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at Zone E, Beaulieu Chelmsford, Essex
Archaeological Evaluation Report
Client: Countryside Zest (Beaulieu Park) LLP OA East Report No: 1978 OASIS No: oxfordar3-267606 NGR: TL 7307 1013
Archaeological Evaluation Report
Early Post-medieval remains
Early post-medieval remains at Zone E, Beaulieu, Chelmsford Archaeological Evaluation
By Helen Stocks-Morgan BSc ACIfA With contributions by Carole Fletcher BA ACIfA and Sarah Percival MA MCIfA Editor: Aileen Connor BA ACIfA Illustrators: Charlotte Walton BA MPhil Report Date: December 2016
Summary An archaeological evaluation comprising twelve trenches was carried out within a proposed open space next to the Zone E new neighbourhood, Beaulieu, Chelmsford, Essex. The fieldwork took place between the 13/08/16 and the 23/09/16. The evaluation found evidence for Late Iron Age settlement comprising curvilinear gullies belonging to a possible roundhouse. An east to west aligned field system and pits thought to be associated with a pit alignment recorded in excavations immediately to the north-west (Site 8) probably date to the late medieval/Tudor (transitional medieval) period. These features are likely to be evidence of the managed landscape associated with the Tudor Palace of Beaulieu constructed by Henry VIII and surrounding deer park. Other features associated with this phase of activity include a lime kiln that may have been used to provide lime for use in construction associated with the palace.
Outline planning permission for the construction of a new neighbourhood for North-East Chelmsford, known as Beaulieu, has been granted by Chelmsford City Council (ref: 09/01314/EIA). The new neighbourhood, will comprise up to 3,600 new homes and up to 62,300m² of mixed use development including new schools, leisure and community facilities, employment areas, new highways and associated ancillary development, including roundabout access from Essex Regiment Way and a priority junction from White Hart Lane. The development area is located on land to the east of Essex Regiment Way and north of White Hart Lane, Chelmsford.
Archaeological investigation is required to assist in defining the character and extent of any archaeological remains within the proposed redevelopment area, in accordance with the guidelines set out in National Planning Policy Framework (Department for Communities and Local Government March 2012). The results will enable decisions to be made by ECC, on behalf of the Local Planning Authority, with regard to the treatment of any archaeological remains found.
The evaluation detailed in this report is one of a number of archaeological investigations that have and will take place in the wider development area. This report details only the results of a twelve trench evaluation centred at (TL 7300 1025 and TL 7307 1005) on the eastern margin of Zone E in an area of proposed public open space and landscaping. The fieldwork took place between the 13th August and 23rd September 2016 and was undertaken by Oxford Archaeology East on (Fig. 1).
This archaeological evaluation was undertaken in accordance with the Archaeological Investigation and Mitigation Strategy (URS 2013) prepared for the Beaulieu scheme in consultation with Richard Havis of the Historic Environment Branch, ECC (Planning Application 09/01314/EIA), and supplemented by a Method Statement prepared by OA East.
The site archive is currently held by OA East and will be deposited with the appropriate county stores in due course.
Geology and topography
Zone E is located within the proposed Beaulieu development which is approximately 4km to the north-east of Chelmsford (Fig. 1). The development Site encompasses an area of high ground surrounded on three sides by river valleys. To the west and south is the River Chelmer, and to the east is Boreham Brook. North of the Site the ground rises towards the village of Terling. From the southern part of the Site there are views south towards the Chelmer Valley and Danbury Hill.
The superficial geology consists of boulder clay of the Lowestoft Till formation underlain by London Clays. To the south of the area lay a mixture of head deposits and sand and gravels (British Geological Survey).
Archaeological and historical background Neolithic
Essex has some of the earliest surviving evidence of settlement, mainly concentrated to the north-east along the River Crouch at Lawford and Lemarsh (Hedges, 1984). Evidence for possible domestic settlement within the vicinity of Beaulieu was recorded
at Court Road, 1km to the north-west, in the form of several pits with Neolithic pottery within their fills (SMR 6142). 1.3.2
Bronze Age Settlement continued to be concentrated along the river valleys of the Chelmer and Crouch, however during the Bronze Age the landscape was enclosed by field systems for the first time, such as those found at Great Wakering (Kemble, 2001). These enclosed field systems would have continued in use through into the early Iron Age. It has been suggested that these Bronze Age field systems form the basis for the modern landscape in the Chelmer Valley (Drury & Rodwell, 1980). Several crop-marks have been recorded by aerial photography to the south of Belstead Hall and interpreted as part of a Bronze Age settlement (SMR 16888), with further domestic dwellings excavated at Springfield Lyons, 2.5km to the south-west. Further occupation sites are attested to by the recovery of artefacts, such as at New Hall School, to the south-east and Pratt's Farm, to the north. Iron Age The settlement pattern during the Iron Age would have been of nucleated settlements within a larger farming landscape. Evidence of this, within the vicinity of the development area, was seen to the south of Belstead Hall (SMR 17438). This comprised a large enclosure with associated pits and smaller ditches (Drury, 1978).
The Later Iron Age witnessed an expansion of settlement onto the heavier clay soils and the continued occupation of the estuaries. These estuarine sites become more complex over time, with higher population density and sustained occupation, such as has been found at Little Waltham (Drury 1980).
By the end of the Iron Age sites such as Gosbecks oppida show that portions of the population were highly structured and of high status. These sites would have relied on farming communities scattered around the environs to supply agricultural commodities. (Crummy 1997).
Roman During the Roman period a mansio (an imperial post station or inn) was established 5km west of Beaulieu at Moulsham Street. Around this a small market town developed with the surrounding area forming an agricultural hinterland to supply produce to the town. This agricultural landscape would have comprised large farms and villa complexes, such as those at Great Holts Farm and Bulls Farm Lodge. Smaller domestic sites would also have formed part of the landscape. Evidence for these has been recorded during evaluation work at Greater Beaulieu (Pocock 2008). Evidence for pottery making, associated with domestic use was also recorded. Anglo-Saxon In the immediate post-Roman period, the Roman town at Chelmsford was abandoned and much of the surrounding landscape reverted to rough pasture or woodland (Hunter, 2003). No known remains of Anglo-Saxon date are recorded within the application site although this is more likely to reflect the relatively poor archaeological visibility of AngloSaxon settlement sites rather than a lack of activity during the period.
surviving only as the remains of an eaves-drip gully. Several small pits and postholes were identified outside the roundhouse and were likely to be associated with domestic activity contemporary with the building. This settlement was surrounded by a large oval enclosure. 1.3.24 In Area A1 a single east to west aligned field boundary ditch of possibly Late Iron Age date attests to a wider agricultural landscape of field systems. A second, probably medieval, ditch was encountered on a north-west to south-east alignment (StocksMorgan, 2013a). 1.3.25 In Zone D of the development Site 11 and Area D1 identified evidence of two High medieval house platforms and their surrounding enclosures. Thought to be a medieval settlement associated with Belstead Manor estate (Stocks-Morgan, 2013b). Beaulieu Zone A Housing Evaluation and Excavations, 2014 1.3.26 Trial trench evaluation and subsequent open area excavation within the Zone A housing area to the south of Belstead Hall Farm revealed remains dating from the Middle Bronze Age to the post-medieval period (Stocks-Morgan 2014a), 1.3.27 A Middle Bronze Age boundary ditch, aligned north-east to south-west, evidence for Early Iron Age open settlement comprising ten pits containing a large assemblage of pottery and fired clay, and a medieval, possible retting pit and enclosures were also recorded at Site 7. Sparse domestic activity is suggested by Late Iron Age pits that were revealed in Areas A3 and A4 along the side of a brook to the south of Zone A. In contrast Area A2 revealed the presence of a Late Iron Age/Roman enclosure ditch and later medieval ditch. Zone B and E Trench Evaluation, 2014 1.3.28 Four areas of significant archaeological remains were identified in Zone E. No significant archaeological remains were recorded in Zone B (Stocks-Morgan 2014b). 1.3.29 Two small open area excavations were undertaken to the west of the area, which encountered Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age open settlement, comprising five fourposter structures and several pits. A further are to the north of the site encountered a small undated gully. 1.3.30 A large open area excavation (Site 8) was undertaken towards the south-eastern corner of the site, which identified occupation spanning a period from the Late Iron Age into the Early Roman period. These settlement remains consisted of an enclosure surrounding a roundhouse and associated occupation features. In the Early Roman period this enclosure was reconfigured and the roundhouse was replaced. This phase of settlement also produced an associated midden deposits and an ancillary roundhouse (Stocks-Morgan, in prep)
Beaulieu Phase 2a Infrastructure mitigation evaluation and excavations 2015 1.3.31 A small open area excavation was carried out ahead of the construction of drainage ponds and swales that form part of the Phase 2a infrastructure works. The archaeology encountered comprised a prehistoric trackway and a Late Iron Age nucleated settlement (Stocks-Morgan, 2016a). CZ1 / Site 10 1.3.32 A 14th / 15th century pit was encountered with two associated ditches during excavation of Zone G / Site 10. This pit is thought to be a retting pit, based upon its shape and the recovery of pollen/seeds from the waterlogged deposits. A later medieval ditched enclosure was also recorded. Inside the enclosure were the remains of a 16th century house, represented by the remains of two brick built fireplaces, and a possible brick built staircase. Two further brick built ancillary structures were evident, one being a cellar and the second a probable toilet block (Stocks-Morgan, 2016b). Beaulieu Gas Diversion 1.3.33 A total of six trenches were excavated across two separate fields, within the proposed development area. 1.3.34 No significant archaeological finds, features or deposits were present in the evaluation trenches (Stocks-Morgan, 2016c). Beaulieu Primary and Secondary Schools Site 1.3.35 A total of sixty-one trenches were excavated within the proposed development area, across three separate fields. 1.3.36 Two phases of medieval field boundaries were present within the southern field, one of which was on a north-west to south-east alignment and the second phase aligned on a north to south axis. One further undated ditch was encountered in the northern part of the development area (Stocks-Morgan, 2016d). Beaulieu Land parcels CZ 1 and CZ 2 amd Zones M and N 1.3.37 This evaluation comprised thirty-three trenches across three separate fields, within the proposed development area. 1.3.38 A possible prehistoric posthole was recorded to the north of the site and a transitional medieval ditch and two quarry pits were encountered towards the eastern side of the development area. A further undated ditch was present (Stocks-Morgan, 2016e). Beauileu LS1, CZ5 and the Primary School site (Zone P) 1.3.39 A total of forty-five trenches were excavated across two separate fields, within the proposed development area. 1.3.40 Evidence of Early Iron Age open settlement was encountered, comprising a fire pit and two small pits. A Middle Iron Age ditch, thought to be part of either a field system or trackway was seen in the eastern field. 1.3.41 Transitional medieval remains comprising several brick filled linear features associated with the deer park were recorded in the eastern field. These may be evidence for a deer course. A post-medieval ring ditch was evident in the north-western part of the site along with a field boundary (Stocks-Morgan, 2016f).
Beaulieu CZ 6 and CZ 7 1.3.42 Forty-one trenches were excavated across two separate fields, within the proposed development area. 1.3.43 This evaluation recorded the remains of early prehistoric dispersed settlement in the form of a fire pit and a rectangular pit which contained frequent charcoal. In the northern part of the development area a putative late medieval settlement comprised four potential wall foundations, possibly belonging to a building, and two ditches thought to be part of an enclosure. 1.3.44 Several brick filled linear features in both fields may be evidence for a deer course associated with the deer park (Stocks-Morgan, 2016g). Beaulieu land parcel CZ 7 1.3.45 A total of eighteen trenches were excavated in this area. The remains of two linear, brick filled features may be evidence for a deer course. A further three post-medieval field boundaries were found, along with two undated ditches and an undated posthole (Stocks-Morgan, 2016h).
The author would like thank Iain Williamson of AECOM and Countryside Zest (Beaulieu Park) LLP who respectively commissioned and funded the archaeological work. The project was managed by Richard Mortimer and the illustrator was Charlotte Walton. Thanks are also extended to Simon Birnie who supervised the evaluation and to Ed Cole, Jessica Dyson and Paddy Lambert who helped with the fieldwork. The project was monitored by Richard Havis and Alison Bennett of Essex County Council. The machining was undertaken by David Calder of Danbury Plant Hire.
The objective of this evaluation was to determine as far as reasonably possible the presence/absence, location, nature, extent, date, quality, condition and significance of any surviving archaeological deposits within the development area.
Twelve trenches (Fig. 2) were excavated to evaluate the area of pubic open space and landscaping on the eastern boundary of Zone E.. All archaeological remains were excavated where appropriate and possible.
Machine excavation was carried out with a tracked 15 ton machine fitted with a toothless ditching bucket, under constant archaeological supervision.
The site survey was carried out using a Leica GPS fitted with Smartnet technology.
Spoil, exposed surfaces and features were scanned with a metal detector. All metaldetected and hand-collected finds were retained for inspection, other than those which were obviously modern.
All archaeological features and deposits were recorded using OA East's pro-forma sheets. Trench locations, plans and sections were recorded at appropriate scales and colour and monochrome photographs were taken of all relevant features and deposits.
No bulk samples were taken, as no deposits were considered appropriate for environmental sampling
For consistency with other reports associated with the Beaulieu project, trenches are presented below by field and then in numerical order (see Fig. 2 for trench locations). Zone E comprises one field (Field 25).
Trenches in Field 25
Twelve trenches were excavated within this field. The natural geology was an orange clay. A subsoil layer (820) approximately 0.1m thick was recorded underlying a 0.25m thick topsoil (819). Trench 571
At the western end of the trench was pit 7000 which was at least 1.5m wide and extended beyond the edge of the excavation. This pit had concave and slightly stepped sides and was at least 1.04m deep. Its full depth was not reached out due to safety concerns. The lowest exposed fill comprised a light greyish silty clay (7002) which had a blueish hue and was 0.54m thick. This fill was overlain by a mid orangey brown sandy clay (7001) which was 0.53m thick and produced 836g of cattle bones and five fragments of orangey red brick of a sandy fabric. The feature was probably a relatively recently infilled pond. Trench 572
Towards the northern end of the trench lay a gully (7008) which was aligned north-east to south-west and measured 0.7m wide and 0.1m deep. It had steep sides and a flat base and was filled by a mid greyish brown silty clay (7009). This was truncated by an east to west aligned ditch (7010) which was 0.65m wide. This ditch had steep sides and a flat base which measured 0.09m deep. The fill comprised a mid greyish brown silty clay (7011). No finds were recovered from these features.
Two metres further south was a slightly curvilinear ditch (7006) roughly aligned northwest to south-east, 0.55m wide and 0.1m deep. This gully had concave sides and a concave base and was filled with a mid greyish brown silty clay (7007) which contained three sherds of Later Iron Age pottery. Trench 573 - 577
No archaeology was present in these trenches. Trench 578
This trench revealed two parallel east-west aligned ditches (7021 and 7027) seven metres apart. Ditch 7021 was 0.5m wide and 0.18m deep. This ditch had quite steep sides and a concave base and had a mid greyish brown silty clay fill (7022). Ditch 7027 was 1.55m wide and 0.44m deep. It had steep sides and a concave base and was filled by a mid greyish brown silty clay (7028). Neither ditch produced finds.
At the southern end of the trench was a probably natural layer (7029), 3.5m wide and comprising medium to large flint and river gravels.
A single ditch (7023) on a south-west to north-east alignment was 1.6m wide and 0.7m deep. Its two fills (7024 and 7025) produced no finds. Trench 580 - 581
These trenches were not excavated due to modern disturbance.
Trench 582 3.2.10 Three shallow, sub-circular pits (7020, 7018 and 7016) were revealed in this trench. All had steep sides and flat bases and were between 0.8 and 0.86m in diameter. Pit 7020 was revealed in section only, it was 0.16m deep and filled with a mid grey sandy clay (7019) which contained frequent moderately sized fragments of brick. Pit 7018 was 0.35m deep and filled by a mid brownish grey sandy clay (7017) which contained one shard of glass and occasional charcoal and fired clay flecks. Pit (7016) was only 0.12m deep. Its fill (7015) comprised a mid brownish grey sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks. Trench 583 3.2.11 No archaeology was recorded in this trench. Trench 584 3.2.12 The remains of a lime kiln (7026) dating to the transitional medieval period were revealed in this tench. The kiln was left in situ pending full excavation as described in detail in the Zone E excavation report (Stocks-Morgan, in prep)
The evaluation recovered three sherds of Iron Age pottery weighing 6g all from Trench 572. One shard of glass weighing 3g was recovered from Trench 582. Several fragments of brick were recovered from site but were not retained.
Only Trench 571 produced any environmental materials, these comprised 44 fragments of (probably) cattle bone weighing 84g. No deposits were identified as having potential for other environmental remains.
The discussion concentrates on features that are dated and can be grouped. It is presented chronologically to help set the findings into context within their wider landscape setting (see Fig. 2 for plan).
Iron Age In the northern part of the development area a curvilinear gully (Trench 572; 7006) that produced three sherds of Later Iron Age pottery. However, its fill is likely to be secondary and the pottery sherds are small and abraded suggesting that they were accidentally incorporated after the gully went out of use, and no other material culture was found to suggest domestic occupation.
Two more gullies (7008, 7010) were found in the same trench and were similar in character to the gully. These produced no dating evidence but given their close proximity and similarity are likely to have been contemporary features.
These remains are located immediately north of a small nucleated Late Iron Age settlement consisting of a roundhouse and a small truncated enclosure which was excavated in 2014 (Stocks-Morgan, 2014). It is therefore likely that the curvilinear ditch encountered during this evaluation may be associated with the same settlement.
Transitional medieval Trench 578 revealed two parallel east to west ditches (7021 and 7027), ceramic building material from one of the ditches suggests that they may both date to the transitional medieval period. Their assumed date and alignment is similar to ditches interpreted as part of a field system during excavations in Zone E in 2014 to the west of the evaluation area (Stocks-Morgan, 2016).
Three pits revealed in Trench 582 (7016, 7018 and 7020). These three pits form part of a larger group of features excavated at Site 8 to the west and more recently within the current evaluation area (Stocks-Morgan in prep).
Two of these pits (7016, 7018) were very similar to ones laid out in rows on an east to west alignment and encompassed an area c. 100m by 100m. They were placed on average 5.2m apart both east to west and north to south. The pits had steep sides and a slightly concave base, and ranged in size between 0.45m wide and 0.25m deep to 1.5m wide and 0.35m deep. They had an initial fill of subsoil-derived material.
Some of these pits were later replaced by brick pads, where by, the pits had brick rubble and worked stone fragments laid into the upper part of the pit and are very similar to pit 7020.
A lime kiln in Trench 584 is likely to date to the same period for producing lime to use in construction. This feature is subject to detailed excavation and will be reported in full in the forthcoming Zone E excavation report.
APPENDIX B. FINDS REPORTS B.1 Glass by Carole Fletcher B.1.1
The evaluation produced a small shard of vessel glass. The shard is in relatively poor condition and not closely datable. If further work is undertaken, this material should be taken into consideration alongside any new finds, however if no further work is undertaken, the following catalogue acts as a full record and the glass may be deselected prior to archive deposition.
Weight Form (kg) 0.003 ?Vessel glass
Single sub-rectangular shard of slightly Not closely curved, clear glass with a greenish cast, datable and heavily iridised surfaces and edges. 1.6mm thick
Table 1: Glass
B.2 Prehistoric pottery B.2.1 B.2.2
by Sarah Percival A total of three sherds of later Iron Age shell-tempered pottery weighing 6g came from fill 7007 of gully 7006. The fabric and period represented within the small assemblage compare well with pottery found during previous phases of archaeological work at Beaulieu and indicate activity in Zone E from the earliest Iron Age. Context Feature Feature type 7007 7006 Gully
Quantity Weight (g) Spot Date
S1: Common plate-like voids (shell) in silty clay matrix
6 Later Iron Age
Table 2: Quantity and weight of prehistoric pottery
Introduction A total weight of 836g of animal bone was recovered. The material was recovered from one context only.
Methodology All identifiable elements were recorded using a version of the criteria described in Davis (1992). Identification of the assemblage was undertaken with the aid of Schmid (1972) and France (2009) plus use of the OAE reference collection.
Preservation condition (Erosion grades) was evaluated using a simplified version of the 0-5 scale devised by Brickley and McKinley (2004, 14-15) as follows: •
3 (most of bone surface affected by some degree of erosion,
4 (all of bone surface affected by erosive action),
5 (heavy erosion across whole surface, completely masking normal surface morphology).
Results Trench Context Element 571 571
7002 Teeth 7002 Long Bone 7002 Indet
No. of frags
Taxon 24 Cattle 13 Large Mammal 7 Large Mammal
Collection method Hand Hand
Weight (g) 702 114
Table 3: Animal bone according to collection method (i.e. hand-collection or flotation). C.1.4
Cattle is the only species represented here. Overall surface preservation was very poor (Grade 3-4 McKinley 2004) and bone was highly fragmented. It is probable most of this material represents a single animal. Discussion
This assemblage was derived from a probably modern context and is too small and fragmented to yield any further information. No further work is required.
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