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Richard M. Nixon, then an attorney representing Pepai-Cola, left Dallas, Tex.. aboard American Airlines New York-bound Flight 82 at 9:05 A.M. on Nov. 22, 1963, thus missing Preside nt Kennedy's Arrival there aboard Air Force One by about two-and-a-half hours. Nixon had spent the past two days at a Pepsi-Cola Bottlers Association meeting. He was just beginning to learn the ropes as a corporation lawyer. He had filed ▪ petition for admission to the New York State bar only the previous Friday, and Ma name was not yet on his office door, because he would not becomes full partner in the law firm of Madge, Stern, Baldwin & Todd until Jan 1, 1964. Nixon's name W RS expected to remain there ■ long time, Earlier in the week during a televised interview Dwight Eisenhower had spoken of Nixon's chances in the next Presidential election, but his remark is chiefly memorable for Its syntax. It was vintage Eisenhowerese: "Now, if there 'horrid be one of those deadlocks, I would think he would be one of the Likely persons to be examined and approached, because he is, after an, ■ very knowledgeable and a very courageous type of fellow." Hardly anyone agreed with Ike. Certainly the American Broadcasting Compa ny didn't, Not only had the network called a broadcast about. him "The Political Obituary of Richard M. Nixon"; but the program, filmed the year before, had also featured an Interview with, all people, Alger Him. Two companies tried of to cancel their advertising contracts with because of It, but F.CC. Coairman Newton N. ("Wasteland") Minow turned them down with the cold observation that broadcasting must be free from censorship by "those few, fearful advertisen who seek to influence the professional Judgment of broadcast newsmen." Preakient Kennedy said he agreed. Those were halcyon days for effete mobs. Aboard Flight 82 a stewardess routinely fered bar distinguished passenger a selection ofcurrent periodicals, and If one could return of In time from the mld-otneteeo-severnies to that fateful Friday, one of the differences which would be noted Ln the American scene would be the wider choice of magazines, Look, Life, and The Saturday Evening Post then being alive, well, and an the stands. Nixon may well have picked lime, for he knew he would be in It. The Milken Manchester, whose books include The Death of a President" and "The Arms of Krupp" working ono citatory of 20th-century America .
first news page carried an Informal picture of him — he was 50 and looked • young 40 then and in an eccompanying interview he WIZ quoted on the political consequences of the recent Saigon coup, In which President Ngo Dinh Diem had been murdered: "If this Viet war goes sour, Vietnam could be a hot issue next year. If all goes well. It won't he. It's strange to me, when we are fawning over Tito, catering to Kadar, accommodating Khrushchev, we don't even have the decency to express our sympathy to a family which was a reel foe of Communism." Barry Goldwater. who rarely fawned over Communists, was the front-runner for the 1964 Republican Presidential nomination, Nelson Rockefeller laving diminished his chances by marrying Happy Murphy the previous May. in that third week of November, Goldwater had just scored • fresh triumph with one of his natural consthummies by telling a Better Business. Bureau banquet in Chicago that the New Frontier had produced "1.026 days of wasted spendin g, wishful thinking, unwarranted interve wishful theorise and waning confidence." ntion, Each time the Arizona Senator tore into Kennedy, reporters asked the President to reply. "Not yet," he would say, grinning "not yet," but plainly he relished the prospect of running against him. The week before, in the Cabine . Room, he had convened his first strategy meet-t ing for next year's campaign. All the key polls of the Kennedy Presidency had been there: Bob Kennedy, Larry O'Brien, Ken O'Donnell, Ted Sorensen, John Bailey, Steve Smith and Dick Scammori The President said he expected bury Goldwater in • historic landslide and to go on, m Theodore Roosevelt did, to a great second term. Amens his valuable campaigners this time would be the First Lady, who had returned on Oct. 17 from ■ Mediterranean cruise aboard Aristotle ORAUAWS yacht Chrimlna with her slater, Lee Radziwilt The Secret Service hoped Men. Kennedy could persuade her husband to be careful In crowds. Eschewing Secret Servicemore advice the week before the Texas trip, Kennedy had ordered his driver to leave a motorcy cle escort and detour through crowded downto wn Manhattan. While the Presidential halted at a traffic light, a womanlimousine was amateur photographer had darted up and fired a flashbu lb at Kennedy's side of the car. A New York police official had told reporters, "She might wail have been an assassin."
T was a year of technol ogical Innovations. Kodak Introduced the Instarnatic Camera and Polaroid brought out its color pecks. Polyethylene appeared. Detroit's fall models (Continued on Page 123)
7110 NKR/ YORK TIMES MAGAZINE/1 40VMM 4. 1973
Then (Continued from Page 37) featured sleekly sloping rear windows — "fastbacks," they were called; the one on the Sting Ray was particularly dramatic. On July 1, 1963, the Post Office, while announcing an increase in first-class postage from four cents to five, sprang the Zip Code system on a stunned and resentful public. The triumph of the digits was about to move one step closer with the conversion of the White House telephone number from NAtional 8-1414 to 456-1414. On the Bell System's master map the hatched areas indicating switchovers to direct-distance dialing were spreading like a vast cancer; DDD, which had been introduced in 1954, when 5.4 per cent of the country's telephones were equipped for it, reached 442 per cent of Bell subscribers in 1963. Students at. liberal site colleges displayed decals reading, "I Am a Human Being—Do Not
Fold, Spindle, or Mutilate." The sate of Barbie dolls reached its initial peak in 1963, and Barbie, who had acquired a boy friend, Ken, two years earlier, was now joined by her "best friend," Midge. (Barbie's "black is beautiful" friend, Christie, would not appear in the Mattel sales line until 1968. In 1963 black beauty, like black power, was waiting to be discovered.) The question of just how life-like female dolls should be was sparking lively debates among toymakers. A considerable number of parents objected to Barbie's firm little breasts. The public attitude in such matters was still comparatively conservative. In the matter of premarital intercourse it still held that "Nice girls don't," although Gad Greene, researching "Sex and the College Girl" in 1963. was finding that more and more nice girls did. (A memorable passage in Miss
Greene's book, startling at the time, described a sorority girl pretending to climb a wall in mock agony while crying out in frustration, "You don't know how long it's been since I got screwed.") None of collegiate America's mothers had any idea how casually some of their daughters were accustomed to being bedded. Parents would later rise up in righteous indignation to protest coed dorms, only to reel back when confronted by the new facts of campus life. But in 1963 that belonged to the future. Playboy was then averaging 50 applications a week from young women whose aspiration was to appear on its gatefold in the altogether and who, in the judgment of the editors, were qualified to do so, yet even Playboy had to trim its sails somewhat to public opinion; for example, it did not yet dare show its Playmates' pubic hair. (it did, however, create an uproar in 1963 with a topless photograph of a model who was an almost perfect double for the nation's First Lady.) Other editors were making horseback guesses about what
MONG the names not in the news were Gloria Steinem, Kate
the public would tolerate, feeling their way and sometimes getting lost. In reviewing a film saucily called "An Affair of the Skin" that fall, Time noted that it "serves up a mannered little pastiche of urban infidelities." Time's comment was that "This brand of grown-up, contemporary sex probably won't shock an audience of contemporary American grownups," which was not the same thing as being sure. Hard-core pornography was neither chic nor legal; in November, 1963, a three-judge Manhattan court ruled that "Fanny Hill" was obscene and therefore forbidden reading matter. "While it is true that the book is well-written, such fact does not condone its indecency," the court found; "Filth, even if wrapped in the finest packaging, is still filth." It is startling to reflect that Linda Lovelace, who would rocket to fame 10 years later as the superstar of "Deep Throat," was then a 12-year-old girl sucking lollypops in Bryan, Tex.
Millett and Germaine Greer. Betty -Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" had just been published, but Women's Lib was, so to speak, still in the uterus. "Nobody," reported that Nov. 22 issue of Time, "is more noisily dissatisfied these days than that symbol of stability —the 40-ish housewife with teen-age children and a reasonably successful husband," but by the audiometers of the early nineteen-seventies the noise was almost inaudible. The Seven College Conference, which had set up vocational workshops for college women "who are now ready for activity outside the home," had found 50 of them. None regarded males as porcine. The vocations were largely limited to education, library science, social work and—this was regarded as a breakthrough — public relations. Anne Cronin, the director of the conference, fielded questions about what men might think with the defensiveness bluestockings had shown since the fall of the Claflin sisters. "In only one or two cases," she told a newspaperman, "have husbands gotten stuffy about their wives' going back into careers. For the most
Richard Chamberlain comforts
in November, 1963.
part, they're serious and understanding. We're not breaking up any homes that wouldn't break up anyway." The fashions of the gentle sex were neither bold nor forward. There were no pants suits, not even for toiling airline stewardesses. Styles were set by Jacqueline Kennedy— the pillbox hat, the shoes with very pointed toes and very slender heels, the hair length just below the ears and softly curled or bouffant. Skirts were a little below the knee— anyone wearing a miniskirt would have been regarded, probably correctly, as a tart — and the waistless sheath was popular. It was all very feminine. Male supremacy was riding high. The author of a magazine profile of Dorothy Kilgallen, describing her race around the world as a journalistic stunt, was allowed to say: "Just like a woman, Dorothy came in late." In the summer of 1963 Ian Fleming's "The Spy Who Loved Me" appeared in paperback with this choice passage: "All women love semirape. They love to be taken. It was his sweet brutality against my bruised body that had made his act of love so piercingly wonderful. That OUR years had passed since President Clark Kerr of the University of California, lecturing on what he called the "multiversity," had said of students of the nineteen-sixties, "The employers are going to love this generation. . . They are going to be easy to handle." The suspicion was growing that Kerr's prescience was less than breathtaking, though the dimensions of his error were still obscure. The New York Times Magazine carried a report on the campus mood that third week of November, 1963. In it, undergraduate editors generally found their fellow students to be detached, determined to succeed and concerned less with issues than with security and their personal lives. In their
and the coinciding of nerves completely relaxed after the removal of tension and danger, the warmth of gratitude, and a woman's natural feelings for her hero. I had no regrets and no shame . . . . all my life I would be grateful to him; for everything. And I would remember him forever as my image of a man."
hours of relaxation, Tarzan movies were the current thing. The University of Chicago was trying to revive football. Two Cornell fraternity teams had just played a 30-hour touch football game; the final score was 664-538. L.S.U. coeds had staged a "drawers raid" on a men's fraternity. Berkeley students, ever in the sexual vanguard, had asked the dispensary there to issue contraceptives. They weren't militant about it, however. The demand was negotiable and was in fact ignored. Beards were just beginning to appear, though the view under the elms was nowhere as hairy as it would later be. Campus interest in men's hair styles was to a large extent limited to that of President Kennedy; President Edward D, Eddy Jr. of Chatham College said, "The college student couldn't help feeling some identification with a Commander in Chief who had to have a special haircut to look the part." In a poll, United States youth voted the Peace Corps the "most admired institution in America." (Richard Nixon said that Kennedy "proposed to send as America's repre-
sentatives to other nations young men whom he calls
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volunteers" but who were really "trying to escape the draft.") There was even A certain Intellectual distinction In acclaiming a President who was also a Pulitzer Prize winner, and whose Virtues had been celebrated by Allen Tate, W. H. Auden, John Hersey, Robert Lowell, Jacques Maritain, Robert Frost, Carl Sandberg and John Steinbeck, 'What a joy," said Steinbach, -that literacy is no longer prints fade evidence of treason." "Camelot" had ended its Broadway run in Jenuory. 1963. "Tom Jones" was awarded the Academy Award as the bet picture of the year. Sidney Pottier was voted the best actor for his performance in "Lilies of the Field": Patricia Neal for hers In 'Tod" Films drawing big audiences in November, 1963 were "Mary, Mary" and -It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World." Popular television Shows were "Dr. Kildare," "Andy Griffith," "My Three Sons." "Perry Mason." "Hazel," "Lucy," 'The Beverly Hillbillies" and 'Twilight Zone." N.B.C.'s Monday movie scheduled for Nov. 25 it would not be shown was "Singing in the Raln." That year was the high point of the Ajax White Knight and White Tornado carrunercials (-Cleans the a white tarnadol"), according to Harry McMahan of Advertising Age. Piel's Beer was presenting 'The Return of Bert and Harry." Miurwell House Instant Coffee offered "A Cup and a Half." The Chevrolet commercial had ■ car riding on the water of ■ Venice caneL Popular songs Wert "Go Away Little Girl," "Dominique.- "if I Had a Hammer," "Blue Velvet" ("Bluer than velvet were her eyes") and two Peter, Paul and Mary bit= "Puff the
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lives forever, but not so little boys") and "Blowing in the Wind." Best-selling fiction included Mary McCarthy's "The Group," Morris West's 'The Shoes of the Fisherman." James Michener's -Caravans," and Helen Merinnes'a "The Venetian Affair." Best-selling nonfiction titles were James BaJdwin's -The Fire Neat Time," Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." from which the ecological movement may be said to date, and two hooka which would be affected by the events of the coming weekend, Jessica Mitford's "The American
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Way of Death" and Victor Lasky'a The Man and the Myth'• The rust of these acquired historical significance because Robert Kennedy, who had read it, was guided by it in chaining a coffin for his brother's fu• rtereL The Leaky hoek, which led the nonfiction bestseller lists, was a hatchet job and would be withdrawn from the book stores by Its publisher. A work in progress was William Mancheetter. -The Arms of Krupp." The Krupps had been giving the author a hard time le Germany. He was reflecting that he supposed there was a literary controversy in every writer's life, and he was glad his was behind MM. In sports. Texas was ranked college football's number one. Darrell Royal's marvel that season was a shoeless fieldgoal kicker named Tony Crosby. The weekend before President Kennedy flew to Dallas., Crosby booted one 42 Among the yards to beet pros. Jimmy Brown of the Cleveland Browns was at the height of his remarkable powers. The New York Giants and the Chicago Bears were headed fora collision at the end of the National Football League season; Chicago would win the chereelonahip, 14 to 10. In the American Football League finale. the San Diego Charger' would take the Boston Pau-lots 5! to 10. There was, of course, no Superhowl. In hockey the big noise ens Goethe Howe of the Detroit Red Wings. Having played 1.132 games in which he had lost 12 teeth and sustained wounds requiring 300 stitches. Gordie scored his 545th goal against the Montreal Canadiens in November, 1063; it was a record. In basketball. Bob Costly of the Boston Celtics had hung up Ms jock strap at the end of the 1962 season. and the Celts were expected to be pushovers. But when Kennedy left the White House for the last time, the 1983 season was two months nirf and the Celtics had lost only one game —try one point- Center Bill Russell was the big (6 foot 10 Inch) reason.
MONG the places not In the news that year ware Woodstock Watts, East Village, Grans Perk, Wounded Knee, People's Park, My Lai. Khe Senh. Rent State, Biafra, Lincoln Park, Bangladesh, Attics. the No CM Minh Trail, Chappaquid. dick, Bimini, Botswana, Qatar and Watergate, though the Watergate office-and-apart-
mein complex was under construction near the State Department in Washing-text President Kennedy's funeral procession would pass It. Haight-Ashbury was a drab working-class district in San Francisco. No one living In the Haight, as it would later be known, was then familiar with hippie mons like acid, freaknet superstar, mindblowing, bummer, joints, monchid, turn on. tune in, rip off, drop out communes, home, crash pads, steam ?smiled, be-In, share•In, flower power. trash, Panhandle Park. acid - American Morels, art bunch-punching past-bleetlOg, guerrilla theater, psychedelic Satanism and Christ vibes. In 1963 Robert G. (Bobby) Baker, afoul of the law, resigned as secretary to the Senate majority.— Frank SInetnt Jr. told skeptical policemen that he had been kidromped Nathan Leopold, who had served 33 year, for the thrill killing of Bobby Franks, was freed from parole. . Gordon Cooper Orbited the earth 22 times.... Elsa Maxwell wan buried. The Chogyal of Sikkim, the remote Himalayan kingdom, died in November and Hope Cooke (Sarah Lawrence '62),
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who had married the Crown Prince In March, became the
Gyelmo of Sikkim . . pop art, op art, and hootenannies were all the rage in Manhattan. . in upper•middle-cIess exurbs the expressions "fiend "non-U" were swiftly being beaten to death.. . most middle-ends men still wore felt hate.... Hondas wild for 5255 now.. half the adult population of the United Ursine believed that World War HT was just a matter of time The New York Tune] cartied a dispatch from Its London bureau about a "group of four male pep singers now highly popular in Great Brit. sin and the cause of numerous teenage riota.'• They were the Beatles, In November, 1953, they were on their way to the United States, preceded by recordings of their first three hits: "She Loves You," "I Went 10 Hold Your Hand." and "Standing There." Rightwing groups wets warning patriotic young Americans to shut their earn. Presently Dean Noebel of the Christian Crusade would expose ■ "Commie-grade Pact" under the terms of which "the Communists have contrived
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sal deterioration and retardation." A gang 01 Manhattan jewel robbers provided the most entertaining crime story of November 1063. Wearing Hal. loween masks, they seized $3million in valuables which was being transported in a 1951 Ford station wagon (at that time New York jewelers need old. Inconsplcuoux rats and unarmed guards in mufti
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against holdups). The thieves' caper worked beautifully until the gang's driver slipped be. hind the wheel of the station wagon and started the engine. The caper ended right there. The driver had never driven anything without an autoMeta: transmission. The manual drive defeated him- He never get away from the curb.
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45 idealistic youths met in an old United Auto Workers' Camp et Pert Huron. Moth to discuss a 63-page manifesto written by Toro Hayden, a student at the University of Michigan. Hayden's manifesto Was really guile mild. ft called for "the establishment of a democracy of individual participation." There was nothing in it about smashing the windows of 'term
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aged by pigs or blowing up buildings owned by pigs. Pigs. In fact, were unmentioned. Mac. Ngo Dinh Nhu. the sharp-tongued sister-in-law of South Vietnam's President Ngo Dinh Diem, was visiting the United States in the autumn of 1963, denouncing Pressdent Kennedy for his in. aistence that American aid to Saigon be accompanied by Vietnamese reforms. Her tour was being sponsored by rightwing groups. On Nov. 1 It was rendered meaningless by the assassination Of Diem and Nhu, and she left Los Angeles owing about $1,000 at the Beverly Wilshire. Sympathy
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for her was tempered somewhat by her repeated references to this se-immolation of Buddhist monks as "bathe. cots" She liked the idea of them, she said, and she only wished that David Bather/KIM of The New York Times would put the torch to himself. Instead, Halberstam went on filing critical stories from
Saigon. The Vietnamese generals who had staged the coup,
Italberstem said, wanted to ace the American general there, Paul D. Harkins. replaced Hut the Pentagon was confident that Harkins would
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fulfil] his promises to beat the Viettong. Any suspicion that the United Stales might be unable to find a military solution in Vietnam was die;relied by Deputy Secretary of Defense Rowell Gapatric in an address to the BIZSillESS Council in Hot Springs, Va. The United Stales had such lethal power, Glipatric said. that defiance of it would be an act of self-destruction. Nicole Alphand, the wife of the French Ambassador, was on the cover of the Nov. 22 Time. Jimmy Hoff. was being indicted. Charles de Gauge was vetoing Britain's entrance into the Common Market_ Governor Ross Barnett was endorsing the findings of • greed jury which blamed the Federal Government for the recent disorders that had accompanied the admission of lames Meredith, ■ Mack to the state =Weseery In Oxford. Miss. Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor, having fallen in love during the filming of "Cleopatra," were divesting themselves of their spouses and planning an early wedding. The "Mona Lisa" was in the United States heavily cheperoned.
booming." he American economy has become so big." a European diploma said. 'alma it is beyond the imagination to rommehend." United States editorial writers marveled at Watt Germany's Wirteclustrewunder, but a far greater economic miracle had been taking place
at home. A few figures suggest its scope. Approximately 90,000 Americans were now millionaires—there were only 27,000 In the early nineteenflfties—and each year the figure was growing by 5.000. Since World War IL American investments abroad had leapt from $12-billion to PRO-billion. The annual sates of a single corporation, General Motors, were $17-billion, almost equal to a third of the Bundesrepublik's gross tuitional product, The value of securities listed on the New York Stock EU:hinge had grown front 146-biLlion to $411-blilion since the war. Wall Street's public-relations men spoke glowingly of a "people's capitalism," and with considerable justification: the stocks listed on the Big Board were held by some 20 million Americans. Social prophets of the time regarded this as a blessing Some. like John Kenneth Galbraith, though that the swag should be distributed differently, but the assumption that affluence was benign was virtually unchallenged. Lenny Bruce was lust an obscene comic one jump *heed of the law In 1003: Ralph Nader was an obscure lecturer in history and government at the UMvarsity of Hartford. The New Left notion that the canuary was threatened, not by International Communism, but by tachnoloey and the sheer magnitude of American instil• tutlens—that the immensity of United States corporations and the Washington bureaucracy was mere obesity—lay
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quiet In the womb of time: The faith of liberate in big government was will strong. Since the arrival of Franklin Roosevelt at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue 30 years earlier, the presence of a Democrat in the White House had signified a willingness to tackle social problems with Federal programs. President Kennedy
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liberals consequently commended him. Business was trot good for everyone, however. Across the street tram the flyblown train depots of America the lights in the old, mansardroofed city hotels were darkening. Over 4.000 of them had shut down completely since V-7 Day. The travelers who bypassed them were slaying Instead at motels, which had been evolving from shabby prewar "tourist cabins" Into lush caravansaries offering all the traditional services of hotels and a few new ones. Black-and-white television had become standard equipment in all but the grubbiest motels (cotes TV was still a novelty), wad the courts had ruled that it was a necessity for families on welfare.
HERE were now 56.4 million television sets in the United States. That fact, combined with the discovery of 1960 census-takers that only 8.5 per cent of the population lacked radios, means that a communications system of unprecedented magnitude was ready to report any news flash of national importance. For a time in the early afternoon of Nov. 22 the sourer far all vital information would he two wire service reporters clutching commandeered telephones at bailees Parkland Memorial Hospital. An investigation conducted the following winter by the National Opinion Research Center of the University of Chicago found that by 1 P.M. Dallas time, a half-how alter the shooting, 68 per cent of all adults in the United States— aver 75 million people—knew about It- Before the end of the afternoon 99.8 per cent knew. On Sept 2, 1963, the C.B.S. Evening News increased its nightly news show from 15 to 30 minutes and N.B.C. followed its example on Sept. 9, developments which were to have the most profound Implications for the Vietnam wart to fill the extra time, networks would run nakedly realistic footage showing, among other things, American soldiers lopping off Vietcong ears and firing Vietnamese
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huts with Zippo lighters. In November, 1963, it had not yet come to that, however. That year Just 17 Americans e killed in Vietnam and 218 were wounded. The most interesting story from Saigon in the third week of November, 1963, was a report on Colt's new M-16 rifle. It was smaller and lighter than the M-14. An Army spokesman explained it was one of the reasons United States soldiers would wipe out the Vietcong so effortlessly in guerrilla warfare. Polls In foreign countries. tabulated by the United States Information Agency, showed United States prestige to he very high in 1963. (Kennedy had craftily ordered the result withheld; the Republicans had accused him of suppressing bad news; he had then leaked the figures to The New York Times.) Other stories from abroad were report from )(Mange, which was ending its two-year secession from the Congo. and an appraisal of Sir Alec Douglas-Home's new Tory Government in London. II was shaky; the country was still in a state of shock over Lord Denning's report on the Profumo scandal, which had starred Christine Keeler, that year's most distinguished prostitute. At home, a Roman Catholic prelate excommunicated New Orleans segregationists who refused to bow to the Church's endorsement of integration. None of them had heard of the Fathers Brrrigan. Other names not in the news included Daniel Ellsberg, Clif-
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MONG the living, in addition to President Kennedy, Were Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Mary In Kopechne, Fred
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ford Irving, William Caney, Jim' Hendrix, James Earl Ray, Angela Davis. Andy Warhol, Arthur Bremer, Vida Blue. Archie Bunker. Myra Breckenridge and Spiro T. Agnew, who was then in the second year of a four-year term as a local officer in Baltimore County, No one had heard Of Jesus freaks, miniskirts, the Whole Earth Catalog, Crawdaddy, Screw, Money, hot pants. waterbeds, Sesame Street, the new nudity, "Love Story." the Black Liberation Army, nr Gay Lib. The November, 1963. Issue of The Readers' Digest held a mirror up to the future with an article reprinted from Good Housekeeping; "Sleeping Pills and Pep Pills—Handle With Extreme Caution!" In the Nov. 24, 1963. New York Tunes Magazine, which was fated to be one of its most read issues. Mary Anne Guitar analyzed some new expressions in subteen slang rot fink, triple rat fink, • real blast, fake out, tough toenails, the straight skinnies, jeez-o-man. hung-up, hairy, wuzza-wuzza and gasser. Of the preteens, who would become the college generation of 1973. Miss Guitar said that their coinages were no worse, and sometimes more imaginative, than their elders. "According to reliable reports," she said, "'terrific' is the word on the New Frontier."
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Hampton, Malcolm X, George Lincoln Rockwell, and 45,1365 young American men who_ would die violently In Vietnam during the next nine years.
N Nov. 12, 1963, Mrs. John F. Kennedy played hostess to Z,000 underprivileged children on the White House lawn. It was her tine official appearance since 1410 death or baby Petrick the previous August, end what she supervised the distribu. tion of ZOO gallons of cocoa and 10,000 sugar cookies among her guests, a &Lichmeet of Scotland's Black Watch regiment strutted and skirled for them. Hearing the tunes and liking them. the President came out of his Oval Office to watch the per. formance. Ten days later she would ormembet his pleasure and ask them to play again. at his funeral. Nearly every day now impressions were being printed on her memory, to be recalled, brooded over, relived, savored, or regretted after Dallas. The day Ware the Black Watch eppearence before the children, the President took young John, nut quite 3, to Veterans Day core. robin.; et Arlington National Cemetery. To the indignation of same who thought the occasion should be solemn. the little boy was allowed to toddle into the procession and disrupt it. His butler was delighted, and while be beamed down at the child, remeramen put the scene on celluloid. There were those who thought Kennedy had brought the boy along with that In mind. Look WAS 0011111-1 out with an exclusive spread of Jahn Jr pictures; it would have been like the President to stage something for photographers who would feel left out by it. Among the admiring spec• tutors at Arlington sees MAJ. Gen. Philip C. Wehie, commanding officer of the Military District of Washington. Twelve deem later he would look down on Kennedy's body in the autopsy room at Beth-
esda Naval Hospital and recall A. E. HOUS211411'S lines In "TO an Athlete Dying Young"; Today, the rood all
runners CORM, Shoulder-14h ire bring you homer And eel you at your threshold down, Townsman of a stiller Mrs. Kennedy had many terent recollections which would
put the tragedy in context; General Wehle had one. Most Americans hadn't any. The blow that fell in Dallas came to than out of nowhere. They didn't even know that the President was in Texas.. His visit was only of local interest there; he had come deem to make peace between tree feuding Democrats, Senator Ralph Yarborough, the liberal, and Gov. John B. Connelly Jr., the deviate. NonTexans were unaware of the trip until the first incredible bulletin reached them with the news that he had peen gunned down by a sniper while riding in • downtown motorcade.
A Americana,, giving a Owe to their grief, reconstructed the events there. They CAIRO to know the grid of downtown Dallas Streets: the location of the Texas School Book Depository, horn which the shots had come, and Parkland Memorial Hospital, to which the President end Governor Connally, who had else been wounded, had been rushed; and the identity of each figure in the tragedy and the part he had pleyed, In time the country forgot Its terrible ignorance in the MN
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had been riding in the pro.pool car, four cars behind the Presideetiel limousine in the motorcade Moments after the sound of the gunfire, at 1:30 Pat Washington t en—an hour earlier in Deltas—hr dictated the first bulletin to his local bureau over the pool ceee radinphone: 'Three shots were fired it President Kennedy's motorcade in downtown Dallas." That went ant on ILP./. printers at 1:34, two minutes before the Presidential car reached the hospital_ At 1:36 Don Gardiner of the A-B.0 radio netwOrle an into local programs with it. At 1;40 C.B.E..TV interrupted "As the World Turns," a soap opera; viewers beheld a distraught Walter Cronkite relaying Smith's report of the three shots and adding. "The firm reports say that the President was -seriously wounded.'" At scuttled an1:46 other Camp Opera, "Bachelor Father,- to switch to Chet Huntley. That put the three networks on the air with the news. They would remain there, with no interruptions for commercials, for three days and three nights, until
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the President had been burled lit Artintton National Cemetery. A minority first heard about the shooting from those early broadcasts and telecasts. One watcher in Fort Worth was Marguerite Oswald, the assassin's mother, she was timed to WFAA-TV. In Irving, a Dallas suburb. her daughterin-law Marina was another, viewer. Elizabeth Pozen, the wife of a Government official, was listening to WGMS over her car radio in Washington. One of her passengers was Caroline Kennedy, who was going to spend the night with a Pozen child, and when Mr.. Pozen beard the announcer say . . "shot in the head and his wife Jackie . . .," she instantly snitched it off. But most people did not learn what had happened that directly. The news reached them third or fourth hand, from a passing stranger, or a telephone call, or a public address system, or a waiter in a restaurant—Often from sources which were so unlikely that a common reaction was utter disbelief. To make sure that It was um true, they gathered around transistor radios, car radios and television sets in bars—whatever was available—and there they learned that it was true after all At 2 P.M. Washington time Kennedy was pronounced dead. The announcement was delayed until Lyndon Johnson could get away from the hospital; in that first hour it was widely assumed that the gunman had been part of a larger conspiracy. The new President left for the airport at 2:26 P.M. Six minutes later U.P.I. quoted Father Oscar Huber, the D11115 priest who had celebrated the last rites for Kennedy, as saying, "He's dead, all right." Confirmation by the President's acting press secretary followed, and at 235 Washington time U.P.I. belts chimed on teletype machines around the world: FLASH PRESIDENT KENNEDY DEAD 11135PGS
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Meantime, attention had shifted to another part of Dallas. Lee Harney Oswald, having left his rifle in his sniper's nest on the sixth floor of the book depository, had caught a bus outside, ridden in it for seven blocks, and then switched to a taxi He stopped at his rooming house for a pistol. At 2:15 he committed his second murder in less than an hour, gunning down J. D. Tlppit, a Dallas policeman who tried to question him. Oswald was seized 35 minutes later in a nearby movie theater. The homicide squad then learned that its new prisoner worked as a stockman in the hook depository and was, In fact, the Woe ma, Caen tow ,f20 di Deal TEO *dee ...he. eget Weed. prelebOod do la swieted IN NO. CONAColOOd eller In MIL& Offer /1111/1■011 10 01410 tOup0/1 per Novo,hold FRAUD ciAuser Invoices planing purelmieec onnin Ins mei 10 day. et Eui lleivel steel. la opOn• u p1060/11111 101 10d•1111011•11 Pe mae•
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only depatitory employe miming at the building. The net of circumstantial evidence began to hulk!. At 3:38 P.M. Washington time Lyndon Johnson took the Pheldentlal oath of office on Air Force One with a stunned and bloodateintsi Jacqueline Kennedy standing beside him. Nine minutes later the plane took off for Washington's Andrews Field. The flight took less than two and a half hours. Johnson made Ms first televised statement as President at the airport and was then taken by helicopter to the White Rouse. The Kennedy party followed the coffin to Bethesda and the autopsy, which continued through most of the night It was 4:34 A.M. when the caraet now covered by an American flag, was carried into the White House end pieced upon the catafalque in the East Room of the mansion. Mrs. Kennedy knelt beside it and buried her face in the flag's field of star&
HEneat the days paused In • blur. Saturday was aaaornpanted by drenching rains and high winds in the capitaL The groggy country would later remember it as a gap between days, between the shock of Friday's ameasiriation and the murder of the assassin on Sunday. 'The University of allow° study Indicated that the average adult spent LO bouts in front of he television set Saturday. but the watchers didn't learn much. The body remained in the East Room: Kennedy's family, his friends and senior members of the Government called to pay their respects there. On Sunday the coffin was carried up Pennsylvania Avenue On a haree-drawn caisson led by a riderless horse with reversed bests in the stirrups, the symbol of a fallen chieftain. At the same time word of a new, unbelievable outrage came from Dallas, Lee Harvey Oswald, in the process of being transferred to *nether jail, wen mortally wounded by a Dallas nightdub owner aimed Jack Ruby. The killing occurred In the presence of SO uniformed Del. las policemen. Became N.B.C. was televising the transfer. It was also [decision's first live murder.
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neral ream end thence to Arlington. Delegations from 92 nations, led by Charles de
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Gaulle, had COM to participate in the funeral. Afterward they attended two receptions, one at the State Department and another, much smaliet, at the White House; Mrs. Kennedy received them there. That wee the end of It, though In a sense that weekend never ended: 10 years later men would still be trying to fathom the meaning of it. It had been the greatest simultaneous experience In the history of this or any other people. Long afterward Americans would tell one another how they first heard the news from Danes, how they felt about the eternal flame Mrs. Kennedy had requested for the grave, and young John's saluting of his father's coffin, and the rest of it. Dimid Brinkley concluded that the assassination was beyond understanding: 'The events of those days don't fit, you can't place them anywhere, they don't go in the intellectual luggage of our time. it was WO big, too sudden, too overwhelming, and It meant too much. It has to be separate and apart" Nevertheless, people could not stop attempting to incorporate it in their lives. The moat obvious approach was to name something after the President Cape Canaveral was rechristened Cape Kennedy. Idlewild International Airport was renamed. The National Cultural Center was changed to the /elm F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts_ The Treasury began minting 517 million Kennedy half-dollars—end couldn't keep them in circulation because they were being hoarded as souvenirs. In every part of the country. committees and councils were voting to honor the President by altering local maps. Presently Jacqueline Kennedy was wondering whether she would be driving "down a Kennedy parkway to a Kennedy airport to visit a Kennedy school." The impulse reached abroad. Caneda had its Mount Kennedy—the first man to climb it was Robert Kennedy, by then United States Senator from New York—and the climax was reached when England set aside three acres of the Mebade meadow at Runnymede, where Magna Cana was signed, as • Kennedy shrine. In May. 1965, Queen Elizabeth presided at the ceremony. dedicating the tract to the President -whom in death my people mill mourn and whom in life they loved." Mrs. Kennedy replied that it was "the deepest comfort to me to know that you there with roe thoughts that lie too deep for Mare" The itennedys retained their hold on the American imagination for about five years after Dallas. Then Robert Kennedy was assassinated in June, IBM, when many believed the Democratic Presidential nomination was within his grasp. That October, Jacqueline Kennedy remarried, ending her virtual canonization as a secular saint; the following summer Edward Kennedy, the surviving brother of the President, was damaged by the tragedy of Chappaqulddlck. Bit by bit the altars of worshipful Kennedy books in bookstores &min.
fished: less and less was heard about J.F.K. charisma. Like the cornerstone of the book depository in Dallas, from which tourists chipped away souvenirs, the Kennedy legend was reduced and disfigured well, 10 years after the assassination, the new Kennedy books are sharply revisionist, biting comments on what some of the suthors call Shamelot.
Er it is possible that Americans were truer to themselves then. During that long grieving weekend many of them expressed their anguish in ways that they later tried to forget Congressman James Roosevelt, for example, proposed that John Kennedy be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor posthumously, and at the White House Hubert Humphrey stumbled from one White House policeman to another. wringing hands and embracing them_ But politicians can do worse than dieplay their emotions In public. If they were artless then. they were also guile. less. The hundreds of thousands of letters which Americans sent to Mrs. Kennedy then were often touching precisely because they were emotive and unashamedly demonstrative. To David Bell the fallen President was "a warrior-king"; to Natalie Hemingway '.'a dear god-father"; and John Steinbeck wrote the widow of "this man who was the best of his people" that "by his life, and his death, gave back the best of them for their own." Buried In the bales of envelopes was another memorable handwritten letter which was found and answered long afterward: Richard M. Nixon 810 Fifth Avenue New York, N. Y. 10021 November 23 Dear Jackie, In this tragic hour Pat and I want you to know that our thoughts and prayers are with you. While the hand of fate mode Jack and me political opponents 7 always cherished the fact that we were persone] friends from the time we came to the Congress together in lle17. That friendship evidenced itself in many ways Including the Invitation we received to attend your wedding. Nothing I could say now could add to the splendid tributes which have come from throughout the world to hem. But I want you to know that the nation will also be forever grateful for your service as First Lady You brought in the White House charm, beauty and elegance as the official hostess for America, and the mistique [sir] of the young in heart which was uniquely yours made an indelible Impression on the America consciousness. If in the days ahead we could be helpful In any way we shall be honored to be at your command. Sincerely, Dick Nixon