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Colgate University Chemical Hygiene Plan A. INTRODUCTION A1. PURPOSE The purpose of this Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to define prudent work practices and procedures to help ensure that faculty, staff, student workers, and the environment are protected from the hazards associated with the handling, storage, and use of chemicals in laboratories. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations (29 CFR 1910.1450) require all employers engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals to develop and carry out the provisions of a Chemical Hygiene Plan that is capable of protecting employees from health risks associated with hazardous chemicals and capable of keeping exposures below Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). This CHP applies to all laboratories at Colgate University in the departments of biology, chemistry, geology, physics, psychology, and art/art history. OSHA defines a laboratory as ―a workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis.‖ Laboratories involve a greater variety of possible hazards than most work places and some hazards call for precautions not ordinarily encountered. This CHP applies to all Colgate University laboratory users including faculty, staff, students, and visitors. All students who will be participating in a course or research that involves work within a laboratory must attend a lab safety training session, presented by EHS, prior to the date they start working within the lab. This lab safety training is good for one year, after which it must be repeated if laboratory work is going to continue. Training sessions are offered at the beginning of each semester as well as at the start of the summer research session. This training is intended to give general lab safety practices and standard operating procedures. If a lab has a specific hazard that is not covered in the lab safety training given by the EHS office, lab supervisors are responsible for determining whether additional training is necessary as well as conducting additional training. The CHP will be reviewed and updated at least annually by the Director of Environmental Health and Safety. All CHP revisions will be given to Department Chairs for their review and approval. B. DEFINITIONS Action level - The concentration designated by OSHA 29 CFR 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance. Chemical - Any element, chemical compound or mixture of elements and/or compounds. 1
Chemical Hygiene Plan - A written program developed and implemented by the laboratory which sets forth procedures, equipment, Personal Protective Equipment and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards associated with the chemicals used in the laboratory. Chemical Hygiene Officer: An employee who is designated by the employer, and is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Departmental Chemical Hygiene Coordinator - A laboratory employee designated by his/her department who is qualified, either by training or through experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the chemical hygiene plan. Hazardous chemical - Any chemical that presents a physical or health hazard. Health hazard - A chemical that has been shown to cause acute or chronic health effects. Laboratory - A workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis and chemical manipulations are carried out on a ―laboratory scale.‖ Laboratory scale - Work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. Particularly Hazardous Chemicals (PHCs) - Chemicals that have been shown to be carcinogens, reproductive toxins or have a high degree of acute toxicity. Select Carcinogen: Meets one of the following criteria: a. Regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen b. Listed under the category ―known to be carcinogens‖ in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) http://ntpserver.niehs.nih.gov/
c. Listed under Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC) http://184.108.40.206/default.html. d. Listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category ―reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic‖ by NTP. Reproductive Toxin: A chemical(s) that can affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage and effects on fetuses. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - The greatest concentration designated by OSHA, for a specific chemical, which nearly all personnel may be repeatedly exposed to during their 8-hour work-shift without adverse effects.
Physical hazard - A chemical that has been shown to be combustible, explosive, flammable, reactive, a compressed gas, an organic peroxide and/or an oxidizer. Protective Laboratory Practices and Equipment: Laboratory procedures, practices, and equipment accepted by laboratory health and safety experts as effective, or that the employer can show to be effective, in minimizing the potential for exposure to hazardous chemicals. Threshold Limit Value (TLV) - The greatest concentration, designated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) for a specific chemical, to which nearly all personnel may be repeatedly exposed to during their 8hour work-shift without adverse effects. This value will be used when it is lower than the OSHA PEL. C. RESPONSIBLITIES C1. EHS DIRECTOR
Oversee the CHP and conduct yearly reviews and revisions. Conduct yearly Laboratory Safety Reviews Interact with regulators and agencies. File required reports.
C2. CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER (CHO) Provide technical assistance to laboratory supervisors and workers concerning appropriate storage, handling, and disposal of hazardous chemicals. Remain current on rules and regulations concerning chemicals used in laboratories on campus. Assist the EHS Director with Laboratory Safety Reviews to assess levels of compliance with the CHP. Inform new faculty and staff of the information contained in the CHP. Coordinate training of Department Chemical Hygiene Coordinators and Laboratory Supervisors. Maintain a library of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and other laboratory health and safety literature Oversee and maintain the Chemical Inventory Management System (CIMS). Maintain records. C3. DEPARTMENT CHAIRPERSON The department chairperson of each science department will:
Support the CHO and assist their Department Chemical Hygiene Coordinator (DCHC) in maintaining awareness and compliance with the CHP. Prepare budget requests for health and safety improvements. The current department chairpersons are: Department Art/Art History Biology Chemistry Geology Psychology Physics
Chairperson Robert McVaugh Kenneth Belanger Rick Geier Amy Leventer Rebecca Shiner Beth Parks
C4. LABORATORY SUPERVISORS A laboratory supervisor is anyone overseeing any type of laboratory work. This could include faculty and staff mentors, principal investigators, instructors, and/or other researchers. No one is exempt from the appropriate safety precautions. Lab supervisors must serve as good role models for their technical staff and students by observing all rules and recommendations, wearing protective equipment, and being enthusiastic about safety. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for administration of the CHP within their own lab spaces. Untrained workers (or students) cannot be permitted to work with chemicals. All personnel working in their laboratories will be aware of and practice appropriate precautions. To facilitate this awareness, all supervisors will cover and convey the following information during training. Laboratory Supervisors are tasked with making sure: Rules and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are enforced and discipline is maintained. Emergency equipment is available, in proper working order, and everyone has been trained on its use. Information and training on special or unusual hazards or equipment is provided and documented. Appropriate safety plans and emergency procedures have been developed and are followed. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are readily accessible and are reviewed before unfamiliar work or work with new chemicals begins. Personal protective equipment is available and used. Comply with all Hazardous Waste Regulations, including waste minimization. Periodic inspections and surveys of the laboratory work area are conducted.
The CHO and DCHC should be notified prior to commencement of any new process or activities covered by this program. Similar information must be conveyed to students as well. Therefore, lab instructors/supervisors will distribute at the first laboratory of each semester, to each student, the ―Laboratory Safety and Student Code of Conduct‖ (LSSCC) for student review/signature. The signed copy will be collected by the lab supervisor and delivered to the NASC Office to be kept on file for one year. C6. EMPLOYEES MUST: Follow all health and safety procedures and rules. Report all hazardous conditions to their supervisor immediately. Report any job related injury or illnesses to their supervisor and seek treatment as soon as possible. Refrain from the operation of equipment or instruments without proper instruction and authorization. Wear or use prescribed personal protective equipment. Maintain awareness of the hazards of all chemicals in the laboratory as well as how to handle hazardous chemicals safely. Request information and training from EHS when unfamiliar with proper handling of hazardous chemical or procedure.
D. CHEMICAL INVENTORY MANAGEMENT D1. SCOPE The management and control of chemicals is the responsibility of everyone involved in the acquisition, use, and disposal of them. Colgate University has a responsibility to comply with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulations covering chemical purchase, use, transportation, storage, emergency planning, security and disposal. To satisfy this obligation, Colgate has implemented a comprehensive Chemical Management System that includes up to date inventories of our laboratory chemicals. The following policies and procedures for chemical inventory control are designed to help users understand and meet the above responsibilities and requirements. The procedures cannot be designed to cover every situation, and this system allows for flexibility if there is prior coordination with the EHS office. All chemical users must comply with this program and are encouraged to provide constructive suggestions to EHS so that continuous improvements can be made. D2. OBJECTIVES The goals of this system are to: Ensure that chemicals are properly identified and catalogued in the chemical management system and that pertinent health, safety, and other information regarding each item in the inventory is readily available and accessible.
Facilitate the physical inventory of chemicals through maintenance of a standard numbering system (barcoded) and a computerized chemical inventory tracking system. Minimize waste generation to control waste disposal costs. Facilitate budget preparation and planning by maintaining information on usage patterns, age, shelf life, and cost. Minimize the number and amount of chemicals stored throughout the university. Develop accountability procedures to comply with federal, state, and local laws governing purchases, storage, transportation, use, emergency planning, and disposal of the chemicals used at Colgate. The benefits of meeting our chemical management goals are reduced purchasing and disposal costs, regulatory compliance, and a safe and healthy environment for students, faculty and staff. D3. OVERVIEW Colgate has implemented a computerized Chemical Inventory System (Vertere) to provide an inventory record of all chemicals located within the Natural Sciences Division. All chemical purchases made are directed to the chemical receiving room by the Purchasing Department. The chemical receiving room is located in basement of Ho Science Center and is maintained by the EHS department. Once chemicals are received by EHS they are opened within a fume hood and containers are checked for integrity. If applicable, numbered barcodes are then placed on the containers and the chemical information is entered into Vertere. Chemicals are then delivered to the lab by EHS staff. Within the Art/Art History, chemicals (paints, cleaners, developer, fixer, etc…) are inventoried once per year. The Studio Safety Technician will serve as a liaison between the art department and EHS. If large amounts/extremely hazardous substances are purchased by the art department in between scheduled inventory, the Studio Safety Technician will inform the CHO so that those items can be entered into the inventory log. The acceptance of chemical gifts is prohibited without consent of EHS. Approved gifts must be tagged and entered into the Chemical Inventory System. Once the initial physical inventory is completed, the labs will be re-inventoried on a annual basis using a handheld scanner. The re-inventory data is downloaded into Vertere, the CIMS software program, so that location changes and disposal information can be updated. Additionally, blue recycling bins are located in the laboratories for collecting empty containers. This is so that the inventory can be maintained as up to date as possible in between yearly reinventory. It is essential that all users comply with this collection system. (All tagged containers must be saved for collection). Blue chemical recycling bins will be emptied by EHS periodically.
D4. CHEMICAL REQUISITION FORMS The Chemical Requisitions Forms are for ordering in-stock chemicals. Please use Purchasing’s portal (electronic requisition) to place orders for non-stocked chemicals, equipment and other non-chemical items. Requisition forms are available in department offices and EHS. They must be filled out and returned to EHS for processing. E. STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURES E1. GENERAL Follow all safety instructions carefully. Use equipment only for its intended purpose. Become thoroughly acquainted with the location and use of safety equipment such as safety showers, fire blankets, eyewash stations, fire extinguishers, and emergency exits. Know the safety rules and procedures that apply to the work being done. Determine the potential hazards and precautions before undertaking any operation. Be alert to any unsafe conditions and work practices. Call attention to any safety issue immediately so that appropriate corrections can be made as soon as possible. Horseplay, practical jokes, or other behavior that might confuse, startle, or distract other workers in the laboratory is forbidden. Be certain all chemicals are labeled clearly and correctly. Post warning signs when unusual hazards, such as radiation, laser, use of carcinogens, or highly toxic chemicals exist. E2. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – EYES Everyone in the laboratory including visitors MUST wear appropriate eye protection whenever chemicals are in use. All protective eyewear used in the laboratory must meet the current ANSI Z87.1 standard. Safety Glasses Safety glasses provide eye protection from moderate impact and particles associated with grinding, sawing, scaling, broken glass, and minor chemical splashes, etc. Side protectors are required when there is a hazard from flying objects. Safety glasses do not provide adequate protection for processes that involve heavy chemical use such as stirring, pouring, or mixing. In these instances, splash goggles should be used. Contact lenses can be worn without increased risks in most laboratory environments if approved by the lab supervisor. Contact lenses will not be substituted for appropriate eye protection; approved eye protection will also be worn. Contact lens wearers will be identified prior to beginning any laboratory operations. Laboratory supervisors who allow contact lens use and the contact lens wearers must be familiar with emergency procedures. Faculty and staff who wear contact lenses should consider obtaining a pair of prescription safety glasses.
Regular prescription eyeglasses (with or without side shields) are not allowed as a substitution for safety glasses or splash goggles. Faculty and staff may obtain prescription safety glasses (with side shields). Contact EHS to obtain information regarding Colgate’s Prescription Safety Glasses Program. Students, faculty and staff who do not obtain prescription safety glasses must wear safety glasses (for impact hazard) or goggles (for splash hazard) designed to go over their prescription glasses. Splash Goggles Splash goggles provide adequate eye protection from many hazards, including potential chemical splash hazards, use of concentrated corrosive material, and bulk chemical transfer. Goggles are available with clear or tinted lenses, fog proofing, and vented or nonvented frames. Be aware that goggles designed for woodworking are not appropriate for working with chemicals. These types of goggles can be identified by the numerous small holes throughout the face piece. In the event of a splash, chemicals could enter into the small holes, and result in a chemical exposure to the face. Ensure the goggles you choose are rated for use with chemicals. Welder’s/Chippers’ Goggles Welder’s goggles provide protection from sparking, scaling, or splashing metals and harmful light rays. Lenses are impact resistant and are available in graduated lens shades. Chippers'/Grinders' goggles provide protection from flying particles. A dual protective eyecup houses impact resistant clear lenses with individual cover plates. Face Shields Face shields provide additional protection to the eyes and face when used in combination with safety glasses or splash goggles. Face shields consist of an adjustable headgear and face shield of tinted or clear lenses or a mesh wire screen. Shields should be used in operations when the entire face needs protection and to protect eyes and face from flying particles, metal sparks, liquid cryogens, and chemical/biological splashes. Face shields with a mesh wire screen are not appropriate for use with chemicals. Face shields must not be used alone and are not a substitute for appropriate eyewear. Face shields should always be worn in conjunction with a primary form of eye protection such as safety glasses or goggles. Welding Shields Welding shields are similar in design to face shields but offer additional protection from infrared or radiant light burns, flying sparks, metal splatter, and slag chips encountered during welding, brazing, soldering, resistance welding, bare or shielded electric arc welding, and oxyacetylene welding and cutting operations. Equipment fitted with appropriate filter lenses must be used to protect against light radiation. Tinted and shaded lenses are not filter lenses unless they are marked or identified as such. Laser Eye Protection A single pair of safety glasses is not available for protection from all LASER outputs. The type of eye protection required is dependent on the spectral frequency or specific wavelength of the laser source.
E3. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – CLOTHING Clothing will offer protection from splashes, spills and sparks. Protective clothing should be easily removable in case of an accident, and should be fire resistant. high heeled or open toed shoes, sandals, and flip-flops will not be worn in the laboratory. Shorts, short dresses, miniskirts, tanktops, and halter tops are also prohibited. Long hair and loose clothing will be constrained. Jewelry such as rings, bracelets, and watches will not be worn. All laboratories have been supplied with fire resistant lab coats. These should always be worn when working with chemicals or opened flames within the lab. E4. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT – GLOVES Gloves are an important part of personal protection when used correctly. Check to make sure there are no cracks, breaks, or small holes prior to use. Gloves will be removed before handling telephones, doorknobs, writing instruments, notebooks and leaving the lab to prevent the unintentional spread of chemical contamination. With the exception of welding and cryogen gloves, gloves will be changed on a periodic basis depending on the nature of work and the chemicals used. Glove material must be appropriate for the chemicals being handled and the operation being performed. There may be some chemical resistance variability from manufacturer to manufacturer. It is important to consult the specific permeation, penetration, and degradation rates for each manufacturer to assist in determining the correct type of glove. This information should be easily accessed from the manufacturer’s website. E5. PERSONAL HYGIENE Do not prepare, store, or consume food or beverages in the laboratory. Do no apply cosmetics in the laboratory. Wash hands and lower arms before leaving the lab even if gloves were worn. Do not use solvents to wash skin. Solvents remove the protective oils from the skin and cause drying, redness, and irritation. Never wear or bring lab coats or aprons in areas where food is stored or consumed. Never pipette or siphon by mouth. Food items will not be stored in a refrigerator/freezer used for chemical/specimen storage. Refrigerators/freezer used for chemical specimen storage will clearly be labeled ―Notice – No Food or Drink Allowed‖. E6. HOUSEKEEPING In the laboratory and elsewhere, keeping things clean and neat generally leads to a safer environment. When housekeeping standards fall, safety performance inevitably deteriorates. Therefore: Work areas will be kept clean and free from obstructions. Keep isles free of chairs, boxes, equipment, and waste receptacles. Lab benches and floors will be cleaned regularly and kept free of clutter and chemical residue.
No hazardous chemicals should be stored on the floor or above eye level. Access to emergency equipment, exits, control panels, and outlets will be kept clear at all times. Drawers and cabinets will be closed when not in use. Full hazardous waste collection containers will be removed from the laboratory on a weekly basis by EHS. Unneeded or unwanted reagents will be given to EHS for disposal or to be added to the surplus chemical stock. Spilled chemicals will be cleaned up immediately and disposed of properly. E7. UNATTENDED OPERATIONS Reactions that are left to run unattended overnight or at other times are prime sources for fire, floods, or explosions. Equipment such as power stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, and water condensers will not run unattended without fail-safe provisions. Unattended operations will be checked regularly. Appropriate signs will be posted indicating that a laboratory operation is in progress. The sign will include any hazards associated with the operation and a telephone number of the person(s) to be contacted in an emergency. E8. WORKING ALONE No one will work in a laboratory building alone. If a laboratory supervisor determines that an employee or student can work alone in a laboratory room, arrangements will be made for frequent contact with someone in the immediate area. Contact will be maintained with Campus Safety during work outside normal hours. This contact involves notifying Campus Safety (ext. 7333) prior to entering the lab, and providing them with an estimated duration of time that they will be in the lab, and contacting them upon departure. E9. SECURITY All laboratories will be locked when unattended and not in use to protect employees, students, equipment, supplies, and the public. Locked storage cabinets will be utilized for expensive, hazardous, or sensitive items. All suspicious persons or actions will be reported to Campus Safety immediately at ext. 7333. E10. GLASSWARE Careful handling and storage procedures are necessary to avoid damaging glassware. Damaged or broken glassware will be discarded. Broken glass will be placed in designated containers. Broken glass collection containers will be labeled, ―CAUTION – BROKEN GLASS‖ to prevent injury to custodians and garbage handlers. Adequate hand protection will be worn when inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers or corks, or when placing rubber tubing on glass connections.
Glass apparatus under vacuum will be handled with extreme care to prevent implosion. Glassware under vacuum will be taped or shielded and only glassware designed for vacuum use such as Dewar flasks will be used for that purpose. Glassware will be cleaned at the laboratory sink or in a laboratory dishwasher. The use of strong oxidizer agents such as nitric, chromic, or sulfuric acid will be minimized. Proper hand protection will be worn when handling broken glass. Glassware or bottles used in laboratory operations will not be used to prepare or store food or beverages. E11. SYSTEMS UNDER PRESSURE Reactions under pressure will be carried out in an apparatus that is designed to withstand the full pressure of the system. All pressurized apparatus will have appropriate relief devices. E12. COMPRESSED GASES Gas cylinders will be strapped or chained securely to a wall or bench top. Gas cylinders will be transported using gas cylinder carts specifically designed for this purpose Gas cylinders will be capped when not in use. Flammable compressed gases will be stored away from heat, oxygen, and sources of ignition. Flammable, toxic, and corrosive gas cylinders in laboratories shall be kept to the minimum number necessary for on-going work. An appropriate regulator will be used. Gas cylinders will not be bled completely empty. Empty gas cylinders will be labeled as such and separated from full ones. Compressed gas cylinders should be visually inspected daily for leaks, cracks, etc. This visual inspection will include the cylinder, safety relief devices, valves, protection caps and stems. If a cylinder is thought to be defective, it should be returned to the supplier for replacement ASAP. Under no circumstances should employees attempt to repair defective cylinders. Gages should be checked to ensure that the gas under pressure is not left in hoses when operations are completed. Never use a flame to detect flammable gas leaks. Always use soapy water. E13. CHEMICAL STORAGE General: Every chemical container in the laboratory will have a definite storage place and must be returned to that location after each use. Containers will not be left on the bench tops overnight.
Do not store chemicals on desks, bench tops, or in hoods that are used for chemical manipulations. Storage trays or secondary containment will be used to minimize the spread of liquid material should a container break or leak. Chemicals will be stored by hazard class, not alphabetically. At the very least acid will be separated from bases and flammables will be separated from oxidizers Chemical containers will be inspected periodically. Worn or faded labels will be replaced. Unneeded or unwanted items will be donated to the surplus chemical inventory (via EHS). Deteriorated or unusable chemicals will be disposed. Chemical containers need to be dated when opened. The receiving date will be recorded in CIMS. Toxic Substances: Chemicals known to be highly toxic will be stored in well-ventilated areas in chemically resistant secondary containers. Only minimum working quantities will be present in the work area. Containers of suspected carcinogens or acutely toxic chemicals will carry a label such as the following: ―CAUTION – CARCINOGEN, CAUTION – HIGHLY TOXIC‖ and/or carcinogen label/icon affixed. Peroxide Forming Chemicals: Specific chemicals that can form dangerous concentrations of peroxides on exposure to air include cyclohexane, cyclooctene, decalin (decahydronaphthalene), p-dioxane, ethyl ether anhydrous, diisopropyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and tetralin (tetrahydronaphthalene). The quantity of peroxide forming chemicals purchased will be limited to the minimum quantity required. Unused material will not be returned to the original container. Peroxide forming chemicals will be stored at the lowest possible temperature consistent with their freezing point to prevent decomposition, but will not be allowed to freeze. F.CONTROLLING CHEMICAL EXPOSURES The basic routes for a chemical to enter the body in a laboratory setting are: inhalation, skin and eye contact, ingestion, and injection. The prevention of entry by one of these routes can be accomplished by control mechanisms such as engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and administrative controls. Each route can be minimized by a variety of control measures depending on the hazard and operation. Employing administrative controls is the most desirable method for controlling chemical exposures and must be used whenever plausible. Administrative controls include but are not limited to: Hazard information and education.
Substitution of non-hazardous or less hazardous chemicals, procedures, or equipment. Reducing the volumes of experiments or quantities used. Control and minimize individual exposure times. Rotate responsibilities. Restrict access to an area where a hazardous chemical is in use. Conduct operations that produce nuisance odors outside of typical hours. Place proper signs on doors to indicate the hazards within and the name and phone numbers of appropriate individuals to contact in an emergency. F1. INHALATION Inhalation of hazardous chemicals is the most common route of entry to the body in laboratory operations. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) publishes annual lists of Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Short Term Exposure Limits (STELs) for common chemicals and biological agents used in the laboratory. These values are guides, not legal standards, and are defined as follows: TLV: Time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effects. STEL: Maximum airborne concentration to which workers can be exposed for periods of up to 15 minutes. Such exposures should be limited to no more than four per day with as least 60 minutes between exposures; and the total time-weighted average should not exceed the TLV value. To avoid significant inhalation exposures and to limit exposure to concentrations above TLVs or OSHA’s PELs values, there are a number of control measures that can be used. Substituting a less toxic or less volatile chemical is the most desirable measure. If substitution is not practical, ventilation will be used to reduce exposure. Dilution ventilation may be used to reduce exposure to non-hazardous nuisance vapor and odor. All hazardous chemicals should be used in a properly functioning chemical fume hood. For extremely toxic substances, such as those classified as poison inhalation hazards by the Department of Transportation, the use of closed systems such as a glove box may be required. If necessary, personal protective equipment will be worn to limit chemical exposures. Dust masks or half face air purifying respirators may be utilized if necessary. Respirators will not be worn in laboratories without first meeting the requirements of the OSHA Respirator Standard (1910.134). The requirements include training on proper use, selection, cleaning, and storage of respirators as well as fit testing, medical testing and surveillance to ensure that the user is physically capable of wearing a respirator. F2. SKIN AND EYE CONTACT
Contact with the skin is a frequent mode of chemical injury. To reduce the risk of chemicals entering the body via skin or eye contact, controls include substitution and ventilation as described above. If this does not control the exposure the next step is wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves, eye protection, lab coats, aprons, appropriate shoes, and special protective equipment as required by the specific hazard present. The laboratory supervisor should consult reference to determine the proper protective material for the chemicals being used. Administrative controls to reduce skin/eye contact exposure include: Establishing hazardous and non-hazardous areas in the laboratory. Enforcing sound chemical hygiene procedures such as no eating or drinking in the lab and washing hands and face after handling chemicals. F3. INGESTION Most of the chemicals used in the laboratory are toxic if they enter the body via ingestion. The relative toxicity of a chemical can be determined by its LD50, which is the quantity of material that a single does will cause the death of 50% of the test animals. It is usually expressed in grams or milligrams per kilogram of bodyweight. Ingestion should not be a route of exposure in a laboratory setting. The best way to eliminate exposure by ingestions is to limit actual contact with all chemicals. Wear gloves and practice good hygiene measures. Food and drink will not be stored or consumed in areas where chemicals are being used or stored. Label all chemical containers, and replace worn or faded labels as-soon-as-possible. Liquid chemicals will not be pipetted or siphoned by mouth. The appropriate apparatus will be used to perform this function. F4. INJECTION Exposure to chemicals by injection seldom occurs in the chemical laboratory. Attention to detail and adherence to general standard operating procedures will provide control against accidental injection exposure. Red sharps containers will be used to collect all used needles and syringes. Separate collection containers will be used to collect broken glass. Label the containers, ―CAUTION – Broken Glass.‖ See also our Laboratory Waste Management Procedures. Upon request, the CHO will assist with exposure evaluations for any suspected exposures to substances used in the laboratory. Records of exposure evaluations and exposure monitoring will be maintained at the Environmental Health and Safety Office, SB-4 McGregory Hall or Room 123 of the Ho Science Center. G. VENTILATION G1. GENERAL Laboratory air should be replaced continuously (8 to10 air changes/hour). General ventilation provides only modest protection against toxic gases, aerosols, vapors and dusts. General ventilation will not be used for protection against toxins.
G2. LOCAL Local ventilation will be used to prevent harmful fumes, mists, dusts, gases, and vapors from entering the laboratory air. Your best protection is the chemical fume hood, if used properly. Fume hoods will be inspected and validated annually by trained Colgate representatives or a contractor. Fume hoods will have a face velocity of as least 100 linear feet per minute at a sash opening of 18 inches. Each hood used for chemical operations will be labeled with a sticker stating the face velocity and the date certified. The sticker will be placed on the front of the hood above the face opening. If a hood is found to be unacceptable, a warning sign indicating the hood did not pass inspection and does not provide optimum protection will be attached in a conspicuous location. The warning sign will include instructions on the proper procedures to have the hood repaired or maintenance service performed. Under no circumstances should laboratory personnel continue to use a fume hood that has not passed the annual inspection/certification process or if it has a warning sign attached, even if the fume hood appears to have airflow. Laboratory personnel must make arrangements with other laboratories with functioning fume hoods if their work requires the use of a fume hood. A simple visible test for users to ensure flow into fume hoods and other ventilation equipment is to tape a piece of lens paper to the hood opening and note its movement. This makeshift apparatus is called a telltale. . *Note—other hood types that do not directly exhaust contaminated air to the outside (i.e. bio-safety cabinets, HEPA equipped down-draft tables), protect hood users by removing and filtering airborne contamination from the space, and the air is re-circulated to the general laboratory atmosphere. Be sure to NOT use hazardous chemicals in these types of hoods and follow manufacturer specific guidelines regarding use parameters and requirements. Experiment or work with highly toxic substances (LD50 <50 mg/kg,) may require more specialized local ventilation such as the use of a glove box or other closed system. G3. WORK PRACTICES FOR CHEMICAL FUME HOODS Set up work at least 6 inches from the face of the hood to avoid turbulence at the sash edge. Separate and elevate each instrument by using blocks or racks so that air can flow easily around all apparatus. Do not clutter the hood with unnecessary bottles or equipment. Do not use the hood for storage of chemicals or other materials if it is used for chemical operations as well. Only materials in use should be in the hood. Work with the sash in the lowest possible position. The sash provides a physical barrier to protect against splashes, sprays, fires,
or minor explosions. Lower the sash completely when no one is working in the hood. Do not obstruct the slots at the back of the hood. Keep the hood baffles free of obstructions. Do no dismantle or modify the physical structure of the hood or exhaust system in any way without first consulting B&G personnel. Do not place electrical receptacles or other spark producing equipment inside the hood. Never put your head inside an operating hood to check an experiment. The plane of the sash is the barrier between contaminated and uncontaminated air. Clean up spills in the hood as soon as possible. Do not use a hood for evaporation of chemical wastes. Heating of perchloric acid will only be performed in a perchloric acid fume hood. These hoods are located in Wynn Hall Rm 319 or Ho Science Center Rm 233.
If you suspect that your fume hood is not functioning properly, alert EHSO (ext. 7994) or Buildings and Grounds (ext. 7130).
H. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS) The Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) office will track chemical purchases from all vendors to ensure that Material Safety Data Sheets are received for every hazardous chemical. A copy of a MSDS for each hazardous chemicals used at Colgate University will be on file located in McGregory Hall room SB-4. MSDS or other reference information for particularly hazardous substances should be kept on file in the laboratory or building where they are used as well. Instructional laboratories should also have MSDS copies on file for the hazardous chemicals frequently used or stored in large quantities in the laboratory. It is the responsibility of the laboratory supervisor to ensure that these MSDS files are maintained and updated. MSDSs must be reviewed before working with unfamiliar or particularly hazardous chemicals, and should be obtained prior to purchase to properly evaluate substances being considered for use. MSDSs contain information about safe handling and storage procedures as well as personal protective equipment that is required for adequate protection. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for explaining this information to technicians and students. The Colgate University online MSDS Library (Chemwatch) can be accessed via the following website: http://jr.chemwatch.net/chemffx/?x. I. INFORMATION AND TRAINING I1. GENERAL
Employee information and training will occur initially during a new employee orientation period. Training and information distribution is a continuous process and formal training sessions should be given at least biennially. Laboratory supervisors must ensure that everyone working or studying under them has been adequately trained on the chemicals, equipment, and procedures that they are using. Emergency procedures and equipment must not be overlooked. See also Section B on Responsibilities. I2. INFORMATION All laboratory personnel will be informed of the contents of the ―Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories,‖ OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450 and the location and contents of Colgate University’s CHP. All laboratory personnel will be informed of the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Unless it is a substance specific standard a majority of the OSHA PELs can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1000. Additional information and training will be available upon request. Reference material is available to employees through the Environmental Health and Safety Office, SB-4 McGregory Hall or Rm. 123 of the Ho Science Center I3. TRAINING Training will consist of methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical, the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area, the measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure, including engineering controls, personal protective equipment, work practices, and emergency procedures. Training will also cover Colgate University’s CHP and Hazardous Waste Management Procedures. J. PRIOR APPROVAL of the use of chemicals that have special handing and disposal. The extreme hazards of some chemicals demand that special handling and disposal techniques be used. Before beginning any laboratory operation the supervisor or instructor must review MSDSs or LCSSs for each chemical that they are unfamiliar with to determine precautions, waste disposal implications and methods. The use of this select group of chemicals will require prior approval of the CHO before they are introduced and/or utilized in the laboratory setting. This will ensure that: The chemical and physical hazards associated with these chemicals are adequately assessed. Sufficient hazard/exposure control strategies and equipment are available for safe use of chemicals. Certain administrative procedures, such as the generation of hazardous wastes within the specified small quantity generator thresholds are maintained. J1. CHEMICALS REQUIRING PRIOR APPROVAL
Chemicals requiring approval prior to use will be referred to as Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS’s), and typically include select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. PHS substances include those that are more stringently regulated by state and federal agencies (NYSDEC/EPA P-listed chemicals, Department of Homeland Security Appendix A chemical facility rules, etc.), or are otherwise are included for best chemical safety management practices. J2. OTHER PRIOR APPROVAL CONSIDERATIONS Although outside of the purview of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, certain other activities lab supervisors may wish to engage in require prior approval from College offices other than EHS. These activities include: The use of live animals—contact the Chair of the Animal Care & Use Committee (Jun Yoshino). The uses of radiation generating equipment or radioisotopes— contact the Radiation Safety Officer (Randy Fuller) or the Associate Radiation Safety Officer (Christine LaFave). Use of radioactive materials or radiation generating equipment must be in accordance with Colgate’s license and the New York State Department of Health Guide 10.2, Rev. 1, April 1989. J3. PRIOR APPROVAL PROCEDURES Before any Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS’s) are utilized in the laboratory setting, the lab supervisor will complete the Particularly Hazardous Substance Use Approval form, The completed form will be submitted to the Department Chemical Hygiene Officer and then the Director of EHSO for approval. Subsequent actions prior to approval or denial will be based upon technical or administrative limitations.
K. Particularly Hazardous Chemicals Highly Reactive Chemicals Highly reactive chemicals are inherently unstable and can react in an uncontrolled manner to liberate heat, toxic gases, or explosive force. They include shock sensitive chemicals, high-energy oxidizers and peroxide formers (see below). Before working with these materials, safety information should be reviewed to evaluate proper storage and handling procedures. In addition to the general procedures above, the following procedures are recommended:
Secure reaction equipment.
Use impact protection (shields and guards) in addition to chemical splash protection (i.e. eye protection, face shields, gloves, and aprons).
Handle shock-sensitive chemicals gently to avoid friction, grinding, and impact.
Dispose of reagents if their age or purity is suspect.
High-risk experiments should not be performed!
There are some additional hazardous conditions that are not usually attributed to ―reactive chemicals‖ but should be mentioned. Extreme differences in physical state can cause an uncontrollable release of energy. For example, bringing a hot liquid such as an oil into contact with a liquid with a lower boiling point such as water will cause instantaneous vaporization of the lower boiling point liquid and a violent release of energy.
EXAMPLES OF REACTIVE CHEMICALS The following list of examples is compiled from several general references.1 Manufacturer’s Material Safety Data Sheets or the references cited should be consulted to determine the specific reactive characteristics of a particular chemical.
OXIDIZERS These chemicals can readily provide reactive oxygen under certain conditions. When in contact with organic materials (including wood, paper, organic chemicals) or other easily oxidizable compounds (e.g. metal powders), oxidizers can form unstable and explosive compounds sensitive to shock. Examples include: Bromine and compounds Chlorine and compounds Chromates and dichromates Chromium trioxide Chromic acid Fluorine Iodine and compounds Manganese dioxide Nitrates Nitric acid Nitrites
WATER EXPOSURE SENSITIVE Water reactive chemicals can develop pressure; generate flammable, explosive, corrosive or toxic gases; or ignite or explode when exposed to water or moisture. Examples include: alkali and alkaline-earth metals (sodium, lithium, calcium, potassium, magnesium) aluminum chloride anhydrous metal halides (aluminum tribromide, germanium tetrachloride) anhydrous metal oxides (calcium oxide) benzoyl chloride calcium carbide calcium oxide nonmetal halides (boron tribromide, phosphorous pentachloride) nonmetal halide oxides (inorganic acid halides, phosphoryl chloride, sulfuryl chloride, chlorosulfonic acid)
REFERENCES: Furr, A.K., 2000. CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 5th Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton. National Research Council, 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Hazardous Chemcials. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NFPA, 2010. Standard 45: Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemcials. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2012. 49 CFR 172.101 Hazardous Materials Table. 1
nonmetal oxides (acid anhydrides, trioxide)
AIR EXPOSURE SENSITIVE Air exposure sensitive chemicals can develop pressure, generate flammable or explosive gases, ignite or explode when exposed to air. Examples include: alkylmetal derivatives (ethoxydiethylaluminum and dimethylbismuth chloride) analogous derivatives of nonmetals including diborane, dimethylphosphine, triethylarsine, dichloro(methyl)silane carbonyl metals (pentacarbonyliron and octacarbonyldicobalt) finely divided metals (calcium, titanium) metal hydrides (potassium hydride and germane) partially or fully alkylated metal hydrides (diethylaluminum hydride, triethylbismuth) sodium methoxide sec-butyl lithium triethylaluminum white phosphorus
TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE Temperature sensitive chemicals may decompose when held above their maximum safe storage temperature resulting in pressure buildup, flammable or explosive gas generation, ignition or explosion. Examples include: certain oxidizers (perchlorates, chlorates, nitrates, bromates, chlorites, iodates) certain ―azo‖ compounds lithium nitrate organic peroxides phenylhydrazine hydrochloride
SPONTANEOUS DECOMPOSITION Spontaneous Decomposition - chemicals which change structure over time and with no apparent stimulation will develop pressure, generate flammable or explosive gases, ignite or explode. Examples include: benzoyl peroxide (dry) contaminated concentrated hydrogen peroxide nitroglycerine
Shock, Friction, and Static Discharge Sensitive - chemicals that will violently decompose when initiated by shock, friction, or static discharge. Examples include: acetylides azides contaminated oxidizers diazo compounds explosives fulminates halamine nitro compounds nitroso compounds organic nitrates organic and inorganic peroxides (see below) ozonide picric acid (trinitrophenol)
Peroxidizable Compounds Peroxides can form and accumulate under normal storage conditions. Peroxides may also explode violently when chemicals are subject to thermal or mechanical shock. To prevent accidents, it is important that information on the age of peroxide forming chemicals be maintained and that these chemicals are tested or disposed of on a regular basis. The Departments’ chemical inventories identify peroxide formers and the Chemical Hygiene Officer checks their status at least every 6 months. The peroxidizable compounds listed in the following tables must be labeled upon receipt with preprinted labels that read:
PEROXIDIZABLE COMPOUND, DATE OPENED __________, DISCARD OR TEST WITHIN ___ MONTHS AFTER OPENING (or similar wording). These labels should also be placed on any other compounds known to be peroxide formers. The date and discard period should be filled-in the first time the container is opened. The level of peroxides can be tested using peroxide test strips that are available from the stockroom and the test will be performed by the Chemical Hygiene Officer. The following are recommendations for testing or disposal of potential peroxide forming chemicals. Group A- Chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides without concentration (Safe storage time after opening - 3 months) 1,1- Dichloroethylene 2-Chloro-1,3-Butadiene Butadiene Divinyl acetylene Isopropyl Ether Tetrafluoroethylene Vinyl Ether
Source: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Chemical Hygiene Plan, 2001. Peroxides can build up over time as solvent evaporates and/or air seeps into the bottle. If possible, purchase material that contains an appropriate peroxide inhibitor such as BHT. If non-inhibited material must be stored, be sure to store the material under an inert atmosphere. Do not distill, evaporate or concentrate the material unless it has been tested for the presence of peroxides. Peroxides are usually less volatile than their parent material and tend to concentrate upon distillation. Do not store peroxide forming materials in clear glass bottles. (Light can accelerate the chemical reactions that form peroxides.) It is recommended that an amber transparent bottle be used. Do not store the material in a metal can or other container that must be opened to see inside. Do not store peroxide-forming chemicals near heat, sunlight or ignition sources. Avoid places that undergo temperature variations that can cause the bottle to ―breath in‖ oxygen. Do not purchase or use high-risk items such as diisopropyl ether: use less hazardous alternatives. NEVER touch or attempt to open a container of a peroxide-forming liquid if there are crystals around the cap and/or in the bottle. The friction of turning the cap could detonate the bottle.
Chemicals of High Acute and Chronic Toxicity Certain chemicals have been identified as causing acute health effects or long-term chronic health effects. Substances of high acute toxicity cause immediate health effects at very low concentrations. Moderately toxic: Very toxic: Extremely toxic: Super toxic:
A written protocol is required for any use of a toxin with an LD50 value less than the following: LD50 - ingestion: < 50 mg/kg LD50 - contact (24hrs): < 200 mg/kg LD50 - inhalation: <200ppm/1hr The protocol must include the experiment procedure, necessary protective equipment, safety precautions, emergency procedures, user training, including type and location of training records, and waste disposal. The protocol must be submitted by the faculty member to the Department of Environmental Health and Safety and reviewed with other faculty, students and staff working in the lab. A sample protocol form is included in Appendix F.
Procedures for Handling Highly Toxic Chemicals
An acute toxin protocol must be submitted and approved by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety prior to using any Highly Toxic Chemicals.
Approval must be obtained from the Department of Environmental Health and Safety for students to handle highly toxic chemicals.
Notify all employees of the particular hazards associated with this work.
Minimize contact with these chemicals by any route of exposure (inhalation, skin contact, mucous membrane contact or injection.)
Work only in a properly operating chemical fume hood or glove box.
Remove all protective clothing before leaving the area where the chemical was used and discard or decontaminate protective clothing.
Establish and emergency plan for each operation. presented in the acute toxin protocol.
Decontaminate work surfaces after completing procedures.
Do not conduct normal laboratory work in the designated area until it is decontaminated.
This plan must be
K1. CARCINOGENS A carcinogen commonly describes any agent that can initiate or speed the development of malignant or potentially malignant tumors. Carcinogens commonly used in larger volumes at Colgate include: acrylamide, benzene, chloroform, formaldehyde, and methylene chloride. Select carcinogen means any substance that meets one of the following criteria: It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen. It is listed under the category, ―known to be carcinogens,‖ in the latest edition of the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). It is listed under Group 1, ―carcinogenic to humans‖ in the latest edition of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC). It is listed under Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category ―reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens‖ by NTP and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: o After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days a week, for a significant portion of a lifetime, to doses of less than 10mg/m3. o After repeated skin application of 300mg/kg of body weight per week. o After oral doses of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. K2. REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS A reproductive toxin is a chemical that can be classified as a mutagen or a teratogen. Mutagens are able to cause genetic mutations that may become hereditary and go into the genetic pool passed on to future generations. Teratogens are substances that interfere with
normal embryonic development without damage to the mother. Effects from a teratogen are not hereditary. K3. HIGHLY TOXIC CHEMICALS Acutely toxic chemicals are substances falling into any of the following categories: A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight, when administered to albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g each. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 mg or less per kg of body weight, when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs with 24 hours) to the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing 2 and 3 kg each. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 mg per liter or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g each. K4. HANDLING PROCEDURES The following procedures will be used to minimize the risk of substances that present special hazards. These procedures must be followed in laboratory operations with substances believe to be highly toxic or carcinogenic, even when used in small amounts. The extent of precaution depends on the hazards of the particular substance. Factors that should be considered are: physical form and volatility of the substance, type and duration of exposure, and the amount to be used. The laboratory supervisor in consultations with the CHO must approve all plans for experimental work and waste disposal. The overall objective is to minimize exposure to toxic substances by any route of exposure. The general precautions outlined elsewhere in this plan should be followed whenever a toxic substance is transferred from one container to another or is subject to some chemical or physical manipulation. The following procedures must be followed: Record keeping – accurate records including the amounts of chemicals used and names of researcher or students involved should be kept as part of the laboratory notebook record of the experiment. Storage – Substances having high chronic toxicity should be stored in a well-ventilated area in a secondary container or tray. Labels and Signs – All containers in the high chronic toxicity category will include a warning such as: WARNING! CANCER SUSPECT AGENT and/or the carcinogen icon label. All newly purchased containers should already contain this warning, but batch containers and solutions must also be labeled. Any area used for storage should have a label identifying the special toxicity hazard that exists.
Designated Areas – Experiments consisting of the use of particularly hazardous substances, or mixture of such substances, must be done in designated areas. A designated area is defined as a laboratory, a portion of a laboratory, or a facility such as an exhaust hood or glove box that is designated for the use of highly toxic substances. Its use need not be restricted if all personnel who have access to the controlled area are aware of the nature of the substances being used and the precautions that are necessary. Designated areas will be clearly marked with a conspicuous sign such as the following: WARNING! HIGHLY TOXIC SUBSTANCE IN USE: AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY. The working surface of the hood can be fitted with a removable layer of absorbent material. Surfaces can be protected from contamination with chemically resistant trays or plastic backed disposable paper. Protective Equipment – In some cases, the laboratory supervisor may deem it advisable to wear special protective equipment when working with particularly hazardous substances. Examples include long gloves or an apron covered by a disposable coat. Decontamination – Upon leaving a controlled area, removed any protective apparel, thoroughly wash hands, arms, face, and neck. If disposable apparel or absorbent paper has been used, place these items in a labeled impervious bag or container for disposal. Work surfaces will be thoroughly washed and rinsed. All equipment that is known or suspected to have been in contact with particularly hazardous substances will also be washed and rinsed. L. WASTE STREAM MANAGEMENT Laboratory supervisors are responsible for knowing whether or not the waste streams they generate are regulated. The CHO can assist in that determination and must be preformed prior to the waste being generated. The abbreviate procedures outlined below should be used as a reference guide. L1. HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous wastes are the result of discarded or inherently waste-like byproducts of certain characteristically or listed chemical wastes. Hazardous waste must be collected in a suitable container that is no greater than 4 Liters in volume unless the Director of EHS has granted prior approval. Additionally, these waste containers must be placed in secondary spill containment. All waste containers shall be kept closed except when being filled. Hazardous waste containers must be labeled with the appropriate ―Hazardous Waste‖ label, which identifies the chemical contents and concentration (if known), by chemical name. Labs that routinely generate hazardous waste must have a designated satellite accumulation area (SAA) where containers of hazardous waste are temporarily stored, to both isolate and segregate the wastes from other usable hazardous lab chemicals.
Under no circumstances shall hazardous wastes be drain disposed, allowed to evaporate in a lab hood, or be treated or otherwise utilized in a methodology constituting disposal. L2. BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE All sharps (syringes, hypodermic needles, scalpel/razor blades) regardless of contamination, and certain types of contaminated glassware (cover slips, Pasteur pipettes) must be collected in rigid containers with the proper biohazard labeling/coloring. Once full, the container must be delivered to Rm. 123 HO Science Center to be transferred to the Biohazardous Waste Storage Facility located in B09 of the Ho Science Center for shipment offsite. Lab supervisors generating solid/semi-solid biohazardous waste must know in advance of generation whether the agents/cell lines in use are classified as BSL-1 or BSL-2. All lab generated BSL-1 and BSL-2 solid/semi-solid biohazardous wastes will be collected and stored primarily in an unlabeled, autoclavable bag, which is then to be stored in a rigid plastic container with the biohazard label/color. When a bag of BSL-1 solid/semi-solid waste is full, the lab supervisor is responsible for ensuring it is delivered to the Biology department’s autoclave for sterilization. Following sterilization (in accordance with the autoclave SOP) the treated waste may be transferred to a gray garbage bag and disposed of as trash. When a bag of BSL-2 solid/semi-solid waste is full, the lab supervisor is again responsible for ensuring it is delivered to the Biology department’s autoclave for sterilization. Following sterilization, the waste is no longer regulated biohazardous waste. Nonetheless, since the college is still forbidden from disposing of this waste as solid waste/trash, it must be transferred to a RED bag, and delivered to 123 Ho Science Center. The waste will then be logged into the Biohazardous Waste Storage Facility (B09 Ho Science Center) for shipment off-site. Liquid BSL-1 waste may be discharged to the sanitary sewer without prior treatment. Liquid BSL-2 waste must be autoclaved or chemically disinfected before disposal into the sanitary sewer. BSL-3/4 materials are prohibited. Animal carcasses are only considered to be biohazardous waste if they have been contaminated with infectious substances. If carcasses have been exposed to infectious substances prior arrangements must be made with EHS. Once these arrangements have been made, carcasses must be delivered to the Ho Science Center Biohazardous Waste Storage Facility (B09) for shipment off-site. If carcasses have not been exposed to infectious substances, lab supervisors must place them in cold storage in the Animal Care Facility, where they will be shipped off-site. L3. OTHER WASTES
Glassware—All intact and broken glassware, i.e. pipettes, vials, test tubes, beakers, etc., that are uncontaminated in accordance with the hazardous/biohazardous waste requirements, that are capable of causing puncture injuries to custodial personnel must be discarded in the appropriate marked closable cardboard boxes. Vacuum Pump Oil—Vacuum pump oil should be maintained free from chemical contamination, and so when spent, will be shipped out as nonregulated chemical waste. If vacuum pump oil becomes chemically contaminated, lab supervisors must communicate this to the Director of EHSO/CHO so that proper hazardous waste determination can be made on the oil. Batteries—While standard alkaline batteries may be discarded as trash when expired Colgate recycles these as well as other battery types (lithiumion, nickel-cadmium/metal hydride, sealed lead, and lead-acid) for disposal as universal waste. Empty Containers — All tagged containers must be saved for collection and placed in the blue recycling bins. Once a chemical is depleted, it must be removed from the system to provide maximum benefits from the inventory (refer to section D). . L. MEDICAL CONSULTATION An opportunity to receive medical consultation shall be provided under the following circumstances: If an employee develops signs or symptoms associated with a hazardous chemical to which they may have been exposed. There has been a spill, leak, explosion, or other occurrence in the work place resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure, or If exposure monitoring reveals that a PEL or action level is routinely violated for any OSHA regulated substance for which there are exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements. University laboratory employees may receive medical attention through Worker’s Compensation. Contact the Human Resources Department to fill out an injury report. Students may receive medical care from the Student Health Center. In addition, employees who need to wear respirators to control chemical/biological exposures must be cleared medically to ensure that they are physically able to wear one. Additionally, the employee must be fit-tested to ensure the proper size and fit to maximize the respirators effectiveness M. SPILLS AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES M1. CHEMICAL SPILLS The time to prepare to handle a spill is long before it occurs. Appropriate precautions and the proper equipment will alleviate many of the potential complications associated with the spill of a hazardous material. The following principles will decrease the likelihood of a spill:
Substitute a less hazardous chemical, procedure, or piece of equipment, such as alcohol thermometers instead of mercury thermometers. Always store chemical containers with closed caps. Use secondary containment whenever possible. Trays and wash basins work well. Use of coated safety bottles is preferred. Do not store chemicals on the floors, desks, or counter tops. Check shelving; watch for overloading or overcrowding. Excess chemicals can be stored in the division stockroom. Practice good housekeeping. Clutter increases the likelihood of a spill or accident. Minimize chemical storage in the laboratory. Purchase only the amount needed. Anticipate chemical spills by having appropriate cleanup and safety equipment on hand. These cleanup supplies should be consistent with the hazards and quantities of substances used. Paper towels and sponges may be used as absorbent type cleanup aids but this should be done cautiously. Paper used to clean up oxidizers can later ignite and appropriate gloves should be worn when cleaning toxic materials with towels. Sponges should be chemical resistant. Commercial clean-up kits are available and have instructions, absorbents, neutralizers, and protective equipment, but these kits are usually expensive and may not cover everything used in a particular lab. Individual or departments may want to assemble their own kits. EHS can offer assistance in this process. These kits should be located strategically around the laboratory or department area. If a spill does occur, the following general procedures should be followed: Attend to contaminated personnel. Alert personnel in adjacent areas. Confine the spill, and evacuate nonessential personnel from spill area. If spill material is flammable, extinguish flames and all other sources of ignition. Maintain fume hood ventilation. Secure appropriate clean-up supplies. During clean-up, wear appropriate personal protection. Notify EHS and Campus Safety. When the nature of the spill constitutes a more serious hazard or involves the release of gas or fumes, the following procedures should be followed: Activate the emergency alarm system. Rescue injured personnel, if possible. Evacuate the building; move to the assembly area.
Notify EHS and Campus Safety with the details of the situation. M2. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES All laboratory personnel must be familiar with Colgate University’s Emergency Response Plan. The following additional procedures are intended to limit injuries and minimize damage should an accident occur. Render assistance to persons involved and remove them from exposure to further injury, if necessary. Warn personnel in adjacent areas of potential hazards to their safety. Render immediate first aid such as washing in a safety shower, administering CPR, or special first aid (such as the use of a cyanide kit if cyanide exposure is involved). Extinguish small fires by using a portable fire extinguisher and use the PASS method. o P – pull pin o A – aim o S – squeeze handle o S – sweeping motion at base of the fire Turn off nearby apparatus and remove flammable materials from the area. In case of larger fires, contact Campus Safety and EHS immediately. In the case of a medical emergency, remain calm and do only what is necessary to protect life. Call Campus Safety and EHS immediately. Do not move an injured person unless they are in further danger. Keep the injured person warm. If feasible, designate one person to remain with the injured person. If clothing is on fire, knock the person on the ground and roll them around to smother the flames or douse them under a safety shower. A fire blanket should only be used as a last resort. M3. FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS Small fires can easily be extinguished without evacuating the building or calling the fire department. However, even a small fire can quickly become a serious problem. The first few minutes are critical to preventing a larger emergency. Personnel in the event of a minor fire should take the following actions: Alert other people in the laboratory and send someone to call Campus Safety and EHS. Attack the fire immediately, but never attempt to fight a fire alone. A fire in a small vessel can often be suffocated by placing a larger beaker or watch glass over the top. Use the proper extinguisher, directing discharge of the extinguisher at the base of the flame using the PASS methodology (see Section M2):
o Class A fires – ordinary combustible solids such as paper, wood, rubber, and textiles. o Class B fires – petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile flammable solvents. o Class C fires – electrical equipment. o Class D fires – combustible or reactive metals such as sodium, potassium, or magnesium, metal hydrides, or organometallics. o Avoid entrapment; always fight a fire from a position accessible to an exit. If there is any doubt whether available personnel or equipment can control the fire locally, the following actions should be taken. Activate the emergency alarm system. Confine the fire (close hood sashes, doors between laboratories, and fire doors) to prevent further spread of the fire. Assist injured personnel. Contact Campus Safety and EHS immediately. Evacuate the building if necessary and move to the assigned assembly point for accountability. The assembly points for the following buildings are: Olin Hall - Primary Location: O’Connor Campus Center Alternate Location: Cannon Chapel Wynn Hall – Primary Location: O’Connor Campus Center Alternate Location: Cannon Chapel Ho Science Center- Primary Location: O’Connor Campus Center Alternate Location: Cannon Chapel Ryan Studio/ Little Hall – Primary Location:JC Colgate Alternate Location: Cannon Chapel M4. PERSONAL CONTAMINATION Chemical spill to a large portion of the body: Immediately flood the contaminated area with sufficient running water. Remove all contaminated clothing. Continue to rinse with tepid water for 15 minutes, but do not apply creams or lotions. Note: In special instances such as exposure to hydrofluoric acid, 2.5% calcium gluconate gel must be applied to the affected area after the initial water rinse. Get medical attention promptly.
Chemicals on the skin in a confined area: Flush the exposed skin with tepid water. If the skin is not burned, wash the area with soap. Seek professional medical attention if necessary. Chemicals in the eyes: Flush the eyeball and inner eyelid with tepid water for 15 minutes. Forcibly hold the eye open to wash thoroughly behind the eyelids. Get professional medical attention promptly. For a caustic splash, continue to irrigate during transportation. For contact lens: Copiously irrigate the eye with irrigation solution or water (do not use neutralizing solution) while holding the lids apart as described above. Do not worry about losing the contact lens. If the lens remains intact after the initial flushing, remove it or slide it onto the conjunctiva and continue to irrigate. Seek medical attention from a professional. Let them know if the contact lenses are still in the eyes. Smoke or fume inhalation: Remove the person from contaminated air to fresh air. Treat for shock if necessary. Get professional medical attention promptly. Chemical ingestion: Administer antidote, if known and available. Wrap the person in a blanket to prevent shock. Identify the chemical(s), and obtain the MSDS and access/print firstaid information from ChemWatch (www.colgate.chemwatchna. Com-click on link) for the hospital emergency room attendant.