1 EC GATE-6-PAPER- General Aptitude Q. No. 5 Carry One Mark Each. Which of the following is CORRECT with respect to grammar and usage? Mount Everest ...

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General Aptitude Q. No. 1 – 5 Carry One Mark Each 1.

Which of the following is CORRECT with respect to grammar and usage? Mount Everest is __________. (A) The highest peak in the world

(B) highest peak in the world

(C) one of highest peak in the world

(D) one of the highest peak in the world

Key:

(A)

2.

The policeman asked the victim of a theft, “What did you _________?” (A) loose

(B) lose

(C) loss

(D) louse

Key:

(B)

3.

Despite the new medicine‟s_________ in treating diabetes, it is not __________ widely. (A) effectiveness --- prescribed

(B) availability --- used

(C) prescription--- available

(D) acceptance --- proscribed

Key:

(A)

4.

In a huge pile of apples and oranges, both ripe and unripe mixed together, 15% are unripe fruits. Of the unripe fruits, 45% are apples. Of the ripe ones, 66% are oranges. If the pile contains a total of5692000 fruits, how many of them are apples? (A) 2029198

Key:

(B) 2467482

(C) 2789080

(D) 3577422

(A)

Exp:

5692000 Total fruits 15% unripe

85% ripe

853800

45%

apples 384210

4838200

55%

oranges

469590

34%

66%

apples

oranges

1644988

3193212

Total number of apples = 384210 + 1644988 = 2029198

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Michael lives 10 km away from where I live. Ahmed lives 5 km away and Susan lives 7 km away from where I live. Arun is farther away than Ahmed but closer than Susan from where I live. From the information provided here, what is one possible distance (in km) at which I live from Arun‟s place?

Key:

(A) 3.00 (C)

(B) 4.99

(C) 6.02

Exp:

(D) 7.01

Ahamed

5 km

Me

Michael

10 km

Susan 7 km Given Arun is farther away than Ahamed and closer than Susan from where I live is greater than 5 km but less than 7 km clearly 6.02. Q. No. 6 – 10 Carry Two Marks Each 6.

A person moving through a tuberculosis prone zone has a 50% probability of becoming infected. However, only 30% of infected people develop the disease. What percentage of people moving through a tuberculosis prone zone remains infected but does not show symptoms of disease? (A) 15 (B) 33 (C) 35 (D) 37

Key:

(C)

Exp:

0.3

develop disease

Infected

0.5

0.7 0.5

not develop

not Infected

P(a person infected but does not show symptoms) 0.50 0.70 0.35 The percentage is 35% 7.

In a world filled with uncertainty, he was glad to have many good friends. He had always assisted them in times of need and was confident that they would reciprocate. However, the events of the last week proved him wrong. Which of the following inference(s) is/are logically valid and can be inferred from the above passage? (i) His friends were always asking him to help them. (ii) He felt that when in need of help, his friends would let him down. (iii) He was sure that his friends would help him when in need. (iv) His friends did not help him last week. (A) (i) and (ii)

Key:

(B) (iii) and (iv)

(C) (iii) only

(D) (iv) only

(B)

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Leela is older than her cousin Pavithra. Pavithra‟s brother Shiva is older than Leela. WhenPavithra and Shiva are visiting Leela, all three like to play chess. Pavithra wins more often than Leela does.

8.

Which one of the following statements must be TRUE based on the above? (A) When Shiva plays chess with Leela and Pavithra, he often loses. (B) Leela is the oldest of the three. (C) Shiva is a better chess player than Pavithra. (D) Pavithra is the youngest of the three. Key:

(D)

9.

1 1 1 If q a and r b andS c , the value of abc is ____________. r s q

(A) rqs

1

(B) 0

Key:

(C)

Exp:

1 1 1 q a , r b , sc r s q

(C) 1

(D) r+q+s

q a r, r b s, sc q r q a s c s ac a

s r b sac sabc abc 1 b

10.

P, Q, R and S are working on a project. Q can finish the task in 25 days, working alone for 12 hours a day. R can finish the task in 50 days, working alone for 12 hours per day. Q worked 12 hours a day but took sick leave in the beginning for two days. R worked 18 hours a day on all days. What is the ratio of work done by Q and R after 7 days from the start of the project? (A) 10:11

(B) 11:10

Key:

(C)

Exp:

Q 's one hour work

1 25 12

R 's one hour work

1 50 12

(C) 20:21

(D) 21:20

Since Q has taken 2 days sick leave, he has worked only 5 days on the end of seventh day. Work completed by Q on 7th day= (5 12)

1 25 12

Work completed by R on 7th day= (7 18)

1 50 12

Ratio of their work

5 12 7 12 20 20 : 21 25 12 50 12 21

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Electronics and Communication Engineering Q. No. 1 – 25 Carry One Mark Each Let M4 = I, (where I denotes the identity matrix) and M I, M2 I and M3 I. Then, for any natural number k, M−1 equals:

1.

(A)M4k + 1

(B) M4k + 2

(C) M4k + 3

Key:

(C)

Exp:

M.M 4k 1 M 4K .M 2 M 4 .M 2 I.M 2 M 2

(D) M4k

k

A is not correct M.M4K 2 M4k .M3 (M4 )k .m3 I.M3 M3

B is not correct M.M4k 3 M4k .M4 (M4 )k .M4 I.I I

C is correct M.M 4k M. M 4 M(I) M. k

D is not correct 2. Key:

The second moment of a Poisson-distributed random variable is 2. The mean of the random variable is _________. 1

Exp:

We know that if is parameter of poisson‟s distribution Then, First moment Second moment 2 Given that 2 2

2 2 0 2 1 0 2 or 1 1

2

First moment = 1 Given the following statements about a function f : R R, select the right option.

3.

P: If f(x) is continuous at x x 0 , then it is also differentiable at x x 0 . Q: If f(x) is continuous at x x 0 , then it may not be differentiable at x x 0 . R: If f(x) is differentiable at x x 0 , then it is also continuous at x x 0 . (A) P is true, Q is false, R is false

(B) P is false, Q is true, R is true

(C) P is false, Q is true, R is false

(D) P is true, Q is false, R is true

Key:

(B)

Exp:

We know that every differentiable function is continuous but converse need not be True

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Which one of the following is a property of the solutions to the Laplace equation: 2f 0?

4.

(A) The solutions have neither maxima nor minima anywhere except at the boundaries. (B) The solutions are not separable in the coordinates. (C) The solutions are not continuous. (D) The solutions are not dependent on the boundary conditions. Key:

(A)

5.

Consider the plot of f(x) versus x as shown below.

Suppose F x f y dy. Which one of the following is a graph of F(x)? x

5

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Key:

(C)

Exp:

Since the integration of an odd function is even in this logic A and B cannot be the answer as they are odd functions. However both C and D are even functions but the integration of a linear curve has to be parabolic in nature and it cannot be a constant function. Based on this Option C is correct.

6.

Which one of the following is an eigen function of the class of all continuous-time, linear, time-invariant systems u(t) denotes the unit-step function)? (A) e j0 t u t

(B) cos 0 t

(C) e j0 t

(D) sin 0 t

Key:

(C)

7.

A continuous-time function x(t) is periodic with period T. The function is sampled uniformly with a sampling period TS. In which one of the following cases is the sampled signal periodic? (A) T 2Ts

Key:

(B) T 1.2Ts

(C) Always

(D) Never

(B)

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Consider x t cos 0 t If x(t) is sampled with a sampling period TS, x n cos 0 n is obtained Here,

0 0 TS

2m 2 N 0 TS T0

T0 N 0 which must be a rational number TS m

Thus,

T 12 6 lives a periodic signal after sampling. TS 10 5

Consider the sequence x n a n u n bn u n , where u[n] denotes the unit-step sequence and 0 a b 1. The region of convergence (ROC) of the z-transform of x[n] is

8.

(A) z a

(B) z b

Key:

(B)

Exp:

a n u n ;ROC : z a R 1

(C)

za

(D) a z b

b n u n ;ROC : z b R 2 a n u n b n u n ;ROC :R 1 R 2 z b

A B Consider a two-port network with the transmission matrix: T . If the network is C D reciprocal, then

9.

(A) T1 T (C) Determinant (T) = 0

(B) T2 T (D) Determinant (T) = 1

Key:

(D)

10.

A continuous-time sinusoid of frequency 33 Hz is multiplied with a periodic Dirac impulse train of frequency 46 Hz. The resulting signal is passed through an ideal analog low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 23 Hz. The fundamental frequency (in Hz) of the output is ________.

Key:

13

Exp:

Sinusoidal signal frequency = 33 Impulse train frequency = 46 Resultant signal contains spectral frequencies 33, 13, 7.9, 59etc, Thus if it is passed through ideal LPF of cutoff frequency 23Hz only 13Hz frequency is filtered out.

Output signal fundamental frequency = 13 Hz.

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A small percentage of impurity is added to an intrinsic semiconductor at 300 K. Which one of the following statements is true for the energy band diagram shown in the following figure?

(A) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with pentavalent atoms to form n-type semiconductor (B) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with trivalent atoms to form n-type semiconductor (C) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with pentavalent atoms to form p-type semiconductor (D) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with trivalent atoms to form p-type semiconductor Key:

(A)

Exp:

New energy level is near to conduction band, so it is pentavalent atoms to form n-type semiconductor.

12.

Consider the following statements for a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET): P: As channel length reduces, OFF-state current increases. Q:As channel length reduces, output resistance increases. R: As channel length reduces, threshold voltage remains constant. S: As channel length reduces, ON current increases. Which of the above statements are INCORRECT? (A) P and Q

(B) P and S

Key:

(C)

Exp:

I

1 so L IOFF L

rd

VDS L I D n cox w Vus Vt VDS

(C) Q and R

(D) R and S

so L rd

if the channel length reduces, then threshold voltage also changes L ION So option (C) is matching.

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Consider the constant current source shown in the figure below. Let represent the current

13.

gain of the transistor.

The load current I0 through RL is 1 Vref (A) I0 R

Vref (B) I0 1 R

1 Vref (C) I0 2R

Vref (D) I0 1 2R

Key:

(B)

Exp:

Voltage at (+) terminal V+ = VCC -Vref Voltage at the emitter of PNP BJT VE = VCC -Vref The current IE through R IE =

VCC -(VCC -Vref ) R

IE =

Vref R

IC = I0 β β Vref IC IE = I E IC =I0 β+1 β+1 R

14.

The following signal Vi of peak voltage 8V is applied to the non-inverting terminal of an ideal op-amp. The transistor has VBE 0.7V, 100;VLED 1.5V,VCC 10Vand VCC 10V.

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The number of times the LED glows is ________. Key: Exp:

3 The voltage at (-) terminated of the OP-Amp V(-)

2 10=2V 28

The output of the op-Amp goes to +VCC whenever Vi > V(-) i.e Vi > 2V makes BJT turn ON. So, the LED glows .The sections of the wave form becomes more than 2V for the range [a to b ,(c to d) and (e to f)] So LED glows 3 times. 15.

Consider the oscillator circuit shown in the figure. The function of the network (shown in dotted lines) consisting of the 100k resistor in series with the two diodes connected back-toback is to:

(A) Introduce amplitude stabilization by preventing the op amp from saturating and thus producing sinusoidal oscillations of fixed amplitude ICP–Intensive Classroom ProgrameGATE-Live Internet Based ClassesDLPTarGATE-All India Test Series Leaders in GATE Preparations65+ Centers across India © All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the written permission.

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(B) Introduce amplitude stabilization by forcing the op-amp to swing between positive and negative saturation and thus producing square wave oscillations of fixed amplitude (C) Introduce frequency stabilization by forcing the circuit to oscillate at a single frequency (D) Enable the loop gain to take on a value that produces square wave oscillations Key:

(A)

Exp:

When the output voltage is positive the diode D1 is turned on making 100kΩ resistor to become parallel to 22.1kΩ .So the gain is reduced. When the output voltage becomes negative the diode D 2 is turned on thereby again 100kΩ resistor to become parallel to 22.1kΩ .So the gain is reduced. With the use of diodes, the non ideal OP-Amp is made stable to produce steady

16.

The block diagram of a frequency synthesizer consisting of a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and a divide-by-𝑁 counter (comprising 2, 4, 8, 16 outputs) is sketched below. The synthesizer is excited with a 5 kHz signal (Input 1). The free-running frequency of the PLL is set to20 kHz. Assume that the commutator switch makes contacts repeatedly in the order 1-2-3-4.

The corresponding frequencies synthesized are: (A) 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 40 kHz, 80 kHz

(B) 20 kHz, 40 kHz, 80 kHz, 160 kHz

(C) 80 kHz, 40 kHz, 20 kHz, 10 kHz

(D) 160 kHz, 80 kHz, 40 kHz, 20 kHz

Key:

(A)

17.

The output of the combinational circuit given below is A B

(A) A+B+C Key:

(C)

Exp:

x m(7)

Y

C

(B) A(B+C)

(C) B(C+A)

(D) C(A+B)

y m(3,6) z m(3,6,7) ICP–Intensive Classroom ProgrameGATE-Live Internet Based ClassesDLPTarGATE-All India Test Series Leaders in GATE Preparations65+ Centers across India © All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the written permission.

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ABC AB

B

B(AC A) B(A C) 18.

x

A

ABC ABC ABC

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z

C

y

What is the voltage Vout in the following circuit?

V

(A) 0V

(B)

(C) Switching threshold of inverter

(D) VDD

T

of PMOS VT of NMOS 2

Key:

(C)

Exp:

The transfer characteristics of the CMOS inverter is as follows

Vout Va =

VTP +VTN 2

Va

VIR

VR

VIH

Vin

Since the inverter is connected in feedback loop formed by connecting 10X resistor between the output and input, the output goes and stays at the middle of the characteristics Va

VIR +V IH 2

Va Switching threshold of inverter

19.

Match the inferences X, Y, and Z, about a system, to the corresponding properties of the elements of first column in Routh‟s Table of the system characteristic equation. X: The system is stable … P: … when all elements are positive Y: The system is unstable … Q: … when any one element is zero

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Z: The test breaks down …

Key: 20.

Key: 21.

Key:

(A) X→P, Y→Q, Z→R (C) X→R, Y→Q, Z→P (D)

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R: … when there is a change in sign of coefficients (B) X→Q, Y→P, Z→R (D) X→P, Y→R, Z→Q

A closed-loop control system is stable if the Nyquist plot of the corresponding open-loop transfer function (A) encircles the s-plane point (−1 + j0) in the counterclockwise direction as many times as the number of right-half s-plane poles. (B) encircles the s-plane point (0 − j1) in the clockwise direction as many times as the number of right-half s-plane poles. (C) encircles the s-plane point (−1 + j0) in the counterclockwise direction as many times as the number of left-half s-plane poles. (D) encircles the s-plane point (−1 + j0) in the counterclockwise direction as many times as the number of right-half s-plane zeros. (A) Consider binary data transmission at a rate of 56 kbps using baseband binary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) that is designed to have a raised-cosine spectrum. The transmission bandwidth (in kHz) required for a roll-off factor of 0.25 is __________. 35

22.

A super heterodyne receiver operates in the frequency range of 58 MHz – 68 MHz. The intermediate frequency f1F and local oscillator frequency fL0 are chosen such that f1F f L0 . It is required that the image frequencies fall outside the 58 MHz – 68 MHz band. The minimum required f1F in MHz is _________.

Key:

5

23

The amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is modulated by a single sinusoid to obtain the amplitude modulated signal s t 5cos1600t 20cos1800t 5cos 2000t. The value of the modulation index is _________. 0.5 S(t) = 20 cos 1800 πt + 5cos 1600 πt + 5cos 2000 πt

Key: Exp:

A = A C 1 m cos 200 πt AC

cos (1800 πt)

AC 20 AC μ 5 2 5 μ = 0.5 2 20

μ = 0.5 24.

Concentric spherical shells of radii 2 m, 4 m, and 8 m carry uniform surface charge densities of 20 nC/m2, −4 nC/m2 and ρs,respectively. The value of ρs (nC/m2) required to ensure that the electric flux density D 0 at radius 10 m is _________. ICP–Intensive Classroom ProgrameGATE-Live Internet Based ClassesDLPTarGATE-All India Test Series Leaders in GATE Preparations65+ Centers across India © All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the written permission.

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Key:

-0.25

Exp:

Consider a Gaussian surface a sphere of radius 10m

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To ensure D 0 at radius 10m, the total charge enclosed by Gaussian surface is zero

Qenc = 0 20 22 4 42 Ps 82 0 PS 0.25nc m2

The propagation constant of a lossy transmission line is (2 + 𝑗5) m−1 and its characteristic impedance is 50 j0 at 106 rads 1. The values of the line constants L, C, R, G are,

25.

respectively, (A) L = 200 H m, C = 0.1 H m, R = 50 m, G = 0.02 S/m (B) L = 250 H m, C = 0.1 H m, R = 100 m, G = 0.04 S/m (C) L = 200 H m, C = 0.2 H m, R = 100 m, G = 0.02 S/m (D) L = 250 H m, C = 0.2 H m, R = 50 m, G = 0.04 S/m Key:

(B)

Exp:

We know z0

R jL G jL.....(1)

R jL ........(2) G jL

From (1) and (2) R jL Z0 50 2 j5 R 100 m & L 250 H m

From (1) and (2) G jc

2 j5 G 0.04s m & c 0.1F m z0 50

Q. No. 26 – 55 carry Two Marks Each

26.

The integral

Key:

_________. 20

Exp:

Method-I:-

1 x y 10 dx dy, where D denotes the disc: x 2 y2 4, evaluates to 2 D

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4 x 2 1 2 (x y 10)dxdy 2 x 2 y 4 x 2 1 2 4 x 2 2 (x 10) 0 dx 2 0 2

2 1 2 (x 10)(y)0 4 x dx 2 2 1 2 x 4 x 2 10 4 x 2 dx 2 2 1 0 10 2 4 x 2 dx 0

2

20 x 4 x 4 x 2 sin 1 2 2 2 0

20 0 2 20 2

Method-II:1 1 2 2 x y 10dxdy r 0 0 r(cos sin ) 10rdrd 2 D 2

(changing into polar coordinates by x=rcos ,

y rsin dxdy r drd and r 0to2, 0to 2] 1 2 r sin cos 10 r.dr 0 2 r 0 2 r2 1 20 20 2 2 0

27.

A sequence x[n] is specified as

x n 1 1 1 , for n 2. x n 1 1 0 0 n

The initial conditions are x[0] = 1, x[1] = 1, and x[n] = 0 for n < 0. The value of x[12] is ________. Key:

233

28.

In the following integral, the contour C encloses the points 2πj and −2πj 1 sin z dz C 2 z 2j3

Key: Exp:

The value of the integral is __________ -133.87 1 sin z 1 f ''(2 j) dz 2j (by cauchy integral formula) 2 c z 2j3 2 2!

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f (z) sin z f (z) cos z f (z) sin z

1 sin z 1 1 sin 2j dz 2j sinh 2 133.87 3 2 C z 2j 2 2 2

Key:

, z : 3 5, ,3 z 4.5 in cylindrical coordinates 8 4 has volume of ___________. 4.71

Exp:

Volume =

29.

The region specified by

5 π/4 4.5

d

d dz=4.71

3 π/8 3

30.

The Laplace transform of the causal periodic square wave of period T shown in the figure below is

(A) F s (C) F s Key: Exp:

(B) F s

1

s 1 e 1 (D) F s 1 e sT

1 s 1 esT

sT 2

(B) ST 1 Laplace transition of one cycle of f t 1 e 2 S Laplace transform of causal periodic square wave given in f(t) is,

Fs

31.

1 1 e sT 2

1 1 e s

ST 2

1 e ST

1 1 e S 1 e

ST 2

ST 2

1 e

ST 2

1 ST S 1 e 2

A network consisting of a finite number of linear resistor (R), inductor (L), and capacitor (C) elements, connected all in series or all in parallel, is excited with a source of the form 3

a k 1

k

cos k0 t , where a k 0, 0 0.

The source has nonzero impedance. Which one of the following is a possible form of the output measured across a resistor in the network? ICP–Intensive Classroom ProgrameGATE-Live Internet Based ClassesDLPTarGATE-All India Test Series Leaders in GATE Preparations65+ Centers across India © All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd.No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the written permission.

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(A)

b k 1

GATE-2016-PAPER-01 4

b

k cos k0 t k , where b k a k , k (B)

k 1

3

(C)

a k cos k0 t k

a

k 1

Key: Exp:

k

cos k0 t k , where bk a k , k

k

cos k0 t k

2

(D)

k 1

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(A) The property of any LTI system or network is if the excitation contains „n‟ number of different frequency then the response also contains exactly n number of different frequency term and the output frequency and input frequency must be same however depending on components there is a possible change in amplitude and phase but never the frequency. If the source has 3 frequency terms as given

3

a k 1

k

cos k0 t then any voltage or any current

of any element should have also 3 terms based on this option (B) and (D) are eliminated. If we take option (C). It has 3 frequency term but it also suggest there is a phase change so k but amplitude must be same as input as ak is present which may not be true always. So option (A) is correct, as it suggest frequency term of output and inputs are same with possible change in amplitude and phase, because we have (bk and k ). .32

A first-order low-pass filter of time constant T is excited with different input signals (with zero initial conditions up to t = 0). Match the excitation signals X, Y, Z with the corresponding time responses for t ≥ 0: X: Impulse

P :1 e t T

Y: Unit step

t Q: t T 1 e T

R: e t T (B) X→Q, Y→P, Z→R (D) X→P, Y→R, Z→Q

Key:

Z :Ramp (A) X→R, Y→Q, Z→P (C) X→R, Y→P, Z→Q (C)

Exp:

In general the first order, L.P.F filter transfer function is G s

k because G(0) = k 1 s and G , if we take this transfer function as reference and give different input such as s(t).r(t).u(t) if input is s(t) k k Y s X s 1 1 s 1 s y t ke t

if input is u(t) Y s

k K1 1 e t s 1 s

if input is r(t)

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K3 K K K 1 22 2 s 1 s s 1 s s 2

Y t k1 u t k 2 u t k 3 e t 2 XR YP ZQ

33.

An AC voltage source V = 10 sin(t) volts is applied to the following network. Assume that R1 3k,R 2 6k and R 3 9k, and that the diode is ideal.

Key:

RMS current Irms (in mA) through the diode is _________. 0.68 to 0.72

34.

In the circuit shown in the figure, the maximum power (in watt) delivered to the resistor R is _________.

Key:

0.8

Exp:

To find maximum power transferred to load we need to obtain thevenin equivalent of the circuit obtaining VOC

3k

10k

5V

2k

V0

100V0

40k

V0C

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2 5 2V 3 2 40 4 V0C 100V0 100 2 160V 10 40 5 V0

obtaining ISC

3k

10k

5V

2k

V0

2 5 2V 3 2 100 V0 200 ISC 20 mA 10 10 V 160 R in oc 8k ISC 20

100V0

ISC

40k

V0

8k

so the network is

R 8k

160V for MPT R = 8k Pmcr

35.

V2n 1602 0.8 watt. 4R n 4 8 103

Consider the signal

x n 6n 2 3n 1 8n 7n 1 4n 2 If X e j is the discrete-time Fourier transform of x[n], Then

1 X e j sin 2 2 d is equal

to _________ Key: Exp:

8 Consider

1 1 1 1 1 cos 4 j x e j sin 2 2 d x e j x e j d d x e cos 4 d 2 2 2

1 x e j cos 4 d 0 2

for the given x n

1 x e j d x 0 2

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Consider a silicon p-n junction with a uniform acceptor doping concentration of 1017 cm−3 on the p- side and a uniform donor doping concentration of 1016 cm−3on the n-side. No external voltage is applied to the diode. Given: kT q 26mV,

36.

n i 1.5 1010 cm3 , Si 120 , 0 8.85 1014 F m, and q 1.6 1019 C.

The charge per unit junction area (nC cm−2) in the depletion region on the p-side is __________. Key:

-47 to -49

37.

Consider an n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with a W 4, N Cox 70 106 AV 2 , the threshold gate-to source voltage of 1.8 V. Assume that L voltage is 0.3V, and the channel length modulation parameter is 0.09 V −1. In the saturation region, the drain conductance (in micro seimens) is ________.

Key:

28.47

Exp:

38.

1 W 2 I DS n Cox VGS VT 1 VDS 2 L dI DS 1 W 2 2 g dS n C0 VGS VT 0.09 0.5 70 106 4 1.8 0.3 28.476 s dVDS 2 L

The figure below shows the doping distribution in a p-type semiconductor in log scale.

The magnitude of the electric field (in kV/cm) in the semiconductor due to non uniform doping is_________ Key:

1.10 to 1.25

39.

Consider a silicon sample at T=300K, with a Nd 5 1016 cm3 illuminated uniformly such that the

uniform donor density optical generation rate

is G opt 1.5 1020 cm 3s 1 throughout the sample. The incident radiation is turned off at 𝑡=0. Assume low-level injection to be valid and ignore surface effects. The carrier lifetimes are p0 0.1s and n 0 0.5 s.

The hole concentration at t = 0 and the hole concentration at t 0.3s, respectively, are (A) 1.5 1013 cm3 and 7.47 1011 cm3

(B) 1.5 1013 cm3 and8.23 1011 cm3

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(C) 7.5 1013 cm3 and3.73 1011 cm3 Key:

(A)

Exp:

Pn0

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(D) 7.5 1013 cm3 and 4.12 1011 cm3

n i2 2.25 1020 0.5 104 cc 16 ND 5 10

P Gp0 1.5 1020 106 0.1 1.5 103 cc P t p e

t p

P t P t Pn 0 P t P 0 P 1.5 1013 cc P t 3 7.47 1011 cc

40.

An ideal op-amp has voltage sources V1, V3, V5, …, VN-1 connected to the non-inverting input and V2,V4, V6, …, VN connected to the inverting input as shown in the figure below (+VCC= 15 volt,−VCC= −15 volt). The voltages V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6,… are 1, − 1/2, 1/3, −1/4, 1/5, −1/6,… volt, respectively. As N approaches infinity, the output voltage (in volt) is ________.

Key:

15

41.

A p-i-n photodiode of responsivity 0.8A/W is connected to the inverting input of an ideal opamp as shown in the figure, +Vcc = 15 V, −Vcc = −15V, Load resistor R L 10k. If 10 W of power is incident on the photodiode, then the value of the photocurrent (in A ) through the load is _________.

Key:

790 to 810

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Identify the circuit below.

(A) Binary to Gray code converter

(B) Binary to XS3 converter

(C) Gray to Binary converter

(D) XS3 to Binary converter

Key:

(A)

Exp:

As we know in a decoder w.r.t any binary input combination the corresponding output pin is high and remaining low. Similarly to the encoder one input is high among all and its equivalent binary combination is available at output. In this case to identify the functionality, let give some arbitrary binary input and observe the output. Let [X2 X1 X0] is [1 0 1] respectively then OP5 = 1 = IP7 then [Y2 Y1 Y0] is [1 0 1] If [X2 X1 X0] is [1 1 1] then [OP7 = IP5 = 1] so [Y2 Y1 Y0 = 101] [X2 X1 X0] is [1 0 0] then [OP4 = IP6 = 1] so [Y2 Y1 Y0 = 110] From the above we can say that If input 101 then output is 101 101 101 110 110 So input binary and output gray.

43.

The functionality implemented by the circuit below is

(A) 2-to-1 multiplexer

(B) 4-to-1 multiplexer

(C) 7-to-1 multiplexer

(D) 6-to-1 multiplexer

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Key: Exp:

(B) Decoder inputs will behaves as MUX select lines and when the output of decoder is high then only corresponding buffer will be enable and passed the inputs (P,Q,R,S) to the outpuut line, so it will work as 4-to-1 multiplexer.

44.

In an 8085 system, a PUSH operation requires more clock cycles than a POP operation. Which one of the following options is the correct reason for this? (A) For POP, the data transceivers remain in the same direction as for instruction fetch (memory to processor), whereas for PUSH their direction has to be reversed. (B) Memory write operations are slower than memory read operations in an 8085 based system. (C) The stack pointer needs to be pre-decremented before writing registers in a PUSH, whereas a POP operation uses the address already in the stack pointer. (D) Order of registers has to be interchanged for a PUSH operation, whereas POP uses their natural order. (C) In push operation 3 cycles involved: 6T+3T+3T = 127 POP operation 3 cycle involved: 4T+3T+3T = 107 So in the opcode fetch cycle 2T states are extra in case of push compared to POP and this is needed to decrement the SP.

Key: Exp:

45.

Key: Exp:

The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is K G s 2 s 5s 5 The value of K at the breakaway point of the feedback control system‟s root-locus plot is _____________ 1.25 dk 0 and then by using In this first we need to find the break point by finding the root of ds magnitude condition value of k can be obtained. k G(s) 2 s 5s 5 k s 2 5s s dk 0 ds 2s 5 0 s 2.5

Applying magnitude condition G s 1 k 1 s 5s 5 s 2.5 2

k 1 2 2.5 5x 2.5 5 k 1 6.25 12.5 5

k 1 k 1.25 1.25

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The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is given by G s

K . For the peak overshoot of the closed-loop system to a unit step input to be s s 2

10%, the value of K is __________. Key:

2.86

Exp:

K = 2.86 Peak over shoot 10%

e

12

0.1 2

2 ln 0.1 2 1 1 2 2 ln 0.1

2

1 2 1 ln 0.1

2

1 2.86 2 1 2 0.34 2.86 0.59

The characteristic equation of above transfer function is s2+2s+k = 0 Comparing with standard equation s2 2n s 2n 0 2 k 2 2 k 2 2

2 1 k 2 2.86 2 k 2.86

The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is given by H s 2s 4 5s3 5s 2

47.

The number of zeros in the right half of the s-plane is __________. Key:

3

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We can proceed here by taking this polynomial as characteristic equation and conclusion can be draw by using RH criterion. As we are interested to know how many roots are lying on right half of s plane.

s4

2

0

-2

s3

-5

+5

0

s2

2

-2

since row of zero occurs the auxillary equation is A. :2s 2 2 d At 4 ds

s1

4

s0

-2

0

The number of roots i.e. the number of zeros in this case in right half of plane is number of sign changes Number of sign changes = 3 Consider a discrete memoryless source with alphabet S s 0 ,s1 ,s 2 ,s3 ,s 4 ,... and respective

48.

1 1 1 1 1 probabilities of occurrence P , , , , ,..... The entropy of the source (in bits) is 2 4 8 16 32 ___________.

Key:

2 i

Exp:

1 H = log 2 (2i ) i =1 2

a

i

1 1 i log 2 2 i i =1 2 i =1 2

i

1 2

i =1

i =1

1/ 2 d a d 2bits (a i ) a a i 2 1/ 4 da i =1 (1-a) i =1 da

i a i -1+1 a i a i -1 a 49.

A digital communication system uses a repetition code for channel encoding/decoding. During transmission, each bit is repeated three times (0 is transmitted as 000, and 1 is transmitted as 111). It is assumed that the source puts out symbols independently and with equal probability. The decoder operates as follows: In a block of three received bits, if the number of zeros exceeds the number of ones, the decoder decides in favor of a 0, and if the number of one‟s exceeds the number of zeros, the decoder decides in favor of a 1. Assuming a binary symmetric channel with crossover probability p = 0.1, the average probability of error is ________.

Key:

0.028

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Cross over Probability P = 0.1 X = number of errors 1 1 P ( x 2 ooo sent ) P ( x 2 111 sent ) 2 2

P(error) =

50.

1 3 2 (0.1) 2 (0.9)1 + 2 2

3 3 0 (0.1) (0.9) 3

= 3(0.01)(0.9) (0.1) 3 =

27 1 28 = 0.028 + 1000 1000 1000

An analog pulse s(t) is transmitted over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The received signal is r(t) = s(t) + n(t), where n(t) is additive white Gaussian noise with power spectral N0 . The received signal is passed through a filter with impulse response h(t). Let E s 2 and Eh denote the energies of the pulse s(t) and the filter h(t), respectively. When the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) is maximized at the output of the filter (SNR max), which of the following holds?

Density

Key: Exp:

(A) ES E h ;SNR max

2ES N0

(B) ES E h ;SNR max

ES 2N0

(C) ES E h ;SNR max

2ES N0

(D) ES E h ;SNR max

2E h N0

(A)

r(t) = S(t) + n(t) t

rS (t) = s (u) h (t-u) du 0 t

rn (t) = n (u) h (t-u) du 0

t s (u) h (t-u) du 2 y (t) SNR = S 2 = 0 t E[yS (t] No h 2 (t-u) du 2 0

2

By CS in equality ( if h (t – u) =CS(u)) t

s (u) du 2

SNR opt =

SNR opt

0

No 2

2ES No

2ES No

if E n ES

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The current density in a medium is given by 400sin J a r Am 2 2 r 2 4

The total current and the average current density flowing through the portion of a spherical , 0 2 are given, respectively, by surface r = 0.8 m, 12 4 (A) 15.09 A, 12.86 Am-2

(B) 18.73 A, 13.65 Am-2

(C) 12.86 A, 9.23 Am-2

(D) 10.28 A, 7.56 Am-2

Key:

(A)

52.

An antenna pointing in a certain direction has a noise temperature of 50K. The ambient temperature is 290 K. The antenna is connected to a pre-amplifier that has a noise figure of 2 dB and an available gain of 40 dB over an effective bandwidth of 12 MHz. The effective input noise temperature Te for the amplifier and the noise power Paoat the output of the preamplifier, respectively, are (A) Te 169.36K and Pa0 3.73 1010 W

(B) Te 1.36K and Pa0 3.73 1010 W

(C) Te 182.5K and Pa0 3.85 1010 W

(D) Te 160.62K and Pa0 4.6 1010 W

Key:

(A)

53.

Two lossless X-band horn antennas are separated by a distance of 200λ. The amplitude reflection coefficients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving antennas are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. The maximum directivities of the transmitting and receiving antennas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18 dB and 22 dB, respectively. Assuming that the input power in the lossless transmission line connected to the antenna is 2 W, and that the antennas are perfectly aligned and polarization matched, the power (in mW) delivered to the load at the receiver is _______.

Key:

3

54

The electric field of a uniform plane wave travelling along the negative z direction is given by the following equation: i E w a x ja y E 0 e jkz

This wave is incident upon a receiving antenna placed at the origin and whose radiated electric field towards the incident wave is given by the following equation: 1 E a a x 2a y E I e jkr r

The polarization of the incident wave, the polarization of the antenna and losses due to the polarization mismatch are, respectively,

Key:

(A) Linear, Circular (clockwise), −5dB

(B) Circular (clockwise), Linear, −5dB

(C) Circular (clockwise), Linear, −3dB

(D) Circular (anti clockwise), Linear, −3dB

(C)

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The far-zone power density radiated by a helical antenna is approximated as: 1 W rad W average a r C0 2 cos 4 r The radiated power density is symmetrical with respect to and exists only in the upper hemisphere: 0 ;0 2; C0 is a constant. The power radiated by the antenna (in 2 watts) and the maximum directivity of the antenna, respectively, are (A) 1.5C0, 10dB (B) 1.256C0, 10Db (C) 1.256C0, 12dB (D) 1.5C0, 12dB

Key:

(B)

Exp:

Prad

2 2

W

rad

r 2 sin d d

0 0 2 2

C0 cos 4 r 2 sin d d 2 r 0 0

2

cos2 2 C0 .2 C0 1.256C0 5 5 0 Max.directivity

max Wrad Prad

C0 4 r2 4r 4r 2 10 1.256C0 1.256 2

Max. directivity in dB = 10 log 10 = 10 dB.

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