, sequencing and analysis Polymerase chain reaction
ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY (33–34%)
The structure, physiology, behaviour and development of plants and animals are addressed. Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.
Examples of developmental phenomena range from fertilization through differentiation and morphogenesis. Perceptions and responses to environmental stimuli are examined as they pertain to both plants and animals. Major distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of selected groups from the various kingdoms are also covered.
Animal Structure, Function and Organization (10%) Exchange with environment
Nutrient, salt and water exchange Gas exchange Energy
Internal transport and exchange
Circulatory and digestive systems Support and movement
Support systems (external, internal and hydrostatic)
Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary and muscular)
Integration and control mechanisms
Nervous and endocrine systems
Behaviour (communication, orientation, learning and instinct) Metabolic rates (temperature, body size and activity) Animal Reproduction and Development (6%)
Reproductive structures Meiosis, gametogenesis and fertilization Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage and gastrulation) Developmental processes (e.g., induction, determination, differentiation, morphogenesis and metamorphosis) External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod)
Plant Structure, Function and Organization, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (7%)
Organs, tissue systems, and tissues Water transport, including absorption and transpiration
Phloem transport and storage Mineral nutrition Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and photosynthesis)
Plant Reproduction, Growth and Development, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (5%)
Reproductive structures Meiosis and sporogenesis Gametogenesis and fertilization Embryogeny and seed development Meristems, growth, morphogenesis and differentiation Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photoperiod and tropisms)
Diversity of Life (6%) Archaea
Morphology, physiology and identification
Bacteria (including cyanobacteria)
Morphology, physiology, pathology and identification
Protozoa, other heterotrophic Protista (slime moulds and Oomycota) and autotrophic Protista Major distinguishing characteristics Phylogenetic relationships Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease)
Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction)
Generalized life cycles Importance (e.g., decomposition, biodegradation, antibiotics and pathogenicity) Lichens
Animalia with emphasis on major phyla
Major distinguishing characteristics Phylogenetic relationships
Plantae with emphasis on major phyla
Alternation of generations Major distinguishing characteristics Phylogenetic relationships
ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (33–34%)
This section deals with the interactions of organisms and their environment, emphasizing biological principles at levels above the individual. Ecological and evolutionary topics are given equal weight. Ecological questions range from physiological adaptations to the functioning of ecosystems. Although principles are emphasized, some questions may consider applications to current environmental problems. Questions in evolution range from its genetic foundations through evolutionary processes to their consequences. Evolution is considered at the molecular, individual, population and higher levels. Principles of ecology, genetics and evolution are interrelated in many questions. Some questions may require quantitative skills, including the interpretation of simple mathematical models.
Habitat selection Mating systems Social systems Resource acquisition
Population Structure and Function
Population dynamics/regulation Demography and life history strategies
Direct and indirect interspecific interactions Community structure and diversity Change and succession
Productivity and energy flow Chemical cycling
Evolution (16–17%) Genetic variability
Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination and chromosomal alterations) Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability) Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Gene flow and genetic drift Natural selection and its dynamics Levels of selection (e.g., individual and group) Trade-offs and genetic correlations Natural selection and genome evolution Synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide ratios
Fitness and adaptation Speciation Systematics and phylogeny Convergence, divergence and extinction Coevolution
History of life
Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Fossil record Palaeontology and paleoecology Lateral transfer of genetic sequences