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CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/The Last Lesson Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/The Last Lesson Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF English Flamingo The Last Lesson Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What was Franz expect ed t o be prepared with for school that day? Ans: That day Franz was expected to be prepared with participles because M. Hamel had said that he would question them on participles. Franz did not know anything about participles. Q2. What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school t hat day? Ans: Usually, when school began, there was a great bustle, which could be heard out in the street. But it was all very still that day. Everything was as quiet as Sunday morning. There was no opening or closing of desks. His classmates were already in their places. The teacher’s great ruler instead of rapping on the table, was under M. Ham el’s arm. Q3. What had been put up on the bulletin-board? Ans: For the last two years all the bad news had com e from the bulletin -board. An order had come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The German s had put up this notice on the bulletin-board. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day? Ans: M. Hamel had put on his best dress—his beautiful green coat, his frilled shirt and the little black silk cap, all embroidered. The whole school seem ed so strange and solemn. On the back benches that were always em pty, the elderly village people were sitting quietly like the kids. Q2. How did Franz’s feelings about M. Hamel and school change? Ans: Franz came to know that it was the last lesson in French that M. Hamel would give them. From the next day they will be taught only German. Then he felt sorry for not learning his lessons properly. His books, which seem ed a nuisance and a burden earlier were now old friends. His feelings about M. Hamel also changed. He forgot all about his ruler and how cranky he was. UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Q1. The people? in this st ory suddenly realise how1 precious their language is t o t hem. What shows you this? Why does this happen? Ans: M. Hamel told the students and villagers that henceforth only German would be taught in the sch ools of Alsace and Lorraine. Those who called them selves Frenchm en would neither be able to speak nor write it. He praised French as the m ost beautiful, the clearest and m ost logical language in the world. He said that for the enslaved people, their language was the key to their prison. Then the
people realised how precious their language was to them. This shows people’s love for their own culture, traditions and country. Pride in one’s language reflects pride in the m otherland. Q2. Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeonsT’ What could this mean?(There could he more than one answer.) Ans: This comm ent of Franz shows a Frenchman’s typical reaction to the im position of learning German, the language of the conquerors. Being deprived of the learning of m other tongue would mean cutting off all bonds with the m otherland. Teaching the pigeons to sing in German indicates how far the German s would go in their attempts of linguistic chauvinism. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Q1. “When a people are en slaved, as long as th ey hold fast t o their language it is as if they had the key t o their prison.” Can y ou think of examples in hist ory where a conquered people had their lan¬guage taken away from them or had a language imposed on them? Ans: Mother tongue helps a person to express his feelings and thoughts m ost lucidly and intimately. Conquerors try to subdue and control the people of the enslaved territory by enforcing many measures such as use of force to crush dissent and im posing their own language on them. From time immem orial the victorious nations have im posed their own language on the conquered people and taken away their own language from them. The Roman s conquered many parts of Europe and replaced the local languages by their own language— Latin. Later on Spanish, Pourtuguese, Italian and French developed from Latin. The Muslim invaders im posed Arabic and Persian in the countries of Asia ov erpowered by them. In many Arab countries the local religion and language have disappeared. In India, a new language Urdu developed from the mixture of Persian and Hindi. Q2. What happens t o a linguistic minority in a state? How do you think they can keep their language alive? For example: Punjabis in Bangalore Tamilians in Mumbai Kannadigas in Delhi Gujarat is in Kolkata Ans. The linguistic minority in any state is easily marked and faces the same discrimination as the religious, social or ethnic minorities. There is, however, a pronounced difference in the treatment meted out and the level of acceptance displayed by the majority community in that region/city. Some cities like Delhi, Mum bai are cosm opolitan in outlook. The linguistic minority tries to preserve it s identity through an intimate contact, interaction and preservation of their language in social get-togethers, family functions and festivals of their own region. Adherence to social custom s and traditions in family gatherings/group m eetings of women also prom ote the unity between members of the linguistic minority. In short, they create a mini-Punjab in Bangalore, mini-Chennai in Mumbai, mini-Bangalore in Delhi and mini-Surat in Kolkata. Q3. Is it possible t o carry pride in one’s language t oo far? Do you know what “lin¬guistic chauvinism” means? Ans. ‘Linguistic chauvinism ’ m eans an aggressive and unreasonable belief that y our own language is better than all others. This shows an excessive or prejudiced support for one’s own language. Sometim es pride in one’s own language goes too for and the linguistic enthusiasts can be easily identified by their extrem e zeal for the preservation and spread of their language. In their enthusia sm, lov e and support for their own language, they tend to forget that other languages too have their own merits, long history of art, culture and literature behind them. Instead of bringing unity and winning
ov er others as friends, having excessive pride in one’s own language creates ill-will and disintegration. The stiff-resistance to the acceptance of Hindi as national language by the southern states of India is a direct outcome of the fear of being dom inated by Hindi enthusia sts. The result is that ‘One India’ remains only a slogan. WORKING WITH WORDS Q1. English is a language that contains words from many other languages. This inclusiveness is one of the reasons it is now a “world language”. For example’. petite – French kindergarten – German capital – Latin democracy – Greek bazaar – Hindi Find out the origins of the following words: ty coon barbecue zero tulip veranda ski logo robot trek bandicoot Ans.Word Origin Word Origin Tycoon Japanese Veranda Portuguese Tulip Persian Robot Czech Logo Greek Zero Arabic Bandicoot Telugu Ski Norwegian Barbecue Spanish Trek South African Dutch Q2. Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meaning: (a) “What a thunderclap these words were t o me!” The words were (i)loud and clear. (ii)startling and unexpected. (iii) pleasant and welcome. (b)“When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast t o their language it is as if they had the key t o their prison.” It is as if they have the key t o the prison as long as they (i)do not lose their language. (ii)are attached t o their language. (iii)quickly learn the conqueror’s language. (c)Don’t go so fast , y ou will get t o y our school in plenty of time. You will get t o your school. (i)very late. (ii)t oo early. (iii)early enough. (d)I nev er saw him look so tall. M. Hamel (i) had grown physically taller. (ii) seemed very confident. (iii) st ood on the chair. Ans. (a) (ii) startling and unexpected. (b) (ii) are attached to their language.
(c)(iii) early enough. (d)(ii) seemed very confident. NOTICING FORM 1.Read this sentence: M. Hamel had said that he would quest ion us on participles. In t he sentence above, the verb form “had said” in the first part is used t o indicate an “earlier past ”. The whole st ory is narrated in the past . M. Hamel’s “saying” happened earlier than the events in this st ory. This form of the verb is called the past perfect . Pick out five sentences from the st ory with this form of th e verb and say why this form has been used. Ans. (i)For the last two years all our bad news had come from there. Reason: The ‘coming’ of bad news happened earlier than the bulletin in the story. (ii)Hauser had brought an old primer. Reaeon : The event of ‘bringing’ happened earlier than Franz noticed it. (iii) That was what they had put up at the town-hall! Reason’. The ‘putting up’ of bulletin happened earlier. Now it is recalled. (iv)they had not gone to school m ore. Reason’. The action of ‘not going* happened much earlier. (v)the hopvine that he had planted himself twined about the windows to the roof. Reason’. The ‘planting’ of hopvine happened earlier than its twining about the windows. WRITING Q1. Write a notice for y our school bulletin board. Your notice could be an announcement of a forthcoming event, or a requirement t o be fulfilled, or a rule t o be foll owed. Ans:
Q2. Writ e a paragraph of about 100 words arguing for or against having t o study three languages at school. Ans: STUDYING THREE LANGUAGES AT SCHOOL
In m ost of the states in India, students have to study three languages at school. One of them is the m other tongue, the second is Hindi (the national language) and the third is English (the international or link language). In Hindi speaking region, a South or East Indian language—Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malyalam or Bangla, Oriya, Assamese etc is taught. The three language formula helps in national integration by acquainting y oung students about the social custom s, rituals, culture and traditions of the various parts of the country. It also focuses on the principle of unity in diversity. The only drawback in this sy stem is that it puts an excessive burden on the m inds of the young learner. To alleviate their problem, the courses of study in the three languages may be structured suitably. Q3. Have y ou ever changed y our opinion about someone or something that y ou had earlier liked or disliked? Narrate what led y ou t o change y our mind. Ans: Facts are sometimes stronger than fiction. Many occurrences of life com e as eye-openers. Such an experience occurred the previous day which led m e to change my mind about our hostel warden Miss Angela Thoma s. Overnight the terrible titan was transformed into a loving and affectionate elder sister full of m ilk of human kindness. Now when I remember how I disliked her and invented nicknames and pranks to tease her, I feel asham ed of my self. Yesterday, I had a terrible nightmare and I cried and wept. My room -mate failed to console me and reported the matter to the warden. God knows how long I rema ined unconscious! When I came to my senses I found my head in the lap of Miss Angela Thoma s. Her eyes were red with tears and bps m oving in prayer. She had really proved an angel for me and saved me. THINGS TO DO Q1. Find out about the following (You may go to the internet, int erview people, consult reference books or visit a library .) (a)Linguistic human rights (b)Constitutional guarant ees for linguist ic minorities in India. Ans: Extension Activity: To be done under the Teacher’s Guidance. Q2. Given below is a survey form. Talk t o at least five of y our classmates and fill in the information y ou get in the form. Ans:
Classroom Activity : Do it y ourself. MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. Why do you think was little Franz afraid of being scolded?
Ans: Franz was afraid of being scolded that day especially because M. Hamel, the teacher, had said that he would question them on participles. Franz frankly admits that he was totally ignorant about the topic. His exact words are: “I did not know the first word about them.” Secondly, he had started for school very late that m orning. Q2. “It was all much more tempting than the rule for participles.” What did Franz find ‘much more t empting’? How did he finally react ? Ans: Franz found that it was a very warm and bright day. The birds were chirping at the edge of woods. The Prussian soldiers were drilling in the open field at the back of sawmill. He could gladly spend life out of doors. However, he had the strength to resist the tem ptation. Finally, he hurried off to school. Q3. “What can be the matter now?” say s Franz. Why, do you think, did he make this comment? Ans: There was a bulletin-board near the town-hall. When Franz passed by it, he noticed a crowd there. He did not stop to look at it. He wondered what could be the matter then. For the last two yeairs they had received all the bad news from the bulletin-board—the lost battle, conscription and the orders of the commanding officer. Q4. Who was Wachter? What did he ask Franz and why? How did Franz react ? Ans: Wachter was a blacksmith. He was reading the latest bulletin. He asked Franz not to go so fast to his school. He added that the little boy would get to his school in plenty of tim e. Wachter had read the latest bulletin about teaching of German. Franz thought that the blacksm ith was making a fun of him. So, he ran to the school and reached there breathless. Q5. What was the usual scene when Franz’s school began in the morning? Ans: Usually, when the school began, there was a great bustle. The noise could be heard out in the sch ool. Students opened and closed their desks. They repeated the lessons together very loudly. They kept their hands ov er their ears to understand better. The teacher would go on rapping the table with his great iron ruler. Q6. How had Franz hoped t o get t o his desk? What had he t o do and why? Ans: Franz had hoped to get to his desk unseen during the comm otion. But that day it was very quiet. So, Franz had to open the door and go in before everybody. He blushed as he was late. He was frightened that the teacher might rebuke him, but M. Hamel spoke kindly to him that day. Q7 . What three things in school surprised Franz most that day? Ans: First, M. Hamel, the teacher had put on his fine Sunday clothes—his beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and the little black silk cap, all em broidered. Second, the whole school seem ed quite strange and solem n. Thirdly, the village people were sitting quietly like school children on the back benches that usually rema ined empty. Q8. Why had the villagers come t o school that day? How did they look? Ans: The villagers had come there to thank M. Hamel for his forty years of faithful service. They also wanted to show their respect to the country that was theirs no m ore. They were sorry that they had not gone to school m ore. They were sitting quietly and looked sad. Q9. “What a thunderclap these words were t o me!” Which were the words t hat shocked and surprised the narrator? Ans: M. Hamel, the teacher, told the children in a solemn and gentle tone that it was their last French
lesson. Henceforth, only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new ma ster would com e the next day. As that was their last French lesson, he wanted them to be very attentive. The teacher’s kind gesture and use of soft words shocked and surprised the narrator. Q10. How did Franz react t o the declaration: ‘This is y our last French lesson’? Ans: The words appeared startling and unexpected like a thunderclap. He now understood why there was a crowd at the bulletin board, why the village people had com e to school, why the teacher was dressed in his Sunday best and why there was sadness and silence in the school. Q11. What t empt ed Franz t o stay away from school? [Delhi 2014] Ans: Franz was not prepared Tor the test on participles. The Prussian soldiers were drilling in the open field at the back of sawmill. The birds were chirping at the edge of woods. These things tempted him. So he hurried off to school. Q12. Who did M. Hamel blame for neglect of learning on the part of boy s like Franz? Ans: He thought it ty pical with the people of Alsace. They would put off learning till tom orrow. Parents are not quite anxious to have their children learn. They put them to work on a farm or at the mills in order to have a little more m oney. The teacher got his flowers watered or gave them a holiday. He t oo neglected their lessons. Q13. What did M. Hamel tell them about French language? What did he ask them t o do and why? Ans:M. Hamel told them that French was the m ost beautiful language in the world. It was the clearest and the m ost logical language. He asked them to guard it am ong them and never _ forget it. He gav e a reason also. When a people were enslaved, as long as they held fast to their language, they had the key to their prison. Q14. Why were the elders of th e village sitting in the classroom? [All India 2014] Ans: M. Hamel was taking the class of last French lesson. That is why elders of the village were sitting in the classroom to attend it. It was done not only to pay respect to M.Ham el but to pay respect to his own language. Q15. How did Franz and other hoy s enjoy their lesson in writing? Ans: That day M. Ham el had new copies for them. The words “France, Alsace, France, Alsace” wer e written on them in a beautiful round hand. The boy s set to work quietly. The only sound was the scratching of the pens over the paper. Nobody paid any attention to the beetles who flew in. Q16. How did M. Hamel feel and behave during the last lesson? Ans: M. Hamel was solemn and gentle. He sat m otionless in his chair during the writing lesson. He gazed at one thing or the other. Perhaps he wanted to fix in his mind how everything looked in that little school room. Surely, it mu st have broken his heart to leave it all after forty years. Q17 . “He had the courage t o hear every lesson t o the very last .” What led Franz t o make this remark? Ans: Franz noticed that M. Hamel was feeling sad on having to leave the place sifter 40 years and not being allowed to teach French any longer. Yet, he kept control on his emotions. He performed his duties faithfully. He heard every lesson to the last. The school was dismissed only at mid-day prayer time.
Q18. What happened when the lesson in hist ory was over? Ans: After the lesson in history was over, the babies chanted their ba, be, bi, bo, bu. Old Hauser, who was sitting at the back of the room, had put on his spectacles. He was holding his primer in both hands. He was spelling the letters with the babies. Q19. “Ah, how well I remember it, that last lesson!” says the narrator. Which scene does he remember more vividly than the others? Ans:The narrator rem embers the scene of old Hauser spelling the letters from the primer with the babies. He too was crying. His voice trembled with em otion. It was so funny to hear him that all of them wanted to laugh and cry at the sam e tim e. Q20. How did M. Hamel behave as the last lesson came t o an end? Ans: M. Hamel stood up in his chair. He looked very pale and tall. He wanted to say som e parting words, but som ething choked him. Then he wrote “Vive La France!” on the blackboard with a piece of chalk. Then he stopped. He leaned his head against the wall. Without a word, he made a gesture to the students with his hand to permit them to go as the school was ov er. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. Why was Franz scared that day 1 What did he see on his way t o school and how did he get t o his deski Ans: Franz was not good at learning. He would rather take the day off and waste time in searching birds’ eggs or going sliding on the Saar. Franz was scared that day because M. Hamel had said that he would question them on participles. Franz did not know anything about participles. He found that the day was warm and bright. The birds were chirping at the edge of the woods. The Prussian soldiers were drilling in the open fields. There was a crowd in front of the bulletin-board near the town-hall. Franz found the school room unusually quiet. So, he had no option but to open the door and go in before everybody. He blushed and was frightened of the teacher. M. Hamel spoke very kindly to him and asked him to go to his place quickly. Franz jumped over the bench and sat down at his desk. Q2. What order had been received from Berlin that day? What effect did it have on the life at school? Ans: An order had been received from Berlin that only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This order had far-reaching effects on the life at school. M. Hamel, who had been teaching French at the village school for the last forty years would deliver his last lesson that day. It was in honour of the last lesson that M. Hamel, the teacher had put on his best clothes. Old men of the village were sitting quietly at the back of the classroom . They were sad as well as sorry for they had not gone to school m ore. They had come to thank the ma ster for his forty years of faithful service and to show respect for the country that was theirs no m ore. The teacher addressed the students in a solemn and gentle tone. He asked them to be attentive and explained everything quite patiently. He appealed to them to preserve French among them. During slav ery it would act as key to the prison. He felt so ov erwhelmed by em otion that he could not bid farewell properly. Q3. What do y ou think is t he theme of th e st ory ‘The Last Lesson’? What is the reason behind its universal appeal? Ans:The theme of the story ‘The Last Lesson’ is linguistic chauvinism of the proud conquerors and the pain that is inflicted on the people of a territory by them by taking away the right to study or speak their own language and thus make them aliens in their own land of birth. The story has a subtheme also. It highlights the attitudes of the students and teachers to learning and teaching.
Though the story is located in a particular village of Alsace district of France which had passed into Prussian hands, it has a universal appeal. It highlights the efforts of the victors to crush their victim s— the vanquished people in all possible manner—materially, spiritually, mentally and em otionally. Taking away m other tongue from the people is the harshest punishm ent. The proper equation between student and teacher, his focused attention, helpful and encouraging attitude and kind treatment can encourage students to learn better. Q4. Comment on the appropriat eness of th e title ‘The Last Lesson’. Ans: The story has an appropriate and suggestive title. It is the centre of attention throughout and the whole story rev olves around it. The beginning of the story serves as preparation for it. The unusual quietness at school, presence of village elders and the teacher in his Sunday best dress—all point out to the unusual and unique occasion—the last lesson in French in a French village school in a district conquered by the Prussians. While delivering the last lesson, the teacher wants to transmit all his knowledge in one go. He explains everything with patience and the students as well as old villagers listen attentively. For the narrator it is an unforgettable experience. “Ah, how well I rem ember it, that last lesson,” says he. Old Hauser is crying and his v oice trembled with em otion. As the teacher is unable to express His em otions because of choked throat, he ends the lesson by writing Wive La France’ on the blackboard. He ma kes a gesture with his hand to indicate that the school is dismissed and students can go home. Q5. What impression do y ou form ofM. Hamel on the basis of y our study of the st ory ‘The Last Lesson’? Ans: M. Hamel is an experienced teacher who has been teaching in that village school for forty year s. He imparts primary education in all subjects. He is a hard task ma ster and students like Franz, who are not good learners, are in great dread of being scolded by him. The latest order of the Prussian conquerors upsets him. He has to leave the place for ever and feels heart broken. He feels sad but exercises self-control. He has the courage to hear every lesson to the last. His performance during the last lesson is exem plary. He is kind even to a late com er like Franz. He uses a solemn and gentle tone while addressing the students. He has a logical mind and can analyse problem s and deduce the reasons responsible for it. The problem for Alsace is that he (the district) puts off learning till tom orrow. He knows the em otional hold of a language over its users. He is a good communicator and explains ev erything patiently. Partings are painful and being human, M. Hamel too is no exception. He fails to say goodbye as his throat is choked. On the whole, he is a patriotic gentleman. VALUE-BASED QUESTIONS Q1. War causes destruction and spreads hatred. People feel insecure. Discuss the disadvan¬tages of war keeping in mind Franco-Prussian war (1870-7 1). Ans: War is a great threat to mankind. Fear, anxiety, tension and hatred are som e of the offsprings of war. No individual is in fav our of this brutal act. Innocent people lose their life because of the vested int erests of som e of the corrupt politicians. Moreover, war is not the solution to any problem. It only increases the hiatus between two nations. The desire to overpower the other dissem inates hatred and the feelings of enmity. The aftermath s of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are evident before us. It should also be rem embered that each nation is trying it s level best to becom e a nuclear power. A nuclear bomb has the power to devastate nations. Thousands of people will lose their lives. There will not be any surviv or. If someone is left alive, he/she will be crippled. There is n o doubt that war has put the human existence at stake. We have heard seers say that one should shed one’s ego. The nations should also feel equally important. No nation is self-sufficient. Peace enhances creativity and productivity.
The concept of a global village should be followed by all countries. Thus, war does not benefit any individual. It must not be encouraged. Q2. It is oft en said that each language is unique in itself. No language is superior or inferior. People need t o understand that a language is one of th e means of communication. Discuss t his stat ement in the light of the following lines: “My children, this is the last lesson I shall give y ou. The order has come from Berlin t o t each only German in schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new mast er comes t omorrow. This is y our last French lesson…” Ans: Language is always considered a medium of communication. Man is a gregarious animal. He has to interact with the fellow human beings. Therefore, a set of complex symbols is designed to serve this purpose. We mu st ruminate over the past before discussing the status of a language. There are innumerable man ma de problems. At the dawn of civilisation there was no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, language and nationality. But in this century these problem s exist. Nature does not segregate nations. Scientific advancement, material prosperity, lofty aspirations, materialistic attitude, a desire to rule the world and vested interests are som e of the causes of human sufferings. The concepts of all languages are similar. They have nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. As no religion is insignificant in the same way no language is inferior. The characteristics and nature of all languages are similar. The only difference is in symbols and pronunciation. The purpose and objective of all languages are synonym ous. There is a dire need to understand that there should be only one religion i.e. humanity and there should be only one language i.e. the language of love. A language must not becom e the cause of rift am ong ma sses. It should bring people together instead of spreading hatred. One should not despise others because of their language. It is against human dignity and grace. Q3. The people of Alsace and Lorraine were forced t o study German. They were not allowed to study French. It implies that students of th e area were taught only one language. They did not follow the concept of three languages at school. Writ e an article on the t opic Advantages of Three Language Sy st em at school. Ans: Advantages of Three Language Sy stem India is a dem ocratic stater. It is replete with people who have diverse backgrounds, and culture. Their custom s and traditions vary. Their languages are also different. The language of a South Indian is entirely different from that of the North Indians. People have their regional languages and dialects too. In such circumstances it becom es a herculean task to decide which language should be taught at sch ools. So, India opted for three language system at schools. It is a boon to the residents of a particular area. They do not feel that their language is insignificant and ignored. They are given ample opportunities to opt for the languages they int end to speak or learn. Pupils get fundamental knowledge of three languages and can appreciate the literature of all these three languages. Such students never face failure due to language barriers. They bring laurels to their parents and nations as well. They explore new avenues and horizons with an astonishing ease. Three language system must be adopted by all nations so as to acquaint the children with various language patterns. The people of Alsace and Lorraine could be taught both languages i.e. German and French. Linguistic discrimination mar s the future of humanity. Q4. Nature has the knack t o fascinate even the cynics. It s beauty and spontaneous music galvanise the beings. Write an article expressing the ast ounding beauty of nature in the light of the following lines: “It was so warm, so bright! The birds were chirping at the edge of t he woods… It was all much more tempting than the rule for participles…” Ans. Our touch with nature makes the whole world kin. Matthew Arnold has rightly said that:
“Nature, with equal mind, sees all her sons at play, sees ma n control the wind, the wind sweep man away.” Nature’s working is mysterious. It is an astonishingly fabricated universe. Man has, undoubtedly, progressed a lot. Scientific advancem ent has explored the portals of every field. The hidden realities have been exposed. But science has not unearthed the my sterious traits of nature. It is also an acceptable fact that nature gives happiness to weary minds. It soothes and consoles the troubled souls. It banishes anxiety, tension, worry , fear and dejection. Its law is to please every beholder. The aesthetic pleasure we derive from Nature is incredible and cannot be expressed in words. Keats has rightly averred that ‘A thing of beauty is a joy forever!’ Lord Byron has said: “There is a pleasure in the pathless wood, there is a rapture on the lonely shore, there is a society where none intrudes, ‘ By the deep sea, and music in its roar: I lov e not man the less but nature m ore.” Nature is our m other. It mu st be obeyed. It gives us m oral lessons. All the seers and intellectuals have understood the significance of nature. “Nature goes on her own way, and all that to us seem s an exception is really according to order.” It fascinates those who are indifferent to life. The boring scientific explorations and linguistic principles ma ke our life insignificant. We are becom ing devoid of em otions. But nature evokes sentim ents and help us to becom e sensitive. Q5. Teachers can act as t railblazer s in the lives of pupils. They can affect eternity. But the advancement of t echnology has changed the role of a t eacher. Writ e an article on the para¬digm shift in educational t echnology and the role of t eachers. Ans: Technology and Teachers It goes without saying that teachers shape the destiny of children. They m ould them according to their inbred potential and considerable talent. Dronacharya taught his pupils together. But he could not make every one so skilled in using the bow and arrow as Aijuna. He identified his latent talent and tapped the same potential. In m odem education sy stem teachers don’t have much time to study the child. Children stay in the school campus for six hours a day and study various subjects from teachers. At times it happens that the subject teachers do not remember the names of students. They use PITs, projectors and com puters to make their lectures interesting. They lack any kind of em otional attachment with the pupils. It has happened because of the innovative educational tools and aids. Teachers are given softwares to teach students. The teaching community has made students in formation seekers. The role of a teacher has undergone a sea change. A teacher has becom e a facilitator. He has no right to scold and punish the child. The dictum ‘spare the rod, spoil the child’ has becom e obsolete and outdated. A teacher has to understand the psychology of a child in a period of thirty minutes. The role of a teacher is a mystery in today’s era.
CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Lost Spring Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Lost Spring Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF English Flamingo Lost Spring Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12
THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What is Saheb looking for in the garbage dumps? Where is he and where has he come from? Ans. Saheb is looking for gold in the garbage dum ps. He is in the neighbourhood of the author. Saheb has come from Bangladesh. He Came with his m other in 1971. His house was set amidst the green fields of Dhaka. Storms swept away their fields and hom es. So they left the country. Q2. What explanations does the author offer for the children not wearing foot wear? Ans. One explanation offered by the author is that it is a tradition to stay barefoot. It is not lack of m oney. He wonders if this is only an excuse to explain away a perpetual state of poverty. He also remembers the story of a poor body who prayed to the goddess for a pair of shoes. Q3. Is Saheb happy working at the tea-stall? Explain. Ans. No, Saheb is not happy working at the tea-stall. He is no longer his own ma ster. His face has lost the carefree look. The steel canister seem s heavier than the plastic bag he would carry so lightly over his shoulder. The bag was his. The canister belongs to the man who owns the tea-shop. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What makes the city of Firozabad famous? Ans. The city of Firozabad is fam ous for its bangles. Every other family in Firozabad is engaged in making bangles. It is the centre of India’s glass-blowing industry. Families have spent generations working around furnaces, welding glass, making bangles for the women in the land. Q2. Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry ? Ans. Boy s and girls with their fathers and m others sit in dark hutm ents, next to lines of flam es of flickering oil lamps. They weld pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are m ore adjusted to the dark than to the light outside. They often end up losing eyesight before they become adults. Even the dust from polishing the glass of bangles is injurious to eyes. Many workers have becom e blind. The furnaces have very high tem perature and therefore very dangerous. Q3. How is Mukesh’s attitude t o his situation different from that of his family? Ans. Mukesh’s grandm other thinks that the god-given lineage can never be broken. Her son and grandsons are bom in the caste of bangle makers. They have seen nothing but bangles. Mukesh’s father has taught them what he knows—the art of ma king bangles. But Mukesh wants to be a m otor m echanic. He will go to a garage and learn, though the garage is far away from his hom e.
UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Q1. What could be some of the reasons for the migration of people from villages t o cit ies? Ans. People migrate from villages to cities in search of livelihood. Their fields fail to provide them means of survival. Cities provide employment, jobs or other means of getting food. The problem in case of the poor is to feed the hungry members. Survival is of primary concern. Q2. Would y ou agree that promises made t o the poor children are rarely kept? Why do y ou think this happens in the incidents narrated in the t ext? Ans. The prom ises made to the poor are rarely kept. The author asks Saheb half-joking, whether he will come to her school if she starts one. Saheb agrees to do so. A few days later he asks if the school is ready. The writer feels embarrassed at having made a promise that was not meant. Promises like hers abound in every com er of their bleak world. Q3. What forces conspire t o keep the workers in bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty ? Ans. Certain forces conspire to keep the workers in bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty. These include the m oneylenders, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of law, the bureaucrats and the politicians. Together they im pose a heavy burden on the child. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Q1. How, in y our opinion, can Mukesh realise his dream? Ans. Mukesh is the son of a poor bangle-maker of Firozabad. Most of the y oung men of Firozabad have no initiative or ability to dream, but Mukesh is an exception. He has the capacity to take courage and break from the traditional family occupation. He has strong will power also. He does not want to be a pawn in the hands of the middlemen or m oneylenders. He insists on being his own ma ster by becom ing a m otor mechanic. He can realise his dream by joining a garage and learn the job of repairing cars and driving them. He will have to ov ercom e many hurdles before he succeeds. Then com es transport problem. Money is the first one. He will have to earn som e m oney himself. The garage is a long way from his hom e. He will have to cover it twice everyday anyhow—by walking on foot. Patience, hardwork, firm will and the determination to learn will help him realise his dream. Q2. Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry . Ans. The glass bangles industry has many health hazards. It usually employs small children. It is illegal to employ very y oung children in hazardous industries, but certain forces like ! m iddlemen, m oneylenders, police and politicians com bine to entrap the poor workers. Let us first consider the places where bangle makers work. It is a cottage industry. They work in the glass furnaces with high temperatures. The dingy cells are without air and light. Boys and girls work hard during day next to lines of flames of flickering oil lam ps. They weld pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are m ore adjusted to the dark than to the light outside. That is why, they often end up losing their eyesight before they becom e adults. Glass blowing, welding and soldering pieces of glass are all health hazards. Even the dust from polishing the glass of bangles adversely affects the eyes and even adults go blind. Thus, the surroundings, prevailing conditions and the type of job involved-all prove risky to the health of the workers. Q3. Why should child labour be eliminated and how? Ans. Child labour should be eliminated because the children em ployed at tender age as i dom estic servants, dish-washers at road-side dhabas and in hazardous industries ma king glass bangles, biris, crackers etc. lose the charm of the spring of their life. Their childhood is stolen. Burdened by the responsibility of work, they becom e adults too soon. Most of them are undernourished, ill-fed, uneducated, and poor. They have a stunted growth. Child labour can be elim inated only through concerted efforts on the part of governm ent agencies,
NGOs (N on-Gov ernment Organisations), co-operative societies and political leaders. Mere passing of law will not help. Laws should be enacted faithfully. The children thrown out of work should be rehabilitated and given proper food, clothes, education and pocket m oney. Their feelings, thoughts and em otions should be respected. Let them enjoy sunshine and fresh air. THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE Alth ough this text speaks of factual events and situations of misery, it transforms these situations with an almost poetical prose into a literary experience. How does it do so? Here are som e literary devices: •Hyperbole is a way of speaking or writing that makes som ething sound better or m ore exciting than it really is. For exam ple: Garbage to them is gold. •A Metaphor, as y ou may know, com pares two things or ideas that are not very similar. A metaphor describes a thing in term s of a single quality or feature of som e other thing; we can say that a metaphor “transfers” a quality of one thing to another. For example: The road was a ribbon of light. •Simile is a word or phrase that com pares one thing with another using the words “like” or “as”. For example: As white as snow. Carefully read the following phrases and sentences taken from the text. Can you identify the literary device in each example? 1.Saheb-e-Alam which means the lord of the universe is directly in contrast to what Saheb is in reality. 2.Drowned in an air of desolation 3.Seema puri, a place on the periphery of Delhi yet miles away from it, metaphorically. 4.For the children it is wrapped in wonder; for the elders it is a means of survival. 5.As her hands m ove mechanically like the tongs of a machine, I w onder if she knows the sanctity of the bangles she helps make. shoulders. Answers 1.Hyperbole 2.Metaphor 3.Contrast 4.Contrast 5.Simile 6.Contrast 7.Hyperbole 8.Metaphor 9.Metaphor 10.Hyperbole 11.Contrast THINGS TO DO The beauty of the glass bangles of Firozabad contrasts with the misery of people who produce them . This paradox is also found in some other situations, for example, those who work in gold and diamond mines, or carpet weaving factories, and the products of their labour, the lives of construction workers and the buildings they build. •Look around and find examples of such paradoxes. •Write a paragraph of about 200 to 2 50 words on any one of them. You can start by making notes. Here is an example of how one such paragraph may begin: You never see the poor in this t own. By day they toil, working cranes and earth m overs, squirreling deep into the hot sand to lay the foundations of chrome. By night they are banished to bleak labour camps at the outskirts of the city Ans. For self-attempt. MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. Who was Saheb? What was he doing and why? Ans. Saheb was a y oung boy of school-going age. He was looking for gold in the garbage dumps of the big city. He had left his hom e in Dhaka, Bangladesh and came to the big city in search of living. He has nothing else to do but pick rags. Q2. “But promises like mine abound in every corner of his bleak world.” What promise does the author recall? In what context was it made? Was it fulfilled? Ans. The author asked Saheb about going to school. Saheb explained that there was no school in his neighbourhood. He promised to go to school when they built one. Half joking, the author asked whether he would com e in case she started one. Saheb smiled broadly and agreed to com e. After a few
days, he ran upto the author and asked if the school was ready. The author felt embarrassed. She had ma de a promise that was not m eant. Q3. What is the meaning of Saheb’s full name? Does he know it? How does he conduct himself? Ans. His full nam e is “Saheb-e-Alam”. It means the lord of the universe. He does not know it. If he knew it, he would hardly believe it. He roams the streets barefoot with other rag-pickers. This army of arefoot boy s appears in the m orning and disappears at noon. Q4. How does the author focus on the ‘perpetual stat e of poverty ’ of the children not wearing foot wear? Ans. The author notices that m ost of the young children engaged in rag picking are not wearing footwear. Som e of them do not have chappals. Others want to wear shoes. Som e say it is tradition to stay barefoot. To the author it seem s lack of m oney. Pov erty forces them to walk without footwear. Q5. Explain: “For children, garbage has a meaning different from what it means t o their parents. ” Ans. Small children scrounge heaps of garbage. They expect to get som e coin, note or valuable thing in it. Som etimes they find a rupee or even a ten rupee note. This gives the hope of finding m ore. They search it excitedly. For children, garbage is wrapped in wonder. For the elders it is a m eans of survival. Thus, garbage has two different meanings. Q6. Where does the author find Saheb one winter morning? What explanation does Saheb offer? Ans. The author finds Saheb standing by the fenced gate of a neighbourhood club. He is watching two young m en, dressed in white, playing tennis. Saheb says that he likes the game, but he is content to watch it standing behind the fence. He goes inside when no one is ar ound. He uses the swing there. Q7 . What job did Saheb take up? Was he happy ? [All India 2014] Ans. Saheb took up the job at a tea-stall. But he was not happy with it. He was no longer his own ma ster. His face had lost the carefree look. Although he earned ? 800, even then he was not satisfied. Q8. How ha s “a dream come true” for Saheb but what is “out of his reach?” Ans. Saheb is wearing discarded tennis shoes. One of them has a hole. Saheb does not bother about the hole. For one who has walked barefoot, even shoes with a hole is a dream com e true. But tennis, the game he is watching so intently, is out of his reach. Q9. How does Saheb’s life change when he starts working at the t ea-stall? Ans. Saheb now has a regular incom e. He is paid 800 rupees and all his meals. Thus, food is no problem. But his face has lost the carefree look. The steel canister in his hand now seem s a burden. He is n o longer his own master. He may have to work for longer hours. The helplessness of doing things at his own will makes him sad. Q10. Who is Mukesh? What is his dream? Why does it look like “a mirage amidst the dust ?” Ans. Mukesh is the son of a poor bangle-maker of Firozabad, where every other family is engaged in making bangles. His poor father has failed to renovate his house or send his two sons to school. Mukesh insists on being his own master. His dream is t o be a m otor mechanic. He wants to drive a car. Given the conditions of existence, his dream looks like a mirage amidst the dust. Q11.What do you learn about Firozabad from this chapter ? Ans. Firozabad is fam ous for its glass bangles. It is the centre of India’s glass-blowing industry. Families have spent generations working around furnaces, welding glass, making bangles for all the wom en in the land. Every other family in Firozabad is engaged in making bangles. Q12. “Born in the caste of bangle-makers they have seen nothing but bangles.” Wh ere do they ‘see’ bangles? Ans. Children like Mukesh are bpm in the caste of bangle-ma kers. They know no other work. They see bangles in the house, in the yard, in every other house, every other yard, every street in
Fir ozabad. The spirals of bangles lie in m ounds in unkempt yards. They are piled on four wheeled hand carts. Q13. What contrast do you notice bet ween the colours of th e bangles and the atmosphere of the place where these bangles are made? Ans. The bangles are of every colour bom out of the seven colours of the rainbow. These are sunny gold, paddy green, royal blue, pink and purple. Boy s and girls work in dark hutm ents, next to the flickering flam es of oil lamps around furnaces, blowing glass, welding and soldering it to make bangles. Q14. What are most of t he bangle-makers ignorant of? What would happen if law were enforced strictly? Ans. Most of the bangle-makers are ignorant of the fact that em ploying children in bangle making is illegal. This is a hazardous industry. Many children becom e blind before reaching tHeir adulthood. If the law were enforced strictly, 20,000 children would be released from working hard throughout the day at hot furnaces with high temperatures. * Q15. Where is Mukesh’s house located? What is he proud of? Ans. Mukesh’s house is built in a slum -area. The lanes stink with garbage. The hom es there are hovels with crumbling walls, wobbly doors and no windows. These are crowded with families of human s and animals. Most of these houses are shacks or huts. Mukesh is proud that his house is being rebuilt. His eyes shine as he volunteers to take the author to his home, Q16. What impression do y ou form about Mukesh ‘s family on having a glimpse of th eir ‘house?’ Ans. Mukesh’s house is a half built shack with a wobbly door. One part of it is thatched with dead grass. There is a firewood stove. Spinach leaves are sizzling in a large vessel. More chopped vegetables lie on aluminium platters. The eyes of the frail young woman are filled with sm oke, but she smiles. The scene depicts their grinding pov erty but contentment with their lot. Q17 . Give a thumb-nail sketch of th e “frail y oung woman” in the chapt er ‘Lost Spring’. Ans. The y oung woman is the wife of Mukesh’s elder brother. Her eyes are filled with the sm oke of firewood. Though not much older in years, she commands respect as the daughter- in-law of the house. She adheres to custom s and traditions. She veils her face before male elders. She gently withdraws behind the broken wall to do so. Q18. How woul d y ou regard Mukesh’s father’s life and achievement? Ans. Mukesh’s father was bom in the caste of bangle-ma kers. His father went blind with the dust from polishing the glass of bangles. He is an old and poor bangle-maker. He has worked hard for long years, first as a tailor and then as a bangle-ma ker. He has failed to renovate a house or send his two sons to school. Q19. “Savita is a symbol of innocence and efficiency .” Comment. Ans. Savita is a y oung girl. She has put on drab pink dress. She is soldering pieces of gla ss. Her hands m ove mechanically like the tongs of a machine. She is inn ocent as she is ignorant about the sanctity of the bangles she helps to ma ke. Q20. What do bangles symbolise? When, according t o the author, will Savita know “the sanctity of the bangles she helps make?” How is the Indian bride dressed? Ans. Bangles symbolise auspiciousness in marriage for an Indian woman . Savita will com e to know “the sanctity” of the bangles when she becom es a bride. The head of a bride is draped with a red veil. Her hands are dyed with red henna. Red bangles are rolled on to her wrists. Q21. “She still has bangles on her wrist but no light in her ey es.” What exactly does the author want t o convey through this? Ans. ‘She’ is an elderly woman who became a bride long ago. Since her husband, an old man with a flowing beard is still alive, she still has bangles on her wrist. She has, however, not enjoyed even one full nteal in her entire lifetime. So, there is n o light in her eyes. This is just a comment on the abject pov erty and helplessness of the bangle-ma kers.
Q22. “The y oung men echo the lament of their elders. ” What do y ou think is the common complain t ? How has it affect ed their lives? Ans. The bangle-makers of Firozabad are quite poor. They do not have enough m oney to do anything except carry on the business of making bangles. Som e even do not have enough to pacify their hunger. Building a house for the family is an achievement for them. Years of m ind-numbing toil have killed all initiative and the ability to dream. Q23. Why do the bangle-makers not organise themselves int o a cooperative? Ans. Most of the y oung bangle-makers have fallen into the traps of the middlemen. They are also afraid of the police. They know that the police will haul them up, beat them and drag to jail for doing som ething illegal. There is no leader am ong them to help them see things differently. Their fathers are equally tired. They can do nothing except carry ing on their i inherited business. Q24. Which t wo distinct worlds does the author notice among the bangle-making industry ? Ans. The fam ilies of the bangle-makers belong to one of these worlds. These workers are caught in the web of poverty. They are also burdened by the stigma of the caste in which they are bom. They know no other work. The other world is the vicious circle of the m oneylenders, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of the law, the bureaucrats and the politicians. Q25. How is Mukesh different from the other bangle makers of Firozabad? [Delhi 2014] Ans. Mukesh is quite different from other bangle makers of Firozabad because he has the courage to take initiative and break from the traditional family occupation. He has strong will power also. He in sists on being his own ma ster by becom ing a m otor m echanic. Q26. What do y ou think is the plight of th e children born in the families of banglemakers? Ans. The vicious circle of the middlemen and their allies have entrapped the poor bangle- ma kers in their nets. The stronghold is suffocating. They have imposed a heavy burden on little children. They can’t put it down. Before they are able to think, they accept the baggages as naturally as their fathers. Q27. What do y ou think is the theme of ‘Lost Spring, St ories of St olen Childhood’? Ans. The them e of the chapter is the grinding poverty and the traditions which condemn poor children to a life of exploitation. The two stories taken together depict the plight of street children forced into labour early in life and denied the opportunity of schooling. The callousness of the society and the political class only adds to the sufferings of these poor people. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1.What are the dreams of the poor like ‘Saheb-e-Alam’ and Mukesh? Could these be realised? What is the reality of t he situation? Ans. Poor rag-pickers like Saheb spend the early years of their lives looking for gold in garbage dumps. The parents of these street children have no fixed incom e. They wage war against poverty and hunger. They have no dreams except finding the m eans of survival. Garbage to them is gold. It is the source of their daily bread and provides a roof over their heads. He ends up as a servant at a tea-stall and loses his freedom. Mukesh, the son of a poor bangle-ma ker of Firozabad, has a dream of becom ing a m otor m echanic. He wants to learn to drive a car. He thinks of joining a garage to fulfil his dream. He knows that the garage is far away, yet he has decided to walk. He realises the reality and is willing to overcome the obstacles. His daring to rise and decision to get free from the trap laid by vicious m oneylenders and middle men arouse a sense of hope.Deprived of education, proper food and upbringing, these children are forced int o labour early in life. Q2. Firozabad presents a strange paradox. Contrast the beauty of the glass bangles of Firozabad with the misery of th e people who produce them. Ans. Firozabad, the centre of India’s glass-blowing industry, is fam ous for its bangles. Spirals of bangles of various colours can be seen lying in m ounds in yards or piled on four wheeled push carts. These bangles have shining bright colours: sunny gold, paddy
green, royal blue, pink, purple-in fact, every colour bom out of the seven colours of the rainbow. The banglemakers lead a miserable life. They know no other work than bangle making. They have neither courage nor m oney to start another trade or job. they have spent generations in the clutches of middle men and moneylenders. Extreme poverty forces them to remain hungry and yet work all day. The elderly woman,who works with Savita, has not enjoy ed even one full meal in her entire lifetime. Her husband has ma de a house for the family to live in. He has achieved what many have failed in their lifetime. Mukesh’s father has failed to renovate a house or send his two sons to school. Young boy s are as tired as their fathers. Their work at hot furnaces ma kes them blind prematurely. Q3.(i) “Survival in Seemapuri means rag-picking.” (ii) “Garbage t o t hem is gold.” (iii) “For t he children it (garbage) is wrapped in wonder, for the elders it is a means of survival.” In t he light of the above remarks write an account of th e life and act ivities of the ragpickers settled in Seemapuri (Delhi). Or Giv e a brief account of th e life and act ivities of the Bangladeshi squatters like Saheb-eAlam settled in Seemapuri. Ans. Seemapuri is a place on the periphery of Delhi, yet miles away from it m etaphorically. Squatters who came from Bangladesh way back in 1971 live here. Saheb’s family is one of them. Seema puri was then a wilderness. It still is, but it is no longer empty. Nearly 10,000 ragpickers live there in structures of mud, with roofs of tin and tarpaulin. These shanties are dev oid of sewage, drainage or running water. These people have lived there for m ore than thirty years without an identity or permit. They have got ration cards that enable them to buy grains and get their names on voters’ lists. For them food is m ore im portant for survival than an identity. The wom en put on tattered saris. They left their fields as they gave them no grain. They pitch their tents wherever they find food. Ragpicking is the sole m eans of their survival. It has acquired the proportions of a fine art for them. Garbage to them is g old. It provides them their daily bread and a roof ov er the heads. Most of the barefoot ragpickers roam the streets early in the m orning and finish their activities by noon. They seem to carry the plastic bag lightly ov er their shoulders. They are clothed in discoloured shirts and shorts and denied the opportunity of schooling. Q4. “The cry of not having money t o do anything except carry on the business of making bangles, not even enough t o eat, rings in every home. The y oung men echo the lament of their elders. Little has moved with time, it seems, in Firozabad.” Comment on the hardships of the banglemakers of Firozabad with special emphasis on the forces t hat conspire against them and obstruct their progress. Ans. The bangle-makers of Firozabad are bom in poverty, live in poverty and die in poverty. For generations these people have been engaged in this trade—working around hot furnaces with high temperature, welding and soldering glass to make bangles. In spite of hard labour throughout the day , the return is meagre. Som e of them have to sleep with empty, aching stomachs. Others do not have enough to eat. Whatever they do get is not delicious or nourishing. The stinking lanes of their shanty town are choked with garbage. Their hovels have crumbling walls, wobbly doors and no windows. These are overcrowded with humans and animals. Pov erty and hunger, social custom s and traditions, stigma of caste and the intrigues of powerful lobby that thrives on their labour com bine to keep them poor, uneducated and hungry. The m oneylender s, the middlemen, the policemen, the keepers of law, the bureaucrats and the politicians—all are ranged against them. Children are engaged in illegal and hazardous work. Years of mind-numbing toil have killed all initiative and ability to dream. They are unable to organise them selves into cooperative due to lack of a leader and fear of ill-treatment at the hands of the police. They seem to carry the burden that they can’t put down. They can talk but not act to improve their lot.
Q5. Compare and contrast the t wo families of bangle-sellers portrayed in ‘Lost Spring.’ Comment on the roles of individuals in highlighting the issues raised by the author. Ans. One of the families is that ofMukesh’s. It com prises three males and two females: Mukesh, his br other, their father, their grandm other and the wife of Mukesh’s elder brother. The grandm other had watched her own husband go blind with the dust from polishing the glass of bangles. Mukesh’s father is a poor old bangle maker, who has failed to renovate a house and send his two sons to school. Mukesh and his brother make bangles. The wife of Mukesh’s brother is a traditional daughter-in-law who follows the custom s and cooks food for the family. The grandm other believes in destiny and caste. Only Mukesh shows som e sparks of fighting the system and declares that he wants to be a m otor m echanic. Sav ita, the elderly woman and her old, bearded husband form the other family. Young and innocent Sav ita works mechanically. The elderly woman highlights the plight of bangle makers who fail to enjoy even one full meal during the entire lifetim e. The old man has an achievement t o his credit. He has ma de a house for the fam ily to live in. He has a roof ov er his head. The lifestyle, problems and economic conditions of the two families are similar. There is only a difference of degree but not of kind in their existence and response to life’s problems. VALUE-BASED QUESTIONS Q1.Hunger knows no friend but its feeder. The downtrodden lead a miserable life. Elucidate the dict um keeping in mind the following lines: “survival in Seemapuri means ragpicking. Through the years, it has acquired the proportions of a fine art. Garbage t o them is gold. It is their daily bread a roof over their heads, “ Ans. Poverty : A Vicious Circle It is a well known saying that pov erty is the root cause of all evils. Corru ption, loot, begging and incidents of theft are the offspring of abject poverty. The destitute lead a pitiable and miserable life. They do not get sufficient food. Lack of funds constrain them to take recourse to illegal activities. Slum dwellers always feel them selves dejected. They recognise only those beings who help them and feed them. Political leaders take undue advantages of their pov erty. They are m isused to win elections. Humanity, mankind, honesty, trust and love becom e significant when an individual succeeds in satisfying his hunger. Hungry people need only food. There is a dearth of people who are capable of converting obstacles into opportunities. These poor people are exploited ruthlessly by industrialists, politicians and other middlem en. They scrounge for gold in the garbage dumps to earn their livelihood. The hiatus between the rich and the poor seem s difficult to be bridged. It is increasing day by day. The poor are becoming poorer and the rich richer. There is n o human being who would like to work for their welfare. Their plight is pitiable and horrible. The residential areas of these people are packed with filth. They becom e habitual of foul sm ell. Poverty is a vicious circle. It never com es to an end. The unemployed youth are heading towards destruction. They do not remember anything except the help they receive from the opportunistic people who feed them to materialise their vested int erests. Q2. There is no denying the fact that ‘Life is act ion and not contemplation.’ Those who shirk work and wast e their time in thinking about bitter consequences never achieve greatness. They lack enthusiasm. Substantiat e the aphorism keeping in mind the foll owing lines: “I will be a mot or mechanic’’ “I will learn t o drive a car”. His dream looms like a mirage amidst the dust of street s…” Ans. Life is Action and not Contemplation Initiation is the law of nature. Success depends on the actions taken by an individual. One has to take actions without wasting tim e. Dream s give us directions. But it should not be forgotten that a man cann ot becom e influential by only dreaming . One who does not utilise time fails to do anything significant in life. Actions shape the destiny of the beings. Contem plation destroy s happiness. Aimless
thinking aggravates woes and worries. It leads to nowhere. Such thinkers never get pleasure in this world of m ortals. Those who believe in taking actions attain their long cherished goals with an astonishing ease. They never feel confused or perplexed. They never becom e a victim of depression. All the human beings are to perform their duties on the earth. Contemplation leads to idleness. Life is a judicious blend of contem plation and action. Contem plation transformed into action is of utm ost im portance. Action without contem plation may be disastrous. Contemplation without action is a sin. One should not waste time in thinking only. We should always rem ember that life is short and time is swift. Procrastination is the thief of time. One should not forget that there’s a time for everything. One should grab this opportune tim e to get success in life. Q3. Dedication, determination and devotion are the fact ors responsible for phenomenal suc¬cess. Substantiate the above quot ed stat ement in the light of the foll owing lines: “I want t o be a mot or mechanic,’ he repeats. He will go t o a garage and learn. But the garage is a long way from his home. 7 will walk’, he insist s.” Ans. Key t o Success Hard work is the key to success. Dogged determination and strong will power are the essential ingredients of success. Industrious people never feel disheartened. They bum the mid night oil and strive hard to achieve the desired goals. It is said that between two stools one falls on the ground. Thus, one has to dedicate one’s life to a specific field. The long term goals and aim s of life must be set thoughtfully and not whimsically. The capricious nature of a fellow does not allow him to reach the heights. Devotion alway s brings good r esults and rewards. The essence of dev otion is trust or faith. If one has trust in performing the actions, one is able in winning the battle of life. Trust gives strength and strength gives birth to determination which leads to dedication. Dev oted and dedicated people never becom e a part of a problem. They remain a part of the solution. They do not do different things but they do things differently. Their dev otion to the field encourages them to have indepth knowledge. Those wh o dare to clim b the hill conquer Mount Everest. Dedication has no substitute. It is the only way to great accom plishments. Q4. Health plays an important role in the life of a mortal. But the destitut e fail t o get nutritious food and do not remain healthy. It is said that health is wealth. People believe that a sound mind lives in a sound body. Elucidate it taking ideas from the foll owing lines: “Ek waqt ser bhar khana bhi nahin Khaya.” Ans. Health and Food One has to accept the fact that if wealth is lost, som ething is lost and if health is lost, everything is lost. The proverb A sound mind lives in a sound body’ is apt. A healthy man can enjoy the beauty of this world. An unhealthy man misses one of the greatest boons given by the Almighty. A healthy beggar is better than an unhealthy king. A person who accumulates enormous wealth and suffers from chronic or fatal diseases cannot relish life. He wastes his time in clinics and hospitals. Health is essential to have positive thoughts. One should wake up early in the m orning and take exercise. Nutritious food is indispensable for good health. Junk food mu st be avoided. The destitute suffer because they do not get : sufficeient food. They do not have any source of incom e. Undoubtedly good health plays a piv otal role in the life of a m ortal. Pecuniary gains are of utm ost im portance but a strong and sturdy body free from ailm ents is of paramount importance. It has no substitute. A m ortal cannot endure the loss of health. Creativity, productivity and innovation get enhanced if a man is healthy . Thus, one should be in the best of health so that one can lead a happy and contented life. Q5. Child abuse is a very serious problem in our country. Children are forced by circumstances t o work in various factories. Write an article, on the t opic ‘Child Abuse’. Take ideas from the following lines: “None of th em knows that it is illegal for children like him t o work in the glass furnaces
1 with high t emperatures, in dingy cells without air and light; that the law, if enforced, could get him and all those 20,000 children out of the hot furnaces where they slog their daylight /hours, oft en losing the brightness of th eir eyes.” Ans. Child Abuse Child abuse is a grave problem in India. Many children work for dhabas, factories and tea stall owners. These are those un fortunate children of this country who don’t get even . meals three times a day. It is a blemish on our nation. It is the duty of the governments to make arrangements of education for these children. Child labour is comm on in the fields of agriculture, dom estic service, sex industry, carpet and textile industries, quarry ing, bangle making and brick making. These children are forced to work in horrible conditions. There are no set working hours for these children. They are given low wages. In som e cases poverty of the household and low level of parental education are responsible , for child labour. Em ploying children in factories implies that the nation’s future is in dark. These children never feel happy. They becom e dev oid of human em otions. They adoptillegal ways to earn their bread and butter when they becom e able-bodied. It gives rise to .violence and corruption. Child labour should be stopped and the governm ents should educate these children free of cost. At least elementary education should be given to all children.
CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Deep Water Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Deep Water Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF Deep Water Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What is the “misadventure ” that William Douglas speaks about? Ans. William O. Douglas had just learnt swimming. One day, an eighteen year old big bruiser picked him up and tossed him into the nine feet deep end of the Y.M.C.A. pool. He hit the water surface in a sitting position. He swallowed water and went at once to the bottom . He nearly died in this misadventure. Q2. What were the series of emotions and fears that Douglas experienced when he was thrown into the pool? What plans did he make t o come t o the surface? Ans. Douglas was frightened when he was thrown into the pool. However, he was not frightened out of his wits. While sinking down he made a plan. He would make a big jump when his feet hit the bottom. He would com e to the surface like a cork, lie flat on it, and paddle to the edge of the pool. Q3. How did this experience affect him? Ans. This experience revived his aversion to water. He shook and cried when he lay on his bed. He couldn’t eat that night. For many days, there was a haunting fear in his heart. The slightest exertion upset him, making him wobbly in the knees and sick to his stomach. He never went back to the pool. He feared water and av oided it whenever he could. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. Why was Douglas determined t o get over his fear of water? Ans. His fear of water ruined his fishing trips. It deprived him of the joy of canoeing, boating, and swimming. Douglas used every way he knew to ov ercom e this fear he had developed ’since childhood. Ev en as an adult, it held him firmly in its grip. He determined to get an instructor and learn swimming to get over this fear of water. Q2. How did the instruct or “build a swimmer” out of Douglas? Ans. The instructor built a swimmer out of Douglas piece by piece. For three m onths he held him high on a rope attached to his belt. He went back and forth across the pool. Panic seized the author ev erytime. The instructor taught Douglas t o put his face under water and exhale and to raise his nose and inhale. Then Douglas had to kick with his legs for many weeks till these relaxed. After seven m onths the instructor told him to swim the length of the pool. Q3. How did Douglas make sure that he conquered the old terror? Ans. Douglas still felt terror-stricken when he was alone in the pool. The remnants of the old terror would return, but he would rebuke it and go for another length of the pool. He was still not satisfied.
So, he went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire, dived off a dock at Triggs Island and swam two miles across the lake. He had his residual doubts. So, he went to Meade Glacier, dived int o Warm Lake and swam across to the other shore and back.Thus, he made sure that he had conquered the old terror. UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Q1. How does Douglas make clear t o the reader the sense of panic that gripped him as he almost drowned? Describe the details that have made the description vivid. Ans. Douglas gives a detailed account of his feelings and efforts to save him self from getting drowned. He uses literary devices to make the description graphic and vivid. For exam ple, ‘Those nine feet were m ore like ninety’, ‘My lungs were ready to burst.’ ‘I came up slowly, I opened my eyes and saw nothing but water….. I grew panicky1 ‘I was suffocating. I tried to yell, but no sound cam e out!’ ‘ Q2. How did Douglas overcome his fear of water? Ans. When Douglas grew up, he took the help of an instructor to learn swimming. His training went on from October to April. For three m onths he was taken across the pool with the help of a rope. As he went under, terror filled him and his legs froze. The in structor taught him to exhale under water and inhale through raised nose. He made him kick his legs to make them relax. Then he asked him to swim. He continued swimming from April to July. Still all terror had not left. He swam two miles across Lake Wentworth and the whole length to the shore and back of Warm Lake. Then he overcam e his fear of water. Q3. Why does Douglas as an adult recount a childhood experience of t error and his conquering of it? What larger meaning does he draw from this experience? Ans. The experience of terror was a handicap Douglas suffered from during his childhood. His conquering of it shows his determination, will power and development of his personality. He drew a larger meaning from this experience. “In death there is peace.” “There is terror only in the fear of death.” He had experienced both the sensation of dying and the terror that fear of it can produce. So, the will to live som ehow grew in intensity. He felt released- free to walk the m ountain paths, climb the peaks and brush aside fear. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Q1.“All ice have t o fear is fear itself” Have y ou ever had a fear that y ou have now overcome? Share y our experience with y our partner. Ans. I mu st have been about eight or nine years old. It was the night of Diwali. All the houses were shining bright with the rows of candles, oil lam ps and electric bulbs. Children were bursting crackers. Su ddenly, a cracker went up and hit the thatched roof of a poor gardener. Soon the hut was in flames. His only son, a tiny infant had severe burns before he could be rescued. I began to trem ble with fear as the police questioned the boy s exploding crackers. From then on I had a fear of crackers, fire and police. My parents and I had to work very hard to rem ove this blemish. It was adversely affecting my personality. By learning the safeguards against fire and safe handling of crackers, I gradually overcame my fear. However, I still get panicked at the sight of a policeman in uniform. The fear of police remained now; My uncle came to my rescue. He got m e dressed as a police inspector in one of his play s, I commanded many policemen and scolded them for misbehaving with the comm on people. I learnt that policemen were also, human s and not dem ons. Police protect and help us to maintain law and order. Thank God, I have ov ercom e all my fears now. Q2. Find and narrate ot her st ories about conquest of fear and what people have said about courage. For example, y ou can recall Nelson Mandela’s st ruggle for freedom, his perseverance t o achieve his mission, t o liberate the oppressed and the oppressor as depict ed in his autobiography. The st ory ‘We’re Not Afraid To Die,’ which y ou have read in Class XI, is an apt example of how courage and opt imism helped a family survive under the direst stress. Ans. In his autobiography ‘Long Walk to Freedom’, Nelson Mandela tells the extraordinary story of
his life. He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the African National Congress and the governm ent, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an underground leader and the notorious Riv onia Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life imprisonm ent. He recounts the surprisingly eventful twenty-seven years in prison and the complex, delicate negotiations that led both to his freedom and to the beginning of the end of apartheid. Mandela also struggled against the exploitation of labour and on the segregation of the universities. He persevered to achieve his mission and to liberate the oppressed and the oppressor. In 1990, he was freed from prison. The apartheid laws were relaxed. Mandela becam e the champion for human rights and racial equality. He also became the first non-white president of the Republic of South Africa. THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE If someone else had narrated Douglas’s experience, how would it have differed from this account? Write out a sample paragraph or paragraphs from this text from the point of view of a third person or observer, to find out which style of narration would you consider to be m ore effective? Why? Ans. The third person account or one from the point of view of an observer is detached and objective. Real-life personal account is subjective and focuses m ore on the person’s thoughts, feelings and em otional response. I would consider the first person narrative style m ore effective as it is quite authentic and depicts everything faithfully. SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS (Fr om the point of view of a third personlobserver) A big bruiser of a boy, yelled, “Hi, Skinny! How’d y ou like to be ducked?” with that he picked up the 10 year old tiny boy and tossed him into the nine feet deep end of the Y.M.C.A. pool. The kid struck the surface in a sitting position, swallowed water and at once went to the bottom . . Watching all this from a distance filled me with anxiety for the kid. I ru shed towards the side of the pool. By that time, the boy had risen twice to the surface but being unable to grab a rope or support on the side wall, he went down. Before I could bail him out he sucked in more water and went down third tim e. I at once jumped int o the pool. The boy’s legs were limp. All efforts had ceased. I carried him on my shoulder and swam to the side of the pool. He was ma de to lie on his stoma ch. His back was slapped gently but firmly to make him vom it the water he had swallowed. He responded to the first-aid m easures and soon regained consciousness. WRITING Q1. Doing well in any act ivity, for example a sport, music, dance or painting, riding a mot orcycle or a car, involves a great deal of st ruggle. Most of us are very nervous t o begin with until gradually we overcome our fears and perform well. Write an essay of about five paragraphs recounting such an experience. Try t o recollect minute details of what caused the fear, y our feelings, the encouragement y ou got from ot hers or the criticism. You could begin with the last sentence of the essay y ou have just read: “At last I felt released—free t o walk the trails and climb the peaks and t o brush aside fear.” Ans. MY FIRST EXPERIENCE OF RIDING A MOTORCYCLE At last I felt released, free to walk the trails and clim b the peaks and to brush aside fear. This fear of injuries had been my old enemy and had thwarted me at crucial m oment s. I rem ember exactly when I started developing this fear. I was a toddler when I was given a tricycle. I w ould lose balance and the tricycle would fall over me. As I grew older, I was given dwarfer versions of cycles but my road fear persisted. I would hit someone or something and fall down. Som etim es the injuries took time to heal. I felt annoyed with my self and cursed my fear. But fern assumed m onster like proportions. Now I had passed tenth class examination and joined the city school. My father gifted me a Hero Honda m obike on my birthday. My uncle v olunteered to train m e. After telling me in details the functions of various parts, he took m e to the playground. He sat behind m e and issued orders. He held
me firmly at first. When I had learnt to start the vehicle, change gear, increase and decrease speed, turn the vehicle and com e to a stop, he asked m e to take a round. I per spired from head to foot. He reassured me and encouraged m e. I regained my confidence. Then I took a short round of the playground. I still hesitated while tinning the comer. Uncle explained the mechanism and dem onstrated how to handle the machine. Finally, I took three rounds of the playground. Then uncle and I cam e to the side road. He trained m e how to avoid the vehicles and give them passage. I dr ove to the city and returned safe. I had conquered fear and learnt how to ride a m otorcycle. Q2. Writ e a short lett er t o someone y ou know about y our having learnt t o do something new. Ans. 23, King John’s Lane Westbury (UK) 12 March, 2007 Dear Dolly, You will be pleased to learn that at last I have learnt playing tennis. You know how I dotted on the players taking part in Wimbledon and had cherished a dream to play on the centre court. Well, I have taken the first step in that direction. After years of perspiration and training I have learnt playing tennis. This year I am participating in the Junior County Championship. I mu st take this opportunity of thanking you for y ou have been a constant source of inspiration and support to m e, both on and off the court. I am anxiously awaiting for the day when I’ll intimate to y ou my achievements in this newly learnt gam e. With best wishes Yours sincerely Angela THINGS TO DO Q1. Are there any water sports in India? Find out about the areas or places which are known for water sports. Ans. India provides exciting opportunities for the following watersports: (i) White Water Rafting, (ii) Water Skiing, (iii) Canoeing and Kayaking, (iv) Scuba Diving, (u) Snorkelling, (vi) Angling and Fishing. Areas or places known for watersports: (i) White Water Rafting and Kayaking : The Ganges (from Rishikesh); the Beas (from Manali, the Indus (in Ladakh), Zanskar (in Zanskar), the Teesta (in Sikkim) (ii)Water Skiing:The Ganges, the Beas. (iii)Sailing, Yachting and Wind-surfing:Goa, Kovalam Beach in Kerala. (iv)Scuba Diving:Andaman and Laksha dweep, Goa. (v)Snorkelling:Andaman and Lakshadweep, Goa. (vi)Angling and Fishing:Balukpung (Assam) Beas (Kullu Valley) MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. When did Douglas decide t o learn swimming? What options were available t o him t o swim in? Which one did he choose and why? Ans. Douglas was ten or eleven years old when he decided to learn swimming. He could swim in th e Yakima River or the Y.M.C.A. pool at Yakima. The Yakima River was dangerous. Many persons had drowned in it. So, he chose the Y.M.C.A. pool. It was considered safe. Q2. Which fact ors led Douglas t o decide in favour of the Y.M.C.A. pool? Ans. The Y.M.C.A. pool was safe. It was only two to three feet deep at the shallow end. It was nine feet deep at the other. Moreov er, the drop was gradual. The Yakima River was treacherous and had drowned many. So, he decided in fav our of the Y.M.C.A. pool.
Q3. “I had an aversion t o the water when I was in it?” says Douglas. When did he start having this aversion and how? Ans. The aversion started when Douglas was three or four years old. His father had taken him to the beach in California. They were standing together in the surf. He had held his father tightly, even then the waves knocked him down and swept over him. He was buried in water. His breath was gone. He was frightened. There was terror in his heart about the overpowering force of the waves. Q4. How did Douglas initially feel when he went t o the Y.M.C.A. pool? What made him feel comfortable? Ans. Unpleasant memories of the past were revived and childish fears were stirred. In a little while he gathered confidence. He paddled with his new water wings. He watched the other boys and tried to im itate them. He did so two or three tim es on different days. He began to feel com fortable. Q5. What t wo things did Douglas dislike t o do? Which one did he have t o do and why? Ans. Douglas hated to walk naked, into the pool and show his very thin legs. Secondly, he was fearful about going in alone. So, he sat on the side of the pool to wait for others. But he had to go int o water as one cannot learn swimming without going into water. Q6. In what connect ion does Douglas mention “a big bruiser of a boy ?” Ans. Douglas m entions him for his misadventure in the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool in which he had nearly died. It was this boxer boy who had picked up Douglas and tossed him into the deep end. Later on, when Douglas was rescued, the boy said, “I was only fooling.” Q7 . Describe the boy who was responsible for the author’s misadventure? Ans. He was a big boy, a bruiser. He was probably eighteen year old. He had thick hair on his chest. He was a beautiful specim en. His legs and arms had rippling mu scles. He was a fun loving fellow and enjoy ed teasing the younger and weaker boy s. Q8. How did the “misadventure” happen with Douglas? Ans. Douglas was sitting alone on the side of the pool, waiting for others. A big, boxer boy of eighteen cam e there. Mocking him as ‘skinny’ he enquired how he would like to be plunged in water. Saying so, he picked up Douglas and tossed him into the nine feet deep end. Douglas struck the surface of water, swallowed water and at once went to the bottom. Q9. “I was frightened, but not y et frightened out of my wits,” says Douglas. Which qualities of th e speaker are highlighted here and how? Ans. Douglas was frightened when he went down into the pool and was about to be drowned. He ha d an aversion to water and now he was filled with terror. He had remarkable self¬control. He used his mind even in the crisis an d thought of a strategy to save him self from being drowned. Q10. “On the way down I planned,” remarks Douglas. What plan had he devised and how far did it succeed? Ans. While going down to the bottom, he made a plan to save him self from being drowned. He decided to ma ke a big jump as his feet hit the bottom . He hoped to m ove up to the surface of water like a cork. Then he would lie flat on it, and paddle to the edge of the pool. The plan was only partly successful. He rose to surface twice. But each tim e he swallowed water and went down. Q11. What did Douglas experience as he went down t o t he bott om of t he pool for the first time ? Ans. Going down to the depth of nine feet was not quick. It seemed a long way down. For him those nine feet were m ore like ninety. Before he touched bottom his lungs were ready to burst. He did not lose his presence of m ind. Using all his strength, he ma de a great jump upwards. Q12. How was the result of the ‘great spring upwards’ that Douglas made on hitting the bottom of the pool for the first time? Ans. Douglas rose to the surface very slowly. When he opened his eyes he saw nothing but water with a dirty yellow colour. He grew panicky. He tried to grab a rope but his hands clutched only at water. He was suffocating. He tried to shout, but no sound cam e out. Then his eyes and nose cam e out of the water but not his m outh.
Q13. How did Douglas st ruggle before hitting the bott om of the pool for the second time? What was the outcome of his st ruggle? Ans. Douglas m oved his arms and legs around without control. He swallowed water and choked. His legs hung as dead weights, paralysed and rigid. A great force was pulling him down. He struck at the water with full force as he went down. He had lost all his breath. His lungs ached and head throbbed. He was getting dizzy. He went down through dark water and was filled with fear. Q14. What sort of t error seized Douglas as he went down the ‘water with a y ellow glow?’ How coul d he feel he was still alive? Ans. An absolute, rigid terror seized Douglas. It was a terror that knew no understanding or control and was bey ond com prehension of any one who had not experienced it. He was paralysed under water-stiff and rigid with fear. His screams were frozen. The beating of his heart and throbbing of mind made him feel that he was still alive. Q15. ‘In the midst of the t error came a t ouch of reason.’ How did the t wo forces work in opposit e direction and how did Douglas fare? Ans. Reason told him to jump when he hit the bottom as he felt the tiles under him, he jumped with ev erything he had. But the jump ma de no difference. A ma ss of yellow water held him. Stark terror took an even deeper hold on him. He shook and trembled with fright. His arms and legs wouldn’t m ove. He tried to call for help, but nothing happened. Q16. 7 crossed t o oblivion, and the curtain of life fell.’ How did Douglas experience the sensation of dying before he actually crossed t o oblivion? Ans. As Douglas went down the pool the third tim e, he swallowed m ore water. All his efforts to jump up ceased. His legs felt limp. A blackness swept ov er his brain and it wiped out fear and terror. There was no m ore panic. It was quiet and peaceful. He felt drowsy and wanted to go to sleep. Q17 . In what state did Douglas find himself on regaining consciousness? Ans. He found him self lying on his stomach near the pool. He was v omiting. The fellow who had thrown him in the pool was saying that he was only joking. Then som eone remarked that the small boy had nearly died. He hoped that he would be all right then. Then he was carried to the locker room for change of clothes. Q18. How did Douglas react t o the fright ening experience (i) that day and (ii) later when he came t o know t he waters of the Cascades? Ans. (i) He walked home after several hours. He was weak and trembling. He shook and cried when he lay on his bed. He couldn’t eat that night. A haunting fear was there in his heart. The slightest exertion upset him. His knees becam e wobbly. He felt sick to his stoma ch. (ii) Whenever he waded th e Tieton or Bum ping River or bathed in Warm Lake of Goat Rocks, the terror that had seized him in the pool w ould com e back. This terror would take possession of him com pletely. His legs would become paralysed. Icy horror would grab his heart. Q19. “This handicap stayed with me as the y ears rolled by .” How did it affect his pursuit s for pleasure? Ans. The haunting fear of water followed Douglas everywhere. He rowed in canoes on Maine lakes fishing for landlocked salmon. He went for bass fishing in New Hampshire, trout fishing on the Deschutes and Metolius in Oregon, fishing for salmon on the Columbia, at Bum ping Lake in the Ca scades. Fear ruined his fishing trips. It deprived him of the joy of canoeing, boating, and swimming. Q20. What efforts did Douglas make t o get over his fear of water and why? Ans. Fear of water was a handicap Douglas developed during his childhood. It stayed with him as he grew older. It ruined his pursuits of pleasure such as canoeing, boating, swimming and fishing. He used every method he knew to overcome this fear. Finally, he determined to get an instructor and learn swimming. Q21. What was the first piece of exercise the Inst ruct or gave Douglas? How long did it take t o yield the desired result? Ans. The instructor ma de him go across the pool an hour a day for five days with the help of a rope
attached to his belt. The rope went through a pulley that ran on an overhead cable. The instructor held on to the end of the rope. They went back and forth across the pool. A bit of panic seized him every time. Moreov er, the old terror returned and his legs froze wh en the instructor loosened his grip on the rope and Douglas went under water. It was after three months that the tension began to decrease. Q22. Which other exercise did the Inst ruct or prescribe for Douglas t o make him shed the panic caused by water? Ans. He taught Douglas to put his face under water and exhale. Then he was to raise his nose and inhale. He repeated this exercise hundreds of tim e. Bit by bit he shed part of the panic that seized him when his head went under water. Q23. Which exercise helped Douglas t o loosen his stiff legs and make them work as he desired? Ans. The Instructor held Douglas at the side of the swimming pool. Then he ma de Douglas kick vfith his legs. He did just that for weeks. At first his legs refused to work. But gradually they relaxed. Finally, he was able to command them. Q24. Why does Douglas say : ‘The Instruct or was finished. But I was not finished?’ How did he overpower tiny vestiges of the old terror? Ans. The Instructor’s work was over when he built a swimmer out of Douglas piece by piece and then put them together into an integrated whole. However, Douglas was not satisfied as the remnants of the old terror would return when he swam alone in the pool. He would frown on terror go for another length of the pool. Q25. Why did Douglas go to Lake Went worth in New Hampshire? How did he make his t error flee ? Ans. Douglas was not sure whether all the terror had left even after the training from October to April and practice till July. So, he went to Lake Wentworth and swam two m iles. Terror returned only once when he was in the middle of the lake. He had put his face under and saw nothing but bottom less water. The old sensation returned in a smaller size. He laughed and rebuked terror. His terror fled away and he swam on. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. “There was t error in my heart at the overpowering force of th e waves.” When did Douglas start fearing water? Which experience had further strengthened its hold on his mind and personality’? Ans. The water waves which knocked down y oung Douglas and swept over him at the beach in California filled him with fear. He was then three or four years old. All this happened when he had clung to his father. He was buried under water. His breath was gone and he was frightened. His father laughed, but there was terror in his heart at the ov erpowering force of the waves. His introduction to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool revived unpleasant memories and stirred childish fear s. He had gathered som e confidence when a misadventure happened as a big boy threw him at the nine feet deep end of the pool. His efforts to rise to the surface and paddle to the side failed twice. He would have drowned if he had not been rescued in time. This terror of water overpowered his limbs and made them stiff. His mind was haunted by fear of water. It was, in fact, a handicap to his per sonality. Q2. Give an account of t he fears and emot ions of Douglas as he made effort s t o save himself from being dr owned in the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool. Ans. Douglas was frightened as he was going down. His active mind suggested a strategy to save himself from being drowned in water. He knew that water has buoyancy. He mu st make a big jump as his feet hit the bottom. He hoped to rise up like a cork to the surface, lie flat on it and paddle to the edge of the pool. Before he touched bottom , his lungs were ready to burst. Using all his strength, he ma de a great jump. He rose up very slowly. He saw nothing but yellow coloured dirty water. He grew panicky and he was suffocated. He swallowed m ore water as he tried to shout. He choked and went down again. His stiff
legs refused to obey him. He had lost all his breath. His lungs ached and head throbbed. He was getting dizzy. He went down through darkwater again. An absolute terror seized Douglas. He was paralysed under water. His reasoning power told him to jump again. He did so, but his aim s and legs wouldn’t m ove. His eyes and nose came out of water, but not his m outh. He swallowed m ore water and went down third tim e. Now a blackness swept over his brain. He had experienced the terror that fear of death can produce as well as the sensation of dying. Q3. How did the misadventure in Y.M.C.A. swimming pool affect Douglas ? What efforts did he make t o conquer his old t error? Did he succeed? Ans. Douglas had nearly died in the swimming pool. For days there was a haunting fear in his heart. The slightest exertion upset him. He avoided going near water as he feared it. The waters of the cascades, fishing for salm on in canoes, bass or trout fishing-all appeared attractive activities. However, the haunting fear of water followed Douglas everywhere and ruined his fishing trips? It deprived him of the joy of canoeing, boating and swimming. The fear of water became a handicap. He used every m ethod he knew to overcom e this fear. Finally, he decided to engage a trainer and learn swimming. In seven m onths the Instructor built a swimmer out of Douglas. However, the vestiges of the old terror would return when he was alone in the pool. He could now frown on terror and go for another length of the pool. This went on till July. Douglas was not satisfied. He went to Lake Wentworth and swam two miles. The terror returned only once when he had put his face under water and saw nothing but bottomless water. In order to rem ove his residual doubts he hurried west to Warm Lake. He dived into the lake and swam across to the other shore and back. He shouted with joy as he had conquered his fear of water. He finally succeeded in his effort. Q4. Comment on the appropriat eness of th e title ‘Deep Wat er’ OR Do you think the title Deep Water’ is apt? Give reasons in support of y our answer. Ans. The title ‘Deep Water’ is quite appropriate to this extract from ‘Of Men and Mountains’ by William O. Douglas. The title is highly suggestive and at once focuses our attention on the main theme—experiencing fear of death under water and the efforts of the author to overcom e it. All the details in the essay are based on his personal experience and analysis of fear. The psychological analysis of fear is presented from a child’s point of view and centres round deep water and drowning. The overpowering force of the waves at the California beach stir aversion for water in Douglas. His m other warns him against swimming in the deep waters of the treacherous Yakima River. The nine feet deep water of the swimming pool appears m ore than ninety to Douglas. However, when he conquers fear he can dive and swim in the deep waters of Lake Wentworth and Warm Lake. : Thus the title is apt and suggestive. Q5. What impression do y ou form of William O. Douglas on the basis of reading Deep Water?’ Ans. William Douglas leaves a very favourable impression on us. He appears quite truthful and courageous. He gives a detailed account of his fears and em otions as he struggles against deep water to save him self from being drowned. Confessing one’s faults and shortcom ings is not easy. It needs courage, honesty and will power. Douglas has all these qualities. His efforts to overpower the fear of water show his firm determination, resolution and strong will power. He has an analytic mind which diagnoses the malady and prom pts him t o search the cure. He is frightened of deep water, but not yet frightened out of his wits. In his heroic struggle against fear, terror and panic, he rises to heroic stature. He becom es an idol, a living imag e of bravery and persistent efforts. He typifies the will not to surr ender or yield. His indefatigable zeal is a source of inspiration for all and specially for the y outh. In short, William Douglas im presses us as a frank, truthful, honest and determined person. VALUE-BASED QUESTIONS Q1. It is oft en said that ‘No Pains, No Gains’. One cannot get anything if one does not
work hard. Writ e an article on the ‘t opic, mentioned above, in not more than 120 words. You can take ideas from the following lines: “I went t o a pool and practiced five days a week, an hour each day. A rope atta ched t o the belt went through a pulley that fan on an overhead cable. He held on t o the end of the rope, and we went back and forth, back and forth across the pool, hour aft er hour, day after day, week aft er week.” Ans. No Pains, no Gains The dictum implies that one can’t attain phenomenal success without making sincere efforts. There is no substitute to hard work. There is n o short cut to success. All successful persons have emphasised the im portance of hard work in life. Nobody achieved greatness ov ernight. The secret of their success was hard and systematic work. Destiny never obliges the shirkers. God helps those who help them selves. Rom e was not built in a day. Man mu st com prehend the significance of doing hard labour. One mu st bum the midnight oil to succeed in this world of intense com petition. Never forget that rest is rust and work is worship. A person who toils and work hard gets applause and recognition ev erywhere. Hard work is the only key to success. Those wh o work hard flourish and those wh o are passive rain their earthly existence. They lose their identity. Industrious people reach at their long cherished destinations. They lead their fellow human beings with politeness and humility. Q2. People say that failures are the st epping st ones. They are the best teachers. Discuss the aphorism taking ideas from the following lines: “I feared water. I avoided it whenever I could. A few y ears later when I came t o know the waters of Cascades, I wanted t o get into them. And whenever I did … the terror that had seized me in the pool would come back… I decided t o get an instruct or and learn t o swim. ” Ans. Failures are the Pillars t o Success It is rightly said that failure plays an im portant role in a man ’s life. Failure in one field becomes the cause of exploring success in other fields. It is a sure key to many a riddle. Failures make us familiar with our weaknesses and flaws. They becom e the stepping stones and in spire us to fight against odd circumstances. Man should learn from his mistakes and strive hard to reach at his destination. Most of the successful peoples failed at any step but could get their target because failures guided them and encouraged them to try harder. One should never give up one’s target. Our duty is to do our ‘karma’. The result is in the hands of the Almighty. It is certain that failure inspires us to work with m ore strength and vigour. One should never get depressed and dejected. All leaders, fighters, businessmen, bureaucrats firmly say that failures are the pillars to success. Q3. The st ory “Deep Water” has made y ou realize that with det ermination and perseverance one can accomplish the impossible. Write a paragraph in about 100 words on how a posit ive attitude and courage will aid y ou t o achieve success in life. [Delhi 2014] Ans. Will power play s a pivotal in the life of a human being. Determination and persistent hard work are the hallmarks of success. A person who has passionate desire to do something achieves his g oals within the stipulated tim e. There are num erous ways which lead to the desirable goals. Will power of a human being gives him strength, energy, vigour and enthusiasm. It determines the fate of a human being. Absolute determination has the uncanny ability to face and overcome obstacles. No hindrance can defeat the will power. It is invincible and insurm ountable. A man who lacks enthusiasm, will power and determination is like a ship which has no helm. It floats on the surface of water according to the wind. There is no problem in this world which has no solution. It has been proved by great per sonalities that all obstacles can be overcom e by sheer determination. Man has the knack to achieve anything. Nothing is impossible in this world of science and technology. He must not be fatalist. He should not believe in destiny, but on karma. Man can accom plish every assignment if he desires. Strong desire is the prerequisite to success. There is no scope for disappointment in the life of a
per son who has iron will and dogged determination. He puts in tremendous efforts to achieve greatness. Q4. The significance of training cannot be underestimated. Saint Cyprian said, “The helmsman is recognised in the tempest ; the soldier is proven in warfare’. Substantiate the words quoted above in y our own words. You may take ideas from the given lines: “I decided to get an instruct or and learn t o swim… he taught me t o put my face under wat er and exhale, and t o raise my nose and inhale… Bit by bit I shed part of t he panic that seized me when my head went under water.” Ans. Training: An Essential Component of Success Training sharpens the consumat e skills of trainees. Acquiring the profound knowledge of the work we do is of utmost importance. Nobody can refuse to accept and acknowledge the wider and potential significance of training. Soldiers receive training to overcom e the greatest obstacles they can face in the battlefield. Doctors are given training so that they may not becom e the cause of a patient’s life. Teachers receive training to dispel the darkness of ign orance. Training keeps the trainees abreast of the latest developments in their specific fields. The trainers apprise them of all the fundamental and significant instructions. A fresher who joins any profession without receiving proper training may devastate everything. Experience matters a lot. It teaches us the way things are to be done. It is rightly said that ‘the best way really to train people is with an experienced m entor… and on the job’. The experienced advice of the trainer enlightens the trainees. They are ma de exceptionally skilled in the basic techniques. The overwhelming importance of training can be neglected at our own peril. This perception of beings would bring them perilously close to disaster. Q5. FD Roosevelt says in his Inaugural Address in 1933 that ‘The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.’ Write an article on this t opic. You may take ideas from the given lines: “I used every way I knew t o overcome this fear, but it held me firmly in its grip Ans. Fear Fear stifles inn ovation, erodes creativity and limits the exponential growth. It is said that Those who lov e to be feared, fear to be loved. Som e fear them, but they fear every one. Montaigne wrote that The thing I fear m ost is fear’. Fear is the principal source of superstition, and one of the primary sources of cruelly. To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom. Seneca says that ‘If we let things terrify us, life will not be worth living. A person who is afraid of som ething cannot enjoy life in totality. Fear makes us weak, and cowardly. But it does not m ean that one should becom e arrogant. A person of peevish nature cannot be called a brave fellow. Aijuna said that a warr ior’s fear always helps him in understanding and analysing the potential of the opponent. Cervantes wrote in Don Quixote that ‘Fear has many eyes and can see things underground’. Man should not have unnecessary fear. It discourages him to achieve the lofty aspirations. Fear im pedes action and it is a well known fact that those who do not act lose the battle of life. One has to face the challenges of life. They can never be ign ored and neglected. They help us in honing our skills and tapping our untapped potential. Hence, one mu st shed fear.
CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/The Rattrap Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/The Rattrap Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF English Flamingo The Rattrap Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 THINK AS YOU READ Q1. From where did the peddler get the idea of the world being a rattrap? Ans: The peddler had been thinking of his rattraps when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole world was nothing but a big rattrap. It existed only to set baits for people. It offered riches and joy s, shelter and food, heat and clothing in the same manner as the rattrap offered cheese and pork. As soon as someone let him self be tempted to touch the bait, it closed in on him, and then everything cam e to an end. Q2. Why was he amused by this idea? Ans: His own life was sad and m onotonous. He walked laboriously from place to place. The world had never been kind to him. So, during his gloomy ploddings, this idea became his fav ourite pastim e. He was amu sed how people let them selves be caught in the dangerous snare and how others were still circling around the bait. Q3. Did the peddler expect the kind of hospitality that he received from the croft er? Ans: The crofter served him porridge for supper and tobacco for his pipe. He also played a game of cards with him till bed time. This hospitality was unexpected as people usually ma de sour faces when the peddler asked for shelter. Q4. Why was the croft er so talkative and friendly with the peddler? Ans: The crofter’s circumstances and temperament ma de him so talkative and friendly with the peddler. Since he had no wife or child, he was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness. Secondly, he was quite generous with his confidences. Q5. Why did he show the thirty kronor t o the peddler? Ans: The crofter had told the peddler that by supplying his cow’s milk to the cream ery, he had received thirty kronor in payment. The peddler seemed to doubt it. So, in order to assure his guest of the truth he showed the thirty kronor to the peddler. Q6. Did the peddler respect the confidence reposed in him by the croft er? Ans: No, the peddler did not respect the confidence reposed in him by the crofter. At the very first opportunity that he got, he sma shed the window pane, took out the m oney and hung the leather pouch back in its place. Then he went away.
THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What made the peddler think that he had indeed fallen into a rattrap? Ans: The peddler realised that he must not walk on the public highway with the stolen m oney in his pocket. He went into the woods. He kept walking without coming to the end of the wood. Then he realised that he had fallen in the rattrap. He had let him self befooled by a bait and had been caught in. Q2. Why did the ironmaster speak kindly t o the peddler and invite him home? Ans: The ironma ster walked closely up to the peddler. In the uncertain reflection from the furnace, he mistook the man as his old regimental comra de, Captain Von Stahle. He addressed the stranger as Nils Olof, spoke very kindly and invited him hom e. Q3. Why did the peddler decline the invitation? Ans: The peddler knew that the ironmaster had mistaken him for his old regim ental comra de. Secondly, he had stolen m oney —thirty kronor—on him. Going to the ironma ster’s residence would be like entering the lion’s den. So, he declined the invitation. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. What made the peddler accept Edla Willmansson’s invitation? Ans: Miss Edla Willman sson looked at the peddler quite com passionately. She noticed that the man was afraid. She assured him that he would be allowed to leave just as freely as he cam e. She requested him to stay with them ov er Christmas Eve. Her friendly manner ma de the peddler feel confidence in her and accept her invitation. Q2. What doubt s did Edla have about the peddler? Ans: As Edla lifted the peddler’s hat, he jum ped up abruptly and seem ed to be quite frightened. Ev en her kind looks, disclosure of her nam e and purpose of visit failed to calm him. From his fear, she thought that either he had stolen something or he had escaped from jail. Q3. When did the ironmast er realise his mistake? Ans: Next m orning, the stranger was cleaned and well-dressed. The valet had bathed him, cut his hair and shaved him. He was led to the dining room for breakfast. The ironma ster saw him in broad daylight. It was im possible to m istake him for an old acquaintance now. Then the ironmaster realised his mistake and threatened to call the Sheriff. Q4. How did the peddler defend himself against not having revealed his true identity? Ans: The peddler explained that he had not tried to pretend as his acquaintance. He was not at fault. All along he had maintained that he was a poor trader. He had pleaded and begged to be allowed to stay in the forge. No harm had been done by his stay. He was willing to put on his rags again and go away. Q5. Why did Edla still entertain the peddler even aft er she knew the truth about him? Ans: Edla did not think it proper on their part to chase away a human being whom they had asked t o com e to their house and had promised him Christmas cheer. She understood the reality of the peddler’s life and wanted him to enjoy a day of peace with them. Hence, she still entertained the peddler even after knowing the truth about him. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. Why was Edla happy t o see the gift left by the peddler? Ans: As soon as Edla opened the package of the gift, the contents came into view. She found a small rattrap with three wrinkled ten kronor notes and a letter addressed to her. The peddler wanted to be nice in return as she had been so nice to him all day long. He did not want her to be embarrased at the Christmas season by a thief. Q2.Why did the peddler sign himself as Captain von Stahle? Ans: The ironma ster has invited the peddler to his house mistaking him for Captain von Stahle. He was welcomed there and looked after as captain even after the reality became known. The peddler got a chance to redeem him self from dishonest ways by acting as an honourable Captain. UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Q1. How does the peddler interpret the act s of kindness and hospitality shown by the
crofter, the iron mast er and his daughter? Ans: The peddler interprets the acts of kindness and hospitality shown by the crofter, the iron master and his daughter differently. He cheats the crofter as he provides him com pany in his loneliness and helps him pass time. He wants to get a couple of kronors from the iron ma ster and is surprised at the contrasting style of behaviour of father and daughter. He is touched by the kindness, care and int ervention of Edla on his behalf. Q2. What are the instances in the st ory that show t hat the character of the ironmast er is different from that of his daughter in many ways? Ans: The ironma ster is impulsive* whereas his daughter is cool, logical, kind and thoughtful. In uncertain light he (iron ma ster) mistakes the stranger as his old regim ent comra de. He invites him hom e and takes care of his feeding, clothing etc. When he sees him in broad day light he calls the m an dishonest, deman ds an explanation and is ready to call in the sheriff. His daughter is m ore observant. Sh e notices the fear of the stranger and thinks that either he is a thief or a run away prisoner. Inspite of that She is gentle, kind and friendly to him. She treats him nicely even after knowing the mistake in identity. Q3. The st ory has many instances of unexpect ed reactions from the charact ers t o ot hers’ behaviour. Pick out instances of th ese surprises. Ans: The peddler is surprised at the warm welcom e, generous supper, cheerful com pany and intimate confidences by the crofter. The ironma ster addresses the peddler as Captain von Stahle. He is surprised when the ironma ster calls him “Nils Olof. The ironmaster assum es his declining the inv itation a result of embarrassm ent caused by his miserable clothing. The peddler’s com parison of the world to a rattrap makes the ironma ster laugh and he drops the idea of calling in the sheriff. The peddler looks at Edla in boundless amazement when she tells him that the suit is a Christmas present. She also invites him t o spend next Christmas with them. She does all this even after knowing the mistake about his identity.The crofter is robbed by his guest, the rattrap peddler, in return of his hospitality. Q4. What made the peddler finally change his ways? Ans: Edla Willmansson treated the tram p in a friendly manner. She was nice and kind to her. She int erceded on his behalf when her father was about to turn him out. She still entertained the peddler ev en after knowing the truth about him. She offered him the suit as Christmas present and invited him to spend the next Christmas with them. Her love and understanding aroused the essential goodness in the peddler and finally he changed his way s. Q5. How does the metaphor of th e rattrap serve t o highlight the human predicament? Ans: The world entices a person through the various good things of life such as riches and joy, shelter and food, heat and clothing. These were just like the baits in the rattrap. Once som eone is tempted by the bait, the world closed on him.The peddler was tempted by thirty kronor of the crofter. It makes him hide himself. He walks through the wood. He is afraid to go to the Manor house. He gets peace only after returning the bait (money). Q6. The peddler comes out as a person with a subtle sense of humour. How7 does this serve in lightening the seriousness of the theme of t he st ory and also endear him t o us? Ans: The peddler has a subtle sense of hum our, which is revealed during his interactions with the ironma ster and his daughter after the truth about him becom es known. He is neither afraid of being turned out in cold in rags nor of being sent to prison. He makes the ironma ster laugh with his metaphor of the rattrap. His letter with the Christmas present to Edla is a fine example of his capacity to ma ke others laugh at him. Thus, he lightens the seriousness of the theme of the story and also endears him self to us. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Discuss the following in groups of four. Each group can deal with one t opic and present the views of y our group t o the whole class. Q1. The reader’s sympathy is with the peddler right from the beginning of t he st ory.
Why is this so? Is the sympathy justified? Ans: The peddler wins our sympathy for his way of life and how the world treats him. It is an admitted fact that the underdog always runs away with sympathy, so does the peddler with the rattraps. He begs the material like wire for his rattraps. His business not being specially profitable, he resorts to begging and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. His life is sad and m onotonous. He plods along the road lost in his own m editation. The world has never been very kind to him and he feels happy in calling it a rattrap. Whenever, he asks shelter for the night, he m eets sour faces. He is an unwelcom e, unwanted and undesirable figure. The blacksmiths at forge glance at him only casually and indifferently. The ma ster blacksm ith nods a haughty consent without honouring him with a single word. The old and lonely crofter finds him an enjoyable com pany. The ironma ster mistakes him for an old regim ental comra de. Only Edla Willmansson behaves with him in a kind, friendly manner. Her nice treatment arouses the tramp’s goodness. He redeem s him self Hy returning the stolen m oney and wins our admiration. Thus, we see that the sympathy is n ot only well earned but well justified too. Q2. The st ory also focuses on human loneliness and the need t o bond with ot hers. Ans: There are at least three characters in the story who suffer from loneliness and express the need to bond with others. They represent three strata of the human society as well. The peddler with the rattraps, the old crofter and the ironma ster all suffer from loneliness. The peddler is called a tramp, a vagabond and stranger at various points of the story. He m oves wearily from one place to the other. He is lost in his own thoughts. He seeks shelter for night and people look at him with sour faces. Ev en the blacksmiths look haughtily at him and nod consent. The old crofter suffers from loneliness as he has neither wife nor child with him. Hence, he feels happy when he gets the peddler to talk to in his loneliness. The ironma ster is also lonely in his man or house. His wife Elizabeth has died and his sons are abroad. There is n o one at hom e except his oldest daughter and him self. His requests to Captain v on Stehle to accom pany him show his need for human bonding. He admits frankly that they didn’t have any com pany for Christmas. The stranger turns down the request not because he is against bonding with others but because he fears being caught with stolen m oney. Q3. Have y ou known/heard of an episode where a good deed or an act of kindness has changed a person’s view of th e world? Ans: Yes, I know how the kindness of a Bishop transform ed a hard-hearted beastly convict into a man again with faith in God and human values. The story is presented in the form of a fam ous play ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’ The Bish op provides food and shelter at midnight to a runaway convict who threatens him with a knife. Long years of im prisonment and harsh treatment in the prisonship has transform ed the man int o beast and he is devoid of all human feelings now. The convict runs away with the Bishop’s silver candlesticks, but is caught by the police. In order to save the convict from further punishm ent and torture, the Bish op tells the police officer that the fellow is his friend and he had him self given him the candlesticks. This kind act of the Bishop melts the hard heart of the convict. He sobs and weeps. He prom ises to be a man again. Q4. The st ory is both entertaining and philosophical. Discuss. Ans: The story entertains us by providing glimpses into human nature and how people react to various situations. The actions of the peddler after stealing thirty kronor are quite amu sing. The reactions of the blacksmiths to the tramp’s request for shelter show how casual and indifferent human beings can be. The U-turn in the ironma ster’s attitude towards the stranger reveal how selfish and ignorant human beings can be. Mistaking the vagabond for his old regim ental comra de, whom he thinks he has run across unexpectedly, he asks the stranger to accom pany him hom e and spend Christmas with them. When the stranger refuses to go with him, the ironma ster sends his daughter. With her better per suasive power she makes him follow her.
The ironma ster is annoy ed on seeing the stranger in broad daylight. But instead of realising his own mistake, he puts the blame on the man. He talks of handing him ov er to the sheriff. The m etaphor of the world being a rattrap saves the situation for the tram p, but the ironma ster wants to turn him out. His daughter’s comm ents are quite entertaining and philosophical. She wants the tramp to enjoy a day of peace. Secondly, she does not want to chase away a person whom they had invited home and had promised Christmas cheer. WORKING WITH WORDS Q1. The man selling rattraps is referred t o by many terms such as “peddler, stranger” et c. Pick out all such references t o him. What does each of these labels indicate of the cont ext or the attitude of t he people around him. Ans: Initially, the man who went around selling small rattraps of wire is called a Vagabond’ for he plodded along the road, left to his own meditations. He is referred to as “stranger” by the narrator while describing his m eeting with the old crofter. When he leaves the next day he is described as “the man with rattraps.’ When he returns half an hour later to steal m oney he is called ‘the rattrap peddler.’ For the blacksm iths at the forge he is an intruder. The narrator now refers to him as a ‘tram p’. For the rich ironma ster he is a “ragamuffin’. Since he had never seen the ironma ster or known his name, the man with rattraps is called a ‘stranger’. He is described as ‘stranger* while he stretches him self out on the floor when the ironma ster leaves. The label sticks to him during his stay at the man or house as a guest. These descriptions also suggest the degree of social difference ^between the persons and the peddler of rattraps and their attitude towards him. Q2. You came across the words, plod, trudge, stagger in the st ory. These words indicate movement accompanied by weariness. Find five other such words with a similar meaning. Ans: Five other words with a similar meaning are: clom p, lumber, lurch, reel, stumble. NOTICING FORM 1.He made them him self at odd m oment s. 2.He raised him self. 3.He had let him self be fooled by a bait and had been caught. 4. a day may com e when you yourself may want to get a big piece of pork. Notice the way in which these reflexive pronouns have been used (pronoun + self) •In 1 and 4 the reflexive pronouns “himself’ and •‘yourself” are used to convey emphasis. •In 2 and 3 the reflexive pronoun is used in place of personal pronoun to signal that it refers to the same subject in the sentence. •Pick out other examples of the use of reflexive pronouns from the story and notice how they are used. Ans. 1.He had not com e there to talk but only to warm himself and sleep. 2.To go up to the man or house would be like throwing him self voluntarily into the lion’s den. 3…….there is no one at hom e except my oldest daughter and myself. 4.But he laughed to himself as he went away … 5……apparently hoping that she would have better powers of persuasion than he himself. 6. The stranger had stretched himself out on the floor… 7. It would never have occurred to m e that y ou would bother with me y ourself, miss. 8…… if he had not been raised to captain, because in that way he got power to clear him self. In sentences 3, 5 and 7 the reflexive pronouns ‘my self, “him self and ‘y ourself are used to convey em phasis. In sentences 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8, the reflexive pronoun is used in place of personal pronoun to signal that it refers to the same subject in the sentence. THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE Q1. Notice t he words in bold in the following sentence:
“The fire boy shovelled charcoal in the maw of th e furnace with a great deal of clatter.” This is a phrase that is used in the specific cont ext of an iron plant . Pick out other such phrases and words from the st ory that are peculiar lo the t erminology of ironworks. Ans: Words and phrases that are peculiar to the terminology of ironworks are given below: hammer strokes, sm elter, forge, rolling m ill, coal dust, furnace, pig iron, anvil, iron bar, big bellow, coal, charcoal, shovel and sooty panes. Q2. “Mjolis” is a card game of Sweden. Name a few indoor games played in y our region. “Chopar” could be an example. Ans: ‘Rang-kaaf and ‘Turap Bol’ are popular indoor card games in our region. ‘Chukkhal’ is a poor man ’s substitute for Chopar. ‘Goti-paar’ is popular am ong young girls in rural areas. Q3. A “Crofter” is a person who rents or owns a small farm especially in Scotland. Think of other uncommon t erms for “a small farmer” including those in y our language. Ans: The uncomm on term s for “a small farmer” are: tiller, plowman/ploughman, husbandman, rancher, tenant farmer and small holder. In our language there are words like haali’, ‘bataai-jotta’, ‘jotta’ etc. MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. How did the peddler of rattraps manage in survive? Ans:He ma de rattraps of wire and went around selling them. He got material for making them by begging in the big stores or at big farms. Since his business was not quite profitable, he would beg or steal in order to survive. Q2. How did the peddler look? Wa s he different from people of his ty pe? Ans: He was a man with a long beard, dirty, ragged, and with a bunch of rattraps dangling on his chest. His clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and hunger gleamed in his eyes. No, he looked like the way people of his type usually did. Q3. What idea. did he get about the world? What were its implications? Ans: He got the idea that the whole world was only a big trap. It sets baits for people exactly as the rattrap offered cheese and pork. It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat and clothing as baits. It closed on the person who let him self be tem pted to touch the bait. Then everything came to an end. Q4. Why did the peddler think of the world as a rattrap? What became his cherished pastime? Ans: The world had never been kind to the peddler. So, he got unusual joy to think ill of the world. His pastime was to think of people he knew who had let them selves be caught in the dangerous snare of the world, and of others who were still circling around the bait. Q5. What hospitality did the peddler with rattraps receive from the old croft er? Ans: The old crofter served the peddler hot porridge for supper and gave him tabacco for his pipe. He entertained his guest by playing cards with him. He also inform ed him about his prosperous past life and how his cow supported him in his old age now. Q6. ‘The old man was just as generous with his confidences as with his porri dge and t obacco’. What personal information did he impart t o his guest ? Ans: The old man told his guest that in his days of prosperity he had been a crofter at Ram sjo Ironworks. Then he worked on the land. Now he was unable to do phy sical labour. His cow supported him now. He supplied her milk to the cream ery everyday. Last m onth he had received thirty kronor in payment. Q7 . Where had the old man put his money? Why did he hold it up before the ey es of his guest and what did he do later on? Ans: The man had put his m oney in a leather pouch which hung on a nail in the window fram e. He
picked out three wrinMed ten-kronor bills for his guest to see as he has seem ed sceptical. Then he stuffed them back into the pouch. Q8.‘ The next day bot h men got up in good, season.’ Why? Who are the men and what did they do aft er getting up? Ans: The two m en are the old crofter and his guest-the peddler with, the rattraps. The crofter was in a hurry to milk his cow. His guest did not want to stay in bed when the host had risen. They left the cottage at the sam e time. The crofter locked the door and put the key in his pocket. The peddler bade him goodbye and thanked him. Then each went his own way. Q9. Why did rattrap peddler return and how did he rob t he old croft er? Ans: The rattrap peddler was tem pted by the thirty kronors he had seen in the leather pouch of the old crofter. He returned half an hour later, sma shed a window pane, stuck in his hand and got hold of the pouch. He took out the m oney and thrust it into his own pocket. Thus, he robbed the old crofter. Q10. How did the peddler feel after robbing the croft er? Why did he discontinue walking on the public highway? Ans:At first he felt quite pleased with his smartness. Then he realised the danger of being caught by the police with the stolen m oney with him. He decided to discontinue walking on the public highway and turn off the road, into the woods. Q11. Why did Edla plead with her father not t o send the vagabond away? [All India 2014] Ans: Edla was kind and sympathetic. She was much pained by the plight of the peddler. Edla requested her father to spen d a day with them in peace as a respite from the struggle. Q12. How did the peddler feel while walking through the wood? What did he realise? Ans: During the first hours the woods caused him no difficulty. Later in the day, it became worse a s it was a big and confusing forest. The paths twisted back and forth. He kept on walking but did not com e to the end of the wood. He realised that he had been walking around in the sam e part of the forest. Q13. What do y ou learn about the Ramsjo Ironworks from ‘The Rattrap’? Ans: The Ram sjo Ironworks used to be a large plant, with smelter, rolling mill and forge. In the summer tim e long fines of heavily loaded barges and scows slid down the canal. In the winter time, the roads near the mill were black from charcoal dust. Q14. Why did the blacksmith fail t o notice the entry of t he peddler in the forge? Ans: The forge was full of many sounds. The big bellows groaned and the burning coal cracked. The fire boy shovelled charcoal into the maw of the fumance with a great deal of clatter. A water fall roared outside. Sharp north wind ma de the rain strike the brick-tiled roof. Due to all this noise the blacksmith failed to notice the peddlar’s entry. Q15. ‘The blacksmiths glanced only casually and indifferently at the intruder’, What prompted them t o do so? Ans: Usually poor vegabonds, without any better shelter for the night, felt attracted to the forge by the glow of fight which escaped through the sooty panes. They came in to warm them selves in front of the fire. The intruder looked like other people of his type usually did. Q16. What did the tramp ask? Wa s his request granted? What did he do t hen? Ans: The tram p asked permission to stay. The blacksmiths hardly deigned to look at him. The ma ster blacksmith nodded a haughty consent without uttering a word. The tram p too did not say anything. He had com e there only to warm him self and sleep. So, he eased his way close to the furnace. ‘ Q17 . Who was the owner of the Ramsjo Iron Mill? Why did he come t o the forge that night? Ans: The owner of that m ill was a very prominent ironma ster. His greatest am bition was to ship out good iron to the market. He insisted on quality and kept a watch on the work both night and day. He cam e to the forge on one of his nightly rounds of inspection.
Q18. What did the ironmast er notice in the forge? How did he react then? Ans: The ironma ster noticed a person in dirty rags lying quite close to the furnace. Steam rose from his wet rags. The ironma ster went near him and looked at him very carefully. Then he rem oved his slouch hat to get a better view of his face. He thought that he was an old acquaintance of his and said : “But of course it is you, Nils Olof!” Q19. Why did the man with the rattraps not want t o undeceive the ironmast er all at once? Ans: The peddler thought that if the fine gentleman thought he was an old acquaintance, he might perhaps thr ow him a couple of kronor. So he did not want to undeceive him all at once. Q20. What observation did the ironmaster make about the stranger? What did he ask him t o do? Ans: The ironma ster saw the stranger in the uncertain fight of the fumance and mistook him for his old regimental comra de. He said that it was a mistake on his part to have resigned from the regiment. If he had been in service at that tim e, it would never have happened. He asked the stranger to go hom e with him. Q21. What did the peddler think about going up t o the manor house? How did he react t o the ironmast er’s invitation? Ans: The peddler looked quite alarm ed. He still had the stolen thirty kronor on him. Going up to the man or house would be like throwing himself v oluntarily into the lion’s den. He did not feel pleased to go there and be received by the owner like an old regimental comra de. So he declined the invitation. Q22. What did the ironmast er assume t o be the reason behind his old comrade s refusal? Hoiw did he t ry t o reassure him? Ans: The ironma ster assumed that his old regimental comra de felt embarrassed because of his miserable clothing. He said that his house was not so fine that he couldn’t show him self there. He lived there only with his daughter as his wife Elizabeth was dead and his sons were abroad. Q23. What reason did the ironmaster advance in support of his invitation t o the stranger? Ans: He said that they didn’t have any com pany for Christmas. He thought it was quite bad. He requested the stranger to com e along with him and help them make the Christmas food disappear a little faster. Q24. ‘The ironmast er saw that he must give in.’ What made him give in? What did he say? What did the blacksmith think about the ironmast er? Ans: The stranger declined the ironmaster’s invitation thrice. The ironma ster then told Stjemstrom, the blacksmith that Captain von Stahle preferred to stay with him that night. He laughed to himself as he went away. The blacksmith, who knew the ironma ster, understood very well that he had not said his last word. Q25. Who was t he new guest at the forge ? Why had that person come there and how did he I she look’? Who accompanied her and why? Ans: The new guest was the ironma ster’s daughter. She drove in there in a carriage along with a valet who carried on his arm a big fur coat. She had been sent there by her father hoping that she had better powers of persuasion that he him self. She was not at all pretty, but seemed m odest and quite Shy. Q26. Describe the scene at the forge when Edla Willmansson came there. Ans: The ma ster blacksmith and his apprentice sat on a bench. Iron and charcoal glowed in the furnace. The stranger had stretched him self out on the floor. He lay with a piece of pig iron under his head and his hat pulled down over his eyes. Q27. What did the y oung girl notice about the st ranger? What did she conclude? How did she make him feel confidence in her? Ans: The stranger jumped up abruptly and seemed to be quite frightened. She looked at him sym pathetically, but the man still looked afraid. She concluded that either he had stolen som ething or
else he had escaped from jail. She spoke to him in a very friendly manner to ma ke him feel confidence in her. Q28. What did the peddler of rat traps think while he was riding up t o the manor house? Ans: Whfie he was riding up to the man or house he had evil forebodings. He questioned him self why he had taken that fellow’s m oney. He thought that he was sitting in the trap and would never get out of it. Q29. Why did the peddler derive pleasure from his idea of the world as a rattrap? [Delhi 2014] Ans: The peddler was very happy with the idea of the world as a rattrap because he was never given kindly treatment by the world. He had quite different feeling for it and lov ed to think ill of it by com paring it t o a rattrap. Q30. How did the ironmast er try t o convince his daughter about the stranger’? Ans: He asked his daughter to have som e patience. She would see something different as soon as the stranger got clean and dressed up. Last night he was naturally em barrassed. He asserted that tramp manners would fall away from him with tramp clothes. Q31. What impression did the well-groomed guest make? How did the ironmast er react and why? Ans: He looked truly clean and well dressed. The ironma ster did not seem pleased. He looked at him with contracted brow. It was because he had made a mistake in identifying the person in uncertain light at night. He deman ded an explanation from the man. Q32. What did the ironmast er threaten t o do aft er knowing the mistake? How did the stranger save himself? Ans: The ironma ster threatened to call in the sheriff. The stranger told him that the Sheriff might lock him up for dissembling. He reminded the ironma ster that a day might com e when he m ight get tempted, and then he would be caught in the big rattrap of the world. The metaphor amu sed the ironma ster. He dropped the idea of sending for the sheriff, but asked the stranger to leave at once. Q33. ‘The daughter st ood there quite embarrassed and hardly knew what t o answer.’ What embarrassed her? Why did she intercede for the vagabond? Ans: The daughter had drawn plan s to make things hom elike and typical of Christmas, for the poor hungry wretch. She could not get away from this idea at once. She felt embarrassed when her father asked the man to get out. She interceded for the vagabond to persuade her father to let him stay for Christmas. Q34. What arguments did the y oung girl give in favour of the stranger’s stay there? Ans: She said that the whole year long, the stranger walked around. He was probably not welcome or ma de to feel at home even at a single place. He was chased away wherever he turned. He was always afraid of being arrested and cross-examined. She wanted him to enjoy a day of peace with them -just one in the whole year. Q35. “He only st ared at the y oung girl in boundless amazement.” What made the man wit h the rattraps react in this manner? Ans: The young girl told him after the Christmas dinner that the suit he wore was to be a Christmas present from her father. He did not have to return it. If he wanted to spend next Christmas Eve peacefully, without any evil befalling him, he would be welcom ed back again. This ama zed him. Q36. “The y oung girl sat and hung her head even more deject edly than usual.” What t wo reasons forced her t o behave in this manner? Ans: First, she had learned at church that one of the old crofters of the ironworks had been robbed by a man who went around selling rattraps. Second, her father taunted her and held her responsible for letting that “fine fellow” into the house. Q37. Sum up the contents of the lett er addressed t o Miss Willmansson. Ans: The stranger did not want her to be embarrassed at the Christmas season with a thief. As she
had been nice to him as if he were a captain, he would be nice to her as if he were a real captain. Sh e asked her to return the m oney to the old crofter. The rattrap was a present from a rat who would have been caught in the world’s rattrap if he had not been raised to captain. It was as captain that he got power to clear him self. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. What is the theme of th e st ory ‘The Rattrap’ ? How has this theme been developed? Ans: The theme of the story is that m ost human beings are prone to fall into the trap of material benefit. However, every human being has an essential goodness that can be awakened through understanding and love. A human being has the tendency to redeem himself from dish onest ways. The theme is developed with the help of the metaphor of the rattrap. The peddler of rattraps calls the world a big rattrap. The material benefits like riches and joys, shelter and food, heat and clothing are temptations that that allure a person to fall into the rattrap of the world exactly as the bait of cheese and pork attract a rat to fall into the rattrap. Once som eone takes the bait, the world closes in on him and then everything is lost. The peddler is tem pted by the thirty kronors of the old crofter. He steals the m oney. Now he is afraid of being caught and m oves through the woods. It is the kind, sympathetic, loving and generous treatment given by Edla Willmansson that helps him get him self free from the rattrap of the world. Q2. Give an account of t he peddler’s meeting with the old croft er. How does the peddler conduct himself? What light does this episode throw on human nature? Ans: One dark evening the peddler reached a little gray cottage by the roadside. He knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. The owner, an old man without wife or child, welcomed him. He was happy to get som eone to talk to in his loneliness. He served him hot porridge for supper and gave him tobacco for his pipe. Then he played cards with him till bed tim e. The host told the peddler that in his days of prosperity, he worked on land at Ram sjo Ironworks. Now his cow supported him. He sold her milk at the cream ery everyday. He showed the peddler the thirty kronor notes he got as payment that m onth. Then he hung the leather pouch on a nail in the window frame. Next m orning the crofter went to m ilk the cow, and the peddler went away. However, he returned after half an hour, broke the window pane, took the m oney out of the leather pouch and hang it back on the nail.This episode shows that in loneliness, human beings crave for com pany, for social bonding. Secondly, temptations can overpower the greatest philosopher. The peddler who calls the world a rattrap is him self tempted by thirty kronor. Q3. How did the peddler feel after robbing the croft er? What course did he adopt and how did he react t o the new situation? What does his reaction highlight? Ans: Having robbed his generous host, the peddler felt quite pleased with his smartness. He did not feel any qualms of conscience that he had abused the confidence reposed in him by the crofter. The selfish wretch thought only of his own safety. He realised the danger of being caught by the police with the stolen thirty kronor on his person. Hence, he decided to discontinue walking on the public highway and turn off the road, into the woods. During the first few hours the woods caused him no difficulty. Later on, it became worse as it was a big and confusing forest. The paths twisted back and forth. He kept on walking but did not com e to the end of the wood. He realised that he had only been walking around in the sam e part of the forest. The forest closed in upon him like an impenetrate prison from which he could never escape. The reaction of the peddler highlights the predicam ent of human nature. Temptations lead to evil. The fruits of evil seem pleasant at first, but they deprive man of his g oodness and push him into the ma ze of the world which holds a vice-like grip on him. Q4. (i) ‘The blacksmiths glanced only casually and indifferently at the intruder.’ (ii)“The ironmast er did not follow the example of the blacksmiths who had hardly deigned t o look at the st ranger * What do these attitudes reveal? How does the forgeepisode help t o develop the st ory? What is its implication? Ans: The blacksmiths display the typical attitude of manual workers and labourers for whom work is
the first priority and parasites on human society are drags on the fruit of their labour. The ma ster blacksmith nods a haughty consent without honouring the intruder with a single word. Evidently, he regards the tramp as insignificant. The ironma ster, who is on his nightly round of inspection, behaves differently. He walks closely up to him and looks him over carefully. Then he rem oves his slouch hat to get a better view of his face. In the uncertain light of the furnace he mistakes the stranger for his old regimental comra de and requests him to go home with him. When the stranger declines the invitation, the ironmaster sends his daughter to persuade him to spend Christmas Eve with them. Thus the forge episode helps to develop the story. The episode highlights the difference in the reactions of various persons to the same set of circumstances. This reveals the shades of human nature. It shows that even the person with best discernment may commit an error of judgement. Q5. Bring out the contrast in the ironmast er’s attitude and behaviour t owards t he stranger before and aft er he realises his mistake. Ans: The ironma ster is m oved to see his old regim ental comra de in a pitiable state. He considers it a mistake on his part to have resigned from the regiment. He insists that his old comra de will go hom e with him. As the stranger declines the invitation, he thinks that the man feels embarrassed because of his miserable clothing. He explains that he does not have such a fine hom e that he cannot show himself there. He requests the stranger to provide com pany to him and his daughter for Christmas. When the stranger refuses thrice, he sends his daughter, with a big fur coat to persuade him. Just before breakfast on Christmas Eve, he thinks of feeding him well and providing him same honourable piece of work. His behaviour undergoes a U-turn when he looks at the well-groom ed stranger and realises his mistake. He expresses his displeasure with a wrinkled brow and demands an explanation from th e man. Though the peddler defends him self well saying he never pretended to be som eone else, the ironma ster calls him dish onest and threatens to hand him ov er to the sheriff. When the m etaphor of world being a rattrap softens him a bit, he asks the peddler to quit at once. Q6. What impression do you form of Edla on reading the st ory ‘The Raitrap’ ? Ans: Miss Edla Willmansson is the eldest daughter of the owner of the Ram sjo Ironworks. She is not pretty, but m odest and quite shy. She is quite obedient and visits the forge at the behest of her father. Sh e has a wonderful power of observation and takes quick judgem ent. From the stranger’s frightened looks, she concludes that he is either a thief or a runaway convict. She uses her skills of persuasion to make the stranger agree to accom pany her hom e. Her com passionate looks, friendly manner and polite way of address help her. She tells her father that nothing about the man shows that once he wa s an educated man. Sh e believes in the spirit of Christmas and intercedes on behalf of the stranger to per suade her father to let him stay and be happy. She first makes a passionate plea and then argues that they should not chase away a person they had invited themselves and prom ised him Christma s cheer. Her dejection on learning that the peddler with rattraps was a thief reflects her sensitiveness. The gift of the captain makes her happy. It is her noble action that helps a thief redeem him self. In short, she is an intelligent, affectionate and kind young girl. Q7 . Comment on the efuRng of t he st ory ‘The Rattrap’. Ans: The story ‘The Rattrap’ has a very beautiful ending. It helps us to realise that all is n ot lost for human beings who are prone to fall int o the trap of material benefits. It is the protagonist of the story—the peddler with the rattraps—who coins the metaphor of the rattrap, falls himself in it on being tempted and ultimately redeem s him self by renouncing the tem ptation. His admission that he had been the thief, and the treatment he got as a captain, show how love and understanding can transform even a depraved soul. The story thus com es a full circle with the ending. All questions are answered and no loose tags remain hanging. The ending also pay s tribute to the goodness of humanity here exhibited through Miss Edla
Willman sson. The happy ending also arouses our optim ism and belief in the essential goodness of man and other human virtues. Thus it serves to in spire the readers to do noble acts. Q8. Do you think the title of the st ory ‘The Rattrap’ is appropriate? Give reasons t o support y our answer. Ans: The story has an appropriate and suggestive title. It at once draws our attention to the central theme—the whole world is a big rattrap. This m etaphor helps us to understand the human predicam ent. All the good thing s of the world are nothing but baits to tempt a person to fall into the rattrap. Through the character of the peddler, the writer drives hom e the idea that m ost human beings are prone to fall into the trap of material benefit s. The story begins with rattraps and ends with a rattrap as a present for someone who has helped a rat to get free from’the rattrap. Even the middle of the story rev olves round the rattrap. The actions of the peddler after he steals thirty kronor of the old crofter reveal the inner conflicts, tensions and lack of peace of a person who touches the bait of temptation. Renunciation of the temptation helps in redem ption.Thus, we conclude that the title is apt and significant. VALUE-BASED QUESTIONS Q1. Honesty is considered the best policy for earning one’s bread and butter. St ealing is a sin and a punishable act. Vagabonds tend t o forget this essential goodness. Elucidate the dictum in the light of t he following lines:“He made them himself at odd moments, from the material he got by begging in the st ores or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not especially profitable, so he had t o resort t o both begging and petty thievery t o keep body and soul t ogether. ” Ans: Honest Means of Livelihood Ev ery human being has to earn his bread and butter. Means vary from person to person, but one has to face many obstacles and odd situations in life. These means can be fair or foul, honest or dishonest. Unfortunately, the m odem man hankers after m oney and has becom e commercial-m inded. People are not afraid of the Almighty . They wish to accumulate riches by hook or by crook. They have no respect for humanity and m oral values. The social norms and time-tested principles bem oan som ewhere in a com er. The m ortals of this computer age focus only on pecuniary gains. They are desirous of becom ing rich ov ernight. And it is sure that no one can make easy m oney without resorting to corruption. One should always rem ember that those who are honest get respect in society and feel them selves satisfied. They don’t have to feel guilty. But those wh o are corru pt hide them selves behind the veils when caught. A person should always be honest and sincere. The factory workers, farmers, teachers and poor artisans live an honest life and are appreciated everywhere. Freud rightly proclaimed in his letter to Wilhelm Fliess that ‘Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise’. A few honest men are better than numerous bad ones. Q2. It is rightly said that the crown and glory of life is character. Alphonse Karr, a French journalist , said, “Every man has three charact ers: that which he shows, t hat which he has, and that which he thinks he has”. Substantiate the saying taking ideas from the following expressions:“…It was quite honest , either. You must admit that, and I should not be surprised if the sheriff would like t o have something t o say in the matter.” Ans: “The crown and glory of life is character Wh en wealth is lost , nothing is lost; Wh en health is lost , something is lost; Wh en charact er is lost , everything is lost ”. Charming said that the great hope of society is individual character. Character plays a pivotal role in the life of a human being. It is as significant for a man as a crown for a king. It is the glory of a man ’s life. Character reflects the traits and personality of a person. A man of character retains m oral strength and faces the mu sic of life bravely. A man is judged by his character. A person who has good
character is respected and honoured in society. It is often said that our lot depends on our character. One rises in life in proportion to the strength of one’s character. Character gives self-satisfaction to a per son. He can lead a happy and contended life. He accumulates wealth in heaven instead of building treasures on the earth. It is only character that distinguishes man from beasts. Goethe .remarked that “Talent is nurtured in solitude; character is formed in the stormy billows of the world. “Not in the clamor of the crowded st reet , Not in the shouts and plaudits of the throng, But is ourselves, are triumph and defeat. —Longfellow Q3. Man is a gregarious animal. Arist otle wrot e in Politics, “He who is unable t o live in society , or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god”. Lonliness gnaws a man from within. Writ e an article on the t opic mentioned above in y our own words. You can take ideas from the following lines:“…he knocked on the door t o ask shelter for the night. Nor was he refused. Inst ead of the sour faces which ordinarily met him, the owner, who was an old man. without wife or child, was happy t o get someone t o talk t o in his loneliness.” Ans: Loneliness: A Terrible Moment Enduring loneliness requires perseverance and strength of mind. The state of alienation may depress a person. He may becom e insane. Everybody cannot bear the pangs of leading a lonely life. Seclusion irritates a m ortal as it is known to us that man is a gregarious animal. He needs com pany to share his views and thoughts. It is also said that solitude is the playfield of satan. Man gets diverted and takes recourse to illegal ways. The Bible says that ‘woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up’. An alienated person leads a m iserable and pitiable life. Survival at a deserted place becom es next to im possible for a human being. Solitude gives vent to the feelings of enmity against mankind. A depressed person may go to any extent to avenge his seclusion. Solitude and melancholy are synonymous of each other. Mother Teresa has described loneliness in a fitting manner. She said, “Lonliness and the feeling of being unwanted is the m ost terrible poverty”. Each individual needs love, affection and com pany. The victim s of solitude and lonliness never feel them selves gratified. They never feel them selves the part of the main stream. It breeds negativity and anim osity. They become hostile towards the fellow human beings. The repercussions of loneliness are cata strophic and disa strous. Q4. Voltaire has rightly remarked that ‘Love truth, but pardon error’. It is by forgiving that one is forgiven. Sympathy is a divine virtue. It is indispensable for a philanthropist . Elucidate the dictum taking ideas from the following expressions. “Since y ou have been so nice t o me all day long, as if I was a captain, I want t o be nice t o y ou, in return, as if I was a real captain—for I do not want y ou t o be embarrassed at this Christmas season by a thief- but y ou can give back the money t o the old man on the roadside…” Ans: The Bible proclaim s that ‘Blessed are the merciful; for they shall obtain mercy5. Love begets lov e and hatred begets hatred. People in this world have a reciprocal relationship. They reciprocate the thing they receive. It is a universally accepted aphorism that ‘To err is human, to forgive, divine’. Sympathy has a great power. A sympathetic person receives the blessings of the destitute whom he helps or forgives. People can’t imagine the incredible power of sympathy. A person’s kind acts and words may save many precious fives. One mu st not forget that those who sympathise with others get inner satisfaction. It awakens the affection of a human heart. It leaves an indelible im pression even on the m ost rugged ’ nature. Its results are better than a king’s power. It helps a man in his endeavour to elevate his fellow human beings from a state of poverty and distress. Dr. Samuel Johnson averred that the wretched have no com passion. When a man suffers him self, it is called misery; when he suffers in the suffering of another, it is called pity. Forgiveness is, undoubtedly, a divine quality. The philanthropists should inculcate the habit of forgiving others in their character.
CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Indigo Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo http://freehomedelivery.net/Indigo Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF English Flamingo Indigo Download 2017 2018 New Edition PDF CBSE Answers NCERT Solutions Class 12 Q1. Strike out what is not true in the following: (a)Ra jkumar Shukla was: (i)a sharecropper (ii)a politician (iii)delegate (iv)a landlord. (b) Rajkumar Shukla was: (i) poor (ii)physically st rong (iii) illit erate. Ans: (a) (ii) a politician (b) (ii) physically strong Q2. Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being ‘resolute’? Ans: He had come all the way from Champaran district in the foothills of Himalayas to Lucknow to speak to Gandhi. Shukla accom panied Gandhi everywhere. Shukla followed him to the ashram near Ahmedabad. For weeks he never left Gandhi’s side till Gandhi asked him to m eet at Calcutta. Q3. Why do y ou think the servant s thought Gandhi t o be another peasant? Ans: Shukla led Gandhi to Rajendra Prasad’s house. The servants knew Shukla as a poor yeoman. Gandhi was also clad in a simple dhoti. He was the com panion of a peasant. Hence, the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. List the places t hat Gandhi visited bet ween his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran. Ans: Gandhi’s first m eeting with Shukla was at Lucknow. Then he went to Cawnpore and other parts of India. He returned to his a shram near Ahmedabad. Later he went to Calcutta, Patna and Muzaffarpur before arriving at Champaran. Q2. What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? What did the British now want inst ead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indi go? Ans: The peasants paid the British landlords indig o as rent. Now Germany had developed synthetic indigo. So, the British landlords wanted m oney as com pensation for being released from the 15 per cent arrangem ent. The prices of natural indigo would go down due to the synthetic Indigo. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. The event s in this part of the t ext illustrate Gandhi’s method of working. Can y ou
identify some instances of this method and link them t o his ideas of Satyagraha and non-violence? Ans: Gandhi’s politics was intermingled with the day -to-day problems of the millions of Indians. He opposed unjust laws. He was ready to court arrest for breaking such laws and going to jail. The fam ous Dandi March to break the ‘salt law’ is another instance. The resistance and disobedience was peaceful and a fight for truth and justice…This was linked directly to his ideas of Satyagraha and nonviolence. THINK AS YOU READ Q1. Why did Gandhi agree t o a settlement of 25 per cent refund t o the farmers? Ans: For Gandhi the am ount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been forced to return part of the m oney, and with it, part of their prestige too. So, he agreed to settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers. Q2. How did the episode change the plight of the peasants? Ans: The peasants were saved from spending time and m oney on court cases. After som e years the British planters gave up control of their estates. These now reverted to the peasants. Indigo sharecropping disa ppeared. UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT Q1.Why do y ou think Gaffdhi considered the Champaran episode t o be a turning- point in his life? Ans: The Champaran episode began as an attem pt to ease the sufferings of large number of poor pea sants. He got spontaneous support of thousands of people. Gandhi admits that what he had done was a very ordinary thing. He declared that the British could not order him about in his own country. Hence, he considered the Cham paran episode as a turning- point in his life. Q2. How was Gandhi able t o influence lawy ers? Give instances. Ans: Gandhi asked the lawyers what they would do if he was sentenced to prison. They said that they had com e to advise him. If he went to jail, they would go hom e. Then Gandhi asked them about the injustice to the sharecroppers. The lawy ers held consultations. They came to the conclusion that it would be shameful desertion if they went hom e. So, they told Gandhi that they were ready to follow him int o jail. Q3. “What was the attitude of th e average Indian in smaller localities t owards advocat es of ‘home rule’? Ans: The average Indians in sma ller localities were afraid to show sympathy for the adv ocates of hom e-rule. Gandhi stayed at Muzaffarpur for two days at the home of Professor Malkani, a teacher in a governm ent school. It was an extraordinary thing in th ose days for a governm ent professor to give shelter to one who opposed the gov ernment. Q4. How do we know that ordinary people t oo cont ributed t o t he freedom movement? Ans: Professor J.B. Kriplani received Gandhi at Muzaffarpur railway station at midnight. He had a large body of students with him. Sharecroppers from Cham paran cam e on foot and by conveyance to see Gandhi. Muzaffarpur lawy ers too called on him. A vast multitude greeted Gandhi when he reached Motihari railway station. Thousands of people demonstrated around the court room . This shows that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom m ovement in India. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Discuss the following: Q1. “Freedom from fear is more important than Legal justice for the poor.” Do you think that the poor of India are free from fear after Independence? Ans: For the poor of India means of survival are far m ore im portant than freedom or legal justice. I don’t think the poor of India are free from fear after Independence.The foreign rulers have been replaced by corru pt politicians and self-serving bureaucracy. Power- brokers and m oneylenders have a field day. The situation has improv ed in cities and towns for the poor but the poor in the rem ote villages still fear the big farmers and m oneylenders. The police and revenue officials are still objects of
terror for them. The poor, landless workers have to still work hard to make both ends meet. Peasants and tenantfarmers have to borrow m oney from rich m oneylenders on exorbitant rates of interest, which usually they fail to repay due to failure of m onsoon or bad crops. Cases of sma ll farmers committing suicide are quite comm on. If this is not due to fear, what is the reason behind it? Q2. The qualities of a good leader. Ans: A good leader has a mass appeal. He rises from the ma sses, thinks for them and works for them. He is sincere in his approach. He is a man of principles. Truth, honesty, patriotism, m orality, spirit of service and sacrifice are the hallmarks of a good leader. He never mixes politics with religion or sect. He believes in working for the welfare of the nation and does not think in the narrow terms of class, caste or region. Corru ption and nepotism are two evils that surr ound a leader in power. The life of a good leader is an open book. There is no difference between his words and actions. Such good leaders are very rare. What we find today are practical politicians, who think of achieving their end without bothering about . the purity of m eans. The law of expediency gets the better of m orality. WORKING WITH WORDS 1.List the words used in the t ext that are related t o legal procedures. For example: deposition Ans: Notice, summons, prosecutor, trial, plead, guilty, order, penalty, sentence, bail, judgement, prison, case, inquiry, evidence, commission. •List other words that y ou know that fall into this category. Ans. Com plaint, com plainant, decree, defendant, witness, prosecution, defence, sessions, jury, verdict, decision. THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE Q1. Notice t he sentences in the text which are in ‘direct speech’. Why does t he author use quot ations in his narration? Ans: The following sentences in the text are in ‘direct speech’. (а)He said, “I will tell you how it happened that I decided to urge the departure of the British. It was in 1917.” (b)Gandhi recounted. “A peasant came up to m e looking like any other peasant in India, poor and ema ciated, and said, ‘I am Rajkumar Shukla. I am from Champaran, and I want you to com e to my district!” (c)Gandhi said, “I have to be in Calcutta on such-and-such a date. Com e and m eet me and take me from there”. (d)“It was an extraordinary thing ‘in those day s,” Gandhi comm ented, Tor a gov ernment professor to harbour a man like m e.’ (e)He said, “I have com e to the conclusion that we should stop going to law courts. Taking such cases to the courts does little good. Where the peasants are so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts are useless. The real relief for them is to be free from fear.” (f) “The commissioner,” Gandhi reports, “proceeded to bully me and advised me forthwith to leave Tirhut”. (g)‘But how much must we pay?’ they asked Gandhi. (h)One woman took Kasturbabai into her hut and said, “Look, there is no box or cupboard here for clothes. The sari I am wearing is the only one I have”. (i) “What I did”, he explained, “was a very ordinary thing. I declared that the British could not order me about in my own country”. (j) He said, “You think that in this unequal fight it would be helpful if we have an Englishman on our side. This shows the weakness of y our heart. The cause is just and you mu st rely upon y ourselves to win the battle. You should not seek a prop in Mr ‘ Andrews because he happens to be an Englishman”. (k) “He had read our minds correctly,” Rajendra Prasad comm ents, “and we had no reply … Gandhi in this way taught uS a lesson in self-reliance”.
The choice of the direct form strengthens the effectiveness of narration. The author uses quotations to highlight certain points which may not appear so effective in reporting indirectly. Q2. Notice the use or non-use of t he comma in the following sentences: (a) When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, he t old me what happened in Champaran. (b) He had not proceeded far when the police superintendent’s messenger overtook him. (c) When the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgement for several days. Ans: (i) When the subordinate clause com es before the main clause, a comma is used to separate it from the main clause. (ii) No comma is used when the main clause comes before the subordinate clause. THINGS TO DO 1.Choose an issue that has provoked a controversy like the Bhopal Gas Tragedy or the Narmada Dam Project in which the lives of the poor have been affect ed. 2.Find out the fact s of th e case. 3.Present y our arguments. 4.Su ggest a possible settl ement. Ans: Extension activity : To be attempted under the guidance of the teacher. MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1.Who was Rajkumar Shukla? Why did he come t o Lucknow? Ans: Rajkumar Shukla was a poor peasant from Champaran district in Bihar. He had com e to Lucknow, where a Congress session was being held, to com plain about the injustice of the landlord sy stem in Bihar. Q2. Where is Champaran dist rict situated? What did the peasant s grow there? How did they use their harvest ? Ans: Champaran district of Bihar is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal. Under an ancient arrangement, the Cham paran peasants were sharecroppers. They had to grow indigo on 15 per cent of the land and give it to the English estate owners as rent. Q3. How did the development of synthetic indigo affect the English estate owners and the Indian t enant s? Ans: The English estate owners saw that indigo cultivation was no longer profitable.Ihey wanted m oney from the sharecroppers as com pensation for being released from the 15 per cent arrangement. They obtained agreem ents from their tenants to this effect and extorted m oney illegally and deceit fully. Q4. How did the Indian peasants react t o the new agreement released them from shar ecropping arrangement? Ans: The sharecropping arrangement was troublesom e to the peasants. Many of them signed the new agreement willingly. Som e resisted and engaged lawyers. Then they came to know about synthetic indigo. The peasants wanted their m oney back. Q5. Why do you think Gandhi was not permitted t o draw water from Rajendra Prasad’s well at Patna? Ans: The servants of Rajendra Prasad thought Gandhi to be another peasant. They did not know him. They were not certain whether he was an untouchable or not. They feared that som e drops from his bucket might pollute the entire well. So, he was not permitted to draw water from the well. Q6. Why did Gandhi decide t o go first t o Muzaffarpur before going t o Champaran: Ans: Gandhi wanted to obtain more com plete information about conditions than Shukla was capable of im parting. Muzaffarpur lawy ers, who frequently represented peasant groups in courts, brief Gandhi about their cases.
Q7 . Why did Gandhi chide the lawyers? What according t o him was the real relief for the sharecroppers? Ans: Gandhi chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the poor sharecroppers. He thought that taking such cases to the court did little good to the crushed and fear-stricken peasants. The relief for them, according to Gandhi, was to be free from fear. Q8. How did Ga n dhi begin his mission in Champaran ? How far did his efforts prove successful ? Ans: He began by trying to get the facts. First, he visited the secretary of the British landlord’s association. He told Gandhi that they could give no informat ion to an outsider. Then Gandhi called on the British official comm issioner of the Tirhut Division. The commissioner tried to bully Gandhi and advised him to leave Tirhut. Q9. How did Gandhi react t o the commissioner’s advice? Where did he go and how did people react t o his arrival? Ans: Gandhiji did not leave Tirhut division. Instead, he went to Motihari, the capital of Champaran. Several lawy ers accompanied him. At the railway station, a very large crowd of people greeted Gandhi. Q10. Where did Gandhiji want t o go? What happened t o him on the way? Ans: Gandhiji wanted to go to a nearby village where a peasant had been maltreated. He had not gone far when the police superintendent’s messenger ov ertook him and ordered him to return to town in his carriage. Gandhiji obeyed the order and returned with him. Q11. ‘In consequence, Gandhi received a summons t o appear in the court next day.’Which events of t he previous day led t o this stat e of affairs? Ans: The police superintendent’s m essenger served an official notice on Gandhi. It ordered him to quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice. He wrote on the receipt that he would disobey the order. Hence, he was summoned to appear in the court. Q12. What according t o Gandhi was the beginning of the poor peasants’ ‘Liberation front fear of the Brit ish’ ? Ans: The next m orning the town of Motihari was black with peasants. They had heard that a Mahatma who wanted to help them was in trouble with the authorities. They spontaneously dem onstrated, in thousands, arround the courthouse. Gandhiji called their action of protest as their liberation from fear of the British. Q13. Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case t o the court was useless?[Delhi 2014] Ans: Gandhiji felt that taking the Cham paran case to the court was useless. Because the real relief for the peasants would com e only when they becom e fearless. The peasants were in acute panic. Q14. What was the “conflict of duties” in which Gandhi was involved? Ans: First, he did not want to set a bad exam ple as a law breaker. Second, he wanted to render the “humanitarian and national service” for which he had come. He respected the lawful authority, but disregarded the order to leave to obey the v oice of his conscience. Q15. What according t o Rajendra Prasad, was the upshot of the consultations of the lawy ers regarding the injustice t o sharecroppers? Ans: They thought that Gandhi was a total stranger. Yet he was ready to go to prison for the sake of the peasants. On the other hand, the lawyers were the residents of nearby districts. They also claimed to have served these peasants. It would be shameful desertion if they should go hom e then. Q16. “Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first time in modern India.” How? Ans: A case against Gandhi was initiated for disregarding governm ent orders. The spontaneous dem onstration of thousands of peasants baffled the officials. The judge was requested to postpone the trial. Gandhi refused to furnish bail. The judge released him without bail. Several day s later Gandhi received an official letter. The case against him had been dropped. Thus, civil disobedience had triumphed.
Q17 . What do y ou think, led Gandhi t o exclaim “The battle of Champaran is won”? Ans: Gandhi was ready to go to jail fighting against the injustice to the sharecroppers. Many prominent lawyers had come from all over Bihar to advise and help him. At first, they said they would go back if Gandhi went to prison. Later, they had consultations. They told Gandhi they were ready to follow him into jail. This support ma de Gandhi extrem ely happy and confident. This confidence led him to exclaim that the battle of Cham paran was won. Q18. How did Gandhi and the lawy ers try t o secure justice for the sharecroppers? Ans: They started conducting a detailed enquiry into the grievances of the peasants. Depositions by about ten thousand peasants were written down. Notes were made on other evidence. Documents were collected. The whole area came alive with the activities of the investigators. The landlords raised loud protests. Q19. What was the reaction of Gandhi and his associat es when he was summoned to the lieutenant governor? Ans: In June, Gandhiji was summoned to Sir Edward Gait, the Lieutenant Governor. Anything could happen. Gandhi met his leading associates before going. Detailed plans for civil disobedience were chalked out in case he should not return. Q20. What was the outcome of the four protracted int erviews Gandhiji had with the Lieut enant Governor? Ans: An official comm ission of enquiry int o the sharecroppers’ situation was appointed. This comm ission consisted of landlords, gov ernment officials and Gandhi as the sole representative of the pea sants. Q21. Why did the big plant ers agree in principle t o make refund t o the peasants? Ans: The official inquiry assembled a huge quantity of evidence against the big planters. The crushing evidence forced the big planters to agree in principle to make refund to the peasants. Q22. What amount of repayment did the big planters t hink Gandhi would demand? What did Gandhi ask? What amount was finally settled? Ans: They thought Gandhi would demand repayment in full of the m oney they had extorted from the sharecroppers. Gandhi asked only 50 per cent. The planters offered to refund up to 25 per cent. Gandhi was adamant on 50 per cent. The deadlock was broken when Gandhi agreed to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to peasants. Q23. HQW did the refund-settlement influence the peasant-landlord relationship in Champaran? Ans: Before the settlement of the refund, the planters had behaved as lords above the law. Now the pea sant saw that he had rights and defenders. He learned courage. Within a few years, the British planters abandoned their estates. The peasants becam e masters of the land. There were no sharecropers now. Q24. Which other spheres besides political or economic fields received Gandhi’s att ention during his long stay in Champaran? Ans:The cultural and social backwardness of the Cham paran areas pained Gandhi. He appealed for teachers. Several persons responded to his call. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturba taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation. With the help of a doctor and three m edicines, they tried to fight the miserable health conditions. Q25.“This was ty pical Gandhi patt ern” observes Louis Fischer. What do y ou learn about Gandhian politics from the extract ‘Indigo’? Ans:Gandhi’s politics was intermixed with the practical, everyday life of the millions of Indians. This was not a loyalty to abstractions. It was a loyalty to living human beings. In everything Gandhi did, he tried to m ould a new free Indian who could stand on his own feet and thus make India free. Q26. How did Gandhi teach his followers a lesson of self-reliance? Ans. During the Cham paran action, Gandhi’s lawy er friends thought it would be good if C.F. Andrews stayed on in Champaran and helped them. Gandhi opposed this idea as it showed the weakness of
their heart. Their cause was just and they mu st rely upon them selves to win this unequal fight. They should not seek the support of Mr Andrews because he happened to be an Englishman. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. What solution t o the problems of th e poor did Gandhi suggest? How far did the Champaran movement help in this direction? OR “The real relief for them is t o be free from fear”, remarked Gandhi. What do you think, was “the beginning of their liberation from the fear of t he British” ? Ans. The sharecropper peasants had to grow indigo on 15 per cent of their holdings and surrender the indigo harvest as rent to the landlord. When Germany developed synthetic indigo, the British planters started extracting money illegally and deceitfully as compensation from the peasants for being released from the 15 per cent arrangement. The peasants were made to sign new agreements and pay m oney. The planters behaved as lords above the law. Many peasants engaged lawy ers at hefty fees and went to courts. The Muzaffarpur lawy ers briefed Gandhi about the peasants for whom they frequently represented in courts. Gandhi realised that these peasants were badly crushed and fear- stricken. Freedom from fear was m ore im portant than legal justice for them. Gandhiji was ready to court arrest for them. Thousands of peasants dem onstrated spontaneously around the court. The governm ent had to release Gandhi without bail. This voluntary uprising of the peasants marked the beginning of their liberation from the fear of the British. Q2. Why was Gandhi summoned t o appear in the court? How did he gain his liberty ? OR ‘Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first time in modern India.’Relate the events during Gandhi’s stay in Champaran that led t o the triumph. Ans. Gandhi had reached Motihari, the Capital of Cham paran, to study the problem s of the sharecropper peasants. He was on his way to a neighbouring village, where a peasant was ill-treated. On the way, he was stopped by the police superintendent’s m essenger and ordered to return to town. When he reached hom e, he was served with an official notice to quit Cham paran at once. Gandhi wrote on the receipt that he would disobey the order. So Gandhi received a summons to appear in the court the next day. Next m orning the town of Motihari was black with peasants. Thousands of peasants dem onstrated voluntarily outside the court. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone the trial. Gandhi protested against the delay. He read out a statement pleading guilty. He asked the penalty. The judge announced that he would pronounce the sentence after a two-hour recess. He asked Gandhi to furnish bail for that period. Gandhi refused. The judge released him without bail. After the recess, the judge said that he would not deliver the judgement for several days. Meanwhile he allowed Gandhi to remain at liberty. Several day s later Gandhi received a letter. The case against him had been dropped. Thus, civil disobedience had trium phed, for the first time in India. Q3. Give an account of Gandhi’s effort s t o secure justice for the poor indigo shar ecroppers of Champaran. OR “Indigo sharecropping disappeared.” Which fact ors do y ou think, helped t o achieve freedom for the fear-st ricken peasants of Champaran? Ans. Gandhi went to Champaran on receiving reports of exploitation of the poor sharecropper pea sants at the hands of British planters. He began by trying to get the facts. The British landlords as well as the Commissioner of Tirhut were non-cooperative. Lawyers from MuZaffarpur briefed him about the court cases of these peasants. Gandhi and the lawy ers collected depositions by about ten thousand peasants. Notes were ma de on other evidence. Documents were collected. The whole area throbbed with the activities of the
inv estigators and forceful protests of landlords. The lieutenant governor summoned Gandhi. After four protracted interviews an official commission of inquiry was appointed to look into the indig o sharecroppers’ condition. Gandhi was the sole representative of the peasants. The official inquiry assem bled huge quantity of evidence against the big planters. They agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants. After consultation, a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers was agreed on. This was a m oral victory of the pea sants. They recognised their rights and learned courage. Within a few years the British planters gave up their estates. These now went back to the peasants. They became the ma sters of land. Thus, indigo sharecropping disappeared. Q4. How did Gandhi work for rural uplift during his stay in Champarant Ans. Gandhi wanted to do som ething to rem ove the cultural and social backwardness in Cham paran villages. He appealed for teachers. Two young disciples of Gandhi, Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh and their wives v olunteered them selves for work. Several others responded from distant parts of the country. Mrs. Kasturba Gandhi and Devdas, Gandhi’s youngest son, arrived from the Ashram. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturba taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community cleanliness. She also talked to wom en about their filthy clothes. Health conditions were miserable. Gandhi got a doctor to v olunteer his services for six m onths. Only three medicines were available: Castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment. Anyone who showed a coated tongue was given a dose of castor oil; anybody with malaria fever received quinine plus castor oil; anybody with skin eruptions received ointment plus caster oil. Thus, Gandhi never contented him self with large political or economic solutions. He worked for total uplift of villages and the poor sections of the society. Q5. ‘Self-reliance, Indian independence and help t o sharecroppers were all bound t ogether.’ Elucidate on the basis of reading ‘Indigo’ by Louis Fischer. OR ‘The Champaran episode was a turning-point in Gandhi’s life. Explain with examples from ‘Indigo’ by Louis Fischer. Ans. Gandhi stayed in Champaran for a long time. The Cham paran episode was a turning point in his life. It was during this struggle in 1917 that he decided to urge the departure of the British. Champaran episode did not begin as an act of defiance. It grew out of an attem pt to make the sufferings of large numbers of poor peasants less severe. Gandhi concentrated on their practical day to day problem s. He analy sed the root cause of the problem -fear, and tried to eradicate it. The voluntary dem onstration of the poor peasants against the government for putting Gandhi in trouble was the beginning of the end of their fear of the British. In everything Gandhi did, he tried to m ould a new free Indian who could stand on his own feet and thus make India free. He taught his lawy er friends a lesson in self-reliance by opposing the inv olvem ent of C.F. Andrews, an Englishman in .their unequal fight. His help would be a prop. This would reflect their weakness. Their cause was just and they must rely on themselves to win the battle. Thus self-reliance, Indian independence and help to sharecroppers were all bound together. Q6. Justify the appropriateness of th e title ‘Indigo’ to this extract . Ans. The title ‘Indigo’ is quite appropriate, to the point and suggestive. It at once focuses our * attention on the central issue-the exploitation of the indigo sharecropper peasants at the hands of cruel British planters. They com pelled them through a long term agreem ent to raise indigo on 15 per cent of their landholding and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. After the developm ent of synthetic indigo by Germany , the British planters extracted m oney from the pea sants as com pensation for being released from the 15 per cent agreement. The peasants who wanted their m oney back had filed civil suits. The planters who behaved as lords above the law and were dreaded by the poor were obliged to surrender part of m oney and with it part of their prestige. The extract also points out the work done by Gandhi and his associates to improve the economic, political, cultural and social fife of the indigo sharecroppers. Their education, health and hygiene also
received due attention. The plight of indig o sharecroppers, then- struggle under Gandhi’s leadership and ultimate victory when Indig o sharecropping disappeared from important landmarks. Thus, the title ‘Indigo’ is highly suggestive and apt. Q7 . What impression do y ou form about Gandhi on reading the chapt er ‘Indigo’ ? Ans. The chapter ‘Indigo’ pay s a tribute to the leadership shown by Mahatma Gandhi to secure justice for oppressed people through convincing argumentation and negotiation. Gandhi had a magnetic attraction and great persuasive power. He could draw people of all classes to him self and make them partners in the freedom m ovement. Even ordinary people were inspired to ma ke contribution to the freedom m ovement. Gandhi emerges as a champion of the downtrodden and the oppressed. Rural uplift was his fav ourite programme. His knowledge of legal procedure and respect for law is also highlighted. He does not want to be a lawbreaker. At the same time he wants to render the humanitarian and national service in obedience to the higher law of our being, the v oice of conscience. He also appears as a polite and friendly person. Gandhi’s ability to read the minds of others made them speechless. He believed in self-reliance, just cause and purity of m eans to achieve India’s Independence. Q8. Why is the Champaran episode considered t o be the beginning of th e Indian struggle for Independence? [All India 2014] Ans. The Cham paran episode began as an attempt to ease the sufferings of a large num ber of ’ pea sants. He got spontaneous support of thousands of people. Gandhi declared that the British could not order him about in his own country. Under his leadership, the peasants became aware of their rights. Raj Kumar Shukla, a farmer of Cham paran helped him a lot in bringing about the change. Other peasants too fought courageously and contributed in their own way to the m ovement. It resulted in their winning the battle of Champaran. The effects of Gandhi’s method of non-violence and non-cooperation proved very fruitful in this m ovement. Hence, it can be said that the Champaran episode is the beginning of the Indian struggle for independence. VALUE-RASED QUESTIONS Q1. Patriotism is in political life what faith is in religion. John F Kennedy said, “Ask not what y our country can do for y ou, ask what y ou can do for y our country”. Those who sacrifice their comfort for the welfare of the stat e get recognition. Writ e an article on the t opic ‘Pat riotism’. You can take ideas from the following hints: “They thought, amongst themselves, that Gandhi was t otally a st ranger, and y et he was prepared t o go to prison for the sake of the peasant s; if they , on the other hand, being not only residents of the adjoining dist rict s but also those who claimed t o have served these peasants, should go home, it would be shameful desertion.” Ans. Patriotism Breathes there the man with soul so dead, who never t o himself hath said, this is my own native land! —Scott Patriotism im plies love for one’s nation. A patriot is ready to sacrifice his com fort for the service of his nation. It was for his country’s sake that Sardar Bhagat Singh kissed the gallows. It was for the love for their land that Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Govind Singh suffered untold hardships. True patriots respect other nations and religions but don’t allow anyone to insult their nation. A great philosopher said, “It is not gold that makes a nation great. It is the sacrifice and martyrdom of patriots that raises a nation to the heights of glory.” India is a land where patriots are in abundance. It got its freedom only because of the efforts of its patriots. Patriotism is a religion and an ideal. It is an ideology that guides the people of a nation. It is a feeling and a bond that unites the people of various sects, beliefs and backgrounds together. A patriot mu st not be narrow minded. He should develop an international progressive outlook. It would be pertinent to quote the words of Seneca here “No one loves his country for it s size or em inence, but because it is his own.”
Q2. Undoubt edly, only a socially just country has the right t o exist . In the modern world justice is a concept. Muscle is the reality . Corruption has become the way of the world. The destitut e are exploited ruthlessly. People feel that ‘t o make a living, craftiness is bett er than learnedness’. Write an article on the t opic mentioned above taking ideas from the given lines: “Gandhi prot est ed against the delay. He read a statement pleading guilty… when the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgement for several days.” Ans. Corruption in Cont emporary India Corruption has engulfed all the educated, skilled and semi-skilled workers. Corru ption means dishonesty and illegal behavior especially of the people in authority. A person resorts to corru ption because of his poverty, lack of m oral strength and other psychological and financial problem s. Moreov er, the path of righteousness is full of thorns. Som e of the youngsters are misguided by the friends to mu ltiply their benefit s within a short span of tim e. One should alway s rem ember that corruption starts from the top. If the head of the family is corru pt, the other members will also imitate his actions. Our politicians and bureaucrats are corrupt and unscrupulous. They don’t have any m oral authority. Such corru pt politicians and bureaucrats should be punished and the honest persons should be rewarded if we intend to create a congenial atmosphere in our country. The sy stem of justice is outdated and obsolete. It is said that ‘justice delayed is justice denied’. People do not get justice in the court of law. If corruption is not checked, the poor will be exploited without any inhibition. Q3. Obstacles det ermine the quality of life. Hermits feel convinced that ‘sweet are the uses of adversity ’. Problems are opportunities. Elucidate the saying taking ideas from the given lines: “Events justified Gandhi’s position. Within a few y ears the British plant ers abandoned their estates, which reverted t o the peasants. Indigo sharecropping disappeared.” Ans. Sweet are the Uses of Adversity The Bible proclaim s that ‘Man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward’. Adversity is the first path that leads towards the truth. Emerson opines that ‘every calamity is a spur and valuable hint’. But one cannot forget the truth that ‘there is no wind that always blows a storm’. Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. Every individual aspires to attain phenom enal success in this era of consumerism. No one can refuse to accept the fact that material pleasures and prosperity bring happiness. But one cannot dare to ign ore the significance of trying circumstances. One wishes to be away from the situations which can be troublesome and irksom e. But one mu st not despair in those situations and should face the music of life. Prosperity makes a person lazy and ease loving. Adversity, on the other hand, though trying and full of hardships, has a chastening effect. One’s character and per sonality becom e dynamic and vibrant if one fights bravely against the odd circumstances. It will not be wrong if we say that “as gold shines in fire, man shines in adversity. “If y ou are dist ressed by anything ext ernal, the pain is not due t o the thing itself, but t o y our own estimate of it; and this y ou have the power t o revoke at any moment” —Marcus Aurelius Q4. Education set s the t one of a nation. Joseph Addison has rightly said, “What sculpture t o a block of marble, education is t o the soul”. But the quality of education is deteriorating gradually. Discuss the defect s of our education sy st em in y our own words. Do remember the following expressions: “Gandhi never contented himself with large political or economic solutions. He saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages… He appealed for t eachers.” Ans. Defect s of our Edu cation Sy stem
“Education is the ability to listen to alm ost anything without losing your temper or y our selfconfidence”. Education does not mean teaching people to know what they do not know; it means teaching them t o behave as they do not behave, say s John Ruskin. The prime objective of our education system is t o develop a child’s over all personality. It should train not only the mind, but also the body and soul. Unfortunately, our present education system fails to achieve these objectives. The present education system does not make a child creative. It makes him a crammer. A child/pupil has to mug up nearly 200¬300 pages a year to pass his examination. Students are not given any practical training. They never go to laboratories to verify the theories. Moreover, the present admission system has becom e the laughing stock of society. The school authorities have a provision for those tiny tots who seek admission to pre-nursery. This is the height of absurdity. We need not the people who can only read and write. Our nation requires engineers, scientists, technicians and doctors. Vocational education is the need of the hour but not at the cost of values. An educated man should not have only bookish knowledge. He mu st have the knowledge of practical things. Maria Montessori conceived that ‘The first idea that the child must acquire in order to be actively disciplined is that of the difference between good and evil; and the task of the educator lies in seeing that the child does not confound good with immobility, and evil with activity.