Acquisitions List September-October 2013 New Books and Journal Articles
Liste d’acquisitions Septembre-octobre 2013 Nouveaux livres et articles de revues
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Comment emprunter les documents cités ci-dessous : En tant que membre du personnel de l'OTAN vous pouvez emprunter les livres (Type: M) pour un mois, les revues (Type: ART) et les ouvrages de référence (Type: REF) pour une semaine. Les personnes n'appartenant pas au personnel de l'OTAN peuvent s'adresser à leur bibliothèque locale et emprunter les livres via le système de prêt interbibliothèques. Comment obtenir les publications de la Bibliothèque multimédia : Toutes les publications de la Bibliothèque sont disponibles sur les sites Intranet et Internet de l’OTAN.
AERONAUTICS, 7 AFGHAN WAR, 2001-, 7, 41 AFGHANISTAN--BOUNDARIES--PAKISTAN, 8 AFRICA, NORTH--ARMED FORCES, 42 AIR DEFENSES, MILITARY--EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES, 9 ALGERIA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 42 ANTIMISSILE MISSILES--ISRAEL, 43 ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--ASIA, 43 ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--CHINA, 44 ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 44 ARCTIC REGIONS--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, 44 ARCTIC REGIONS--INTERNATIONAL STATUS, 9 ARMED FORCES--OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, 9 ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT, 10 ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--CHINA, 44 ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--MIDDLE EAST, 10, 44 ARMS TRANSFERS--CHINA, 45 AZERBAIJAN--COMERCE, 10 BALTIC STATES--ARMED FORCES, 11 BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION, 45 CHECHNYA (RUSSIA)--HISTORY--CIVIL WAR, 1994-, 45 CHINA--ARMED FORCES, 46 CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 46 COMPUTER CRIMES, 11 CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST, 12 CONVENTIONAL ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--EUROPE, 46 COUNTERINSURGENCY, 47 COUNTERINSURGENCY--AFGHANISTAN, 47 COUNTERINSURGENCY--CANADA, 47 COUNTERINSURGENCY--GREAT BRITAIN, 48 COUNTERINSURGENCY--USA, 49 CYBERTERRORISM, 49 CZECH REPUBLIC--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 49 DEMOCRATIZATION--DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 12 DETERRENCE (STRATEGY)--USA, 13 DISENGAGEMENT (MILITARY SCIENCE), 50 DRONE AIRCRAFT--FRANCE, 50 DRONE AIRCRAFT--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS, 13 ECONOMIC HISTORY, 14 EU--CFSP, 50 EU--CROATIA, 51 EU--CSDP, 14 EU--CSDP--GREAT BRITAIN, 51
EU--CSDP--OPERATIONS, 52 EU--ENLARGEMENT, 52 EU--ESDP--EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY, 52 EU--MOLDOVA, 53 EUROPE--NATIONAL SECURITY, 53 FAILED STATES--DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 14 FRANCE--MILITARY POLICY, 53 GREECE--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 15 HIZBALLAH (LEBANON), 15 HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION--HISTORY, 16 HUMANITARIAN LAW, 16 ILLEGAL ARMS TRANSFERS, 54 INFORMATION WARFARE (INTERNATIONAL LAW), 54 INFORMATION WARFARE--PREVENTION, 17 INFORMATION WARFARE--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 55 INSURGENCY, 17 INSURGENCY--SUDAN, 55 INTELLIGENCE SERVICE--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS--USA, 18 INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES, 18 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 19 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 55 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 19 IRAN--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 19 IRAN--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 56 ISLAM AND POLITICS--AFRICA, SUB-SAHARAN, 56 ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM--ASIA, CENTRAL, 56 JIHAD, 57 JORDAN--FOREIGN RELATIONS--SYRIA, 57 KOREA (NORTH)--POLTICS AND GOVERNMENT, 57 KOSOVO (REPUBLIC)--INTERNATIONAL STATUS, 58 KURDS--TURKEY, 20 LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD, 1888-1935, 20 LIBYA--HISTORY--CIVIL WAR, 2011-, 20, 58 LIBYA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 21 MALI--HISTORY--COUP D'ETAT, 2012, 59 MALI--HISTORY--COUP D'ETAT, 2012--PARTICIPATION, FRENCH, 21 MEDIATION, 60 MIDDLE EAST--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 61 MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE--TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, 22 MILITARY PENSIONS--USA, 23 MILITARY PLANNING--USA, 23 MILITARY ROBOTS--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS, 61 MINORITIES--SYRIA, 62 MOROCCO--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 62 MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD (EGYPT), 23 MUSLIMS--BALKAN PENINSULA--HISTORY, 24 NATION-BUILDING, 25, 62 NATION-BUILDING--USA, 63 NATO--ARMED FORCES--LIBYA, 25 NATO--EUROPE, EASTERN, 63 NATO-FRANCE, 64 NATO--SLOVAKIA, 64 NATURAL RESOURCES--ARCTIC REGIONS, 65 NAVIES, 26 NIGERIA--ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, 26
NONLETHAL WEAPONS, 65 NON-STATE ACTORS (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS), 26 NORTHEAST PASSAGE, 65 NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--KOREA (NORTH), 27 NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--USA, 27 NUCLEAR DETERRENCE--CHINA, 66 NUCLEAR ENERGY--MIDDLE EAST, 66 NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION, 66 NUCLEAR TERRORISM, 67 NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--IRAN, 28 NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--NATO, 67 NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--USA, 68 NUCLEAR WEAPONS--SECURITY MEASURES, 28 ORGANIZED CRIME--CHINA, 68 PAKISTAN--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 68 PEACE-BUILDING, 69 PEACE-BUILDING--SOMALIA, 69 PETROLEUM INDUSTRY AND TRADE--AFRICA, 69 PIRACY, 70 PIRACY--SOMALIA, 70 POLAND--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 71 POLICE TRAINING, 71 POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION--IRAQ, 28 POWER RESOURCES--POLITICAL ASPECTS, 29 PRESS--FRANCE--DIRECTORIES, 29 PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES, 30 PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES--EUROPE, 30 PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES--FRANCE, 72 PRIVATIZATION--KOSOVO (REPUBLIC), 72 PUBLIC DIPLOMACY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 72 QAIDA (ORGANIZATION), 73 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL--USA, 73 RELIGION AND POLITICS, 73 RELIGION AND POLITICS--MEDITERRANEAN REGION, 74 RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (INTERNATIONAL LAW), 74 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA, SUB-SAHARAN, 31 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE,EASTERN, 74 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PAKISTAN, 75 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PERSIAN GULF REGION, 75 SAUDI ARABIA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN, 31 SECESSION--SUDAN, 75 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM, 76 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM--AFGHANISTAN, 76 SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL, 32 SPECIAL FORCES (MILITARY SCIENCE)--FRANCE, 77 STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM, 77 STRATEGY, 32 SYRIA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN, 33 SYRIA--HISTORY--PROTESTS, 2011-, 33, 77 TALIBAN, 78 TANKS (MILITARY SCIENCE), 33 TARGETED KILLING (INTERNATIONAL LAW), 78 TERRITORIAL WATERS--EAST CHINA SEA, 34 TERRORISM, 34, 79 TERRORISM--GOVERNMENT POLICY--USA, 80 TERRORISM--PREVENTION--GREAT BRITAIN, 80 TERRORISM--PREVENTION--LAW AND LEGISLATION, 80 TERRORISM--SAHEL, 35
TURKEY--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AZERBAIJAN, 35 UNITED NATIONS, 36 USA. AFRICA COMMAND, 38 USA--ARMED FORCES, 36 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 36 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA, 81 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--CHINA, 81 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE, 81 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE, EASTERN, 82 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--MIDDLE EAST, 37, 82 USA--MILITARY POLICY--ECONOMIC ASPECTS, 82 USA--MILITARY RELATIONS--ASIA, 83 USA--NATIONAL SECURITY, 37 VISEGRAD GROUP, 83 WAR, 38 WAR--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS, 84 WEAPONS PROLIFERATION, 84 WOMEN AND PEACE, 39 WORLD POLITICS, 40
New Books Nouveaux livres
AERONAUTICS IHS Jane's All the World's Aircraft : Development & Production : 2013-2014. - Coulsdon, UK : IHS Global Limited, 2013. 1030 pages : illustrations ; 33 cm. ID number: 80025041 Type: REF Call Number: 629 /00012 REF ISBN: 9780710630407 Includes index.
AFGHAN WAR, 2001Afghan Lessons : Culture, Diplomacy, and Counterinsurgency / by Fernando Gentilini. - Washington : Brookings Institution Press, 2013. xiii, 176 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. (Brookings-SSPA Series on Public Administration) ID number: 80025063 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01840 ISBN: 9780815724230 Author(s): 1. Gentilini, Fernando Bibliography: p. 165-167. Includes index. 'The author served nearly two years as the civilian representative of NATO in Afghanistan, running a counterinsurgency campaign in the war-torn nation. This is the fascinating story of his mission, a firsthand view of Afghanistan through a kaleidoscope. He explores Afghan history, literature, tradition, and culture to understand some of the most basic questions of Western involvement : What is the purpose ? What does an international presence mean, and how can it help ?' La guerre inachevee : Afghanistan, 2001-2013 / by Jean-Charles Jauffret. - Paris : Autrement, 2013. 341 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025086 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01846 ISBN: 9782746734449 Author(s): 1. Jauffret, Jean-Charles, 1949'Dans les montagnes afghanes, depuis octobre 2001, une guerre perdure, rappelant parfois les precedents algerien ou vietnamien. A la destruction des camps d'entrainement d'Al-Qaida et au desarmement des taliban, s'est substituee une guerre sordide faite d'attentats-suicides, d'engins pieges, de crimes de guerre et de 'dommages collateraux' entre une coalition surequipee et un ennemi insaisissable. A la veille de leur retrait, qu'en est-il de l'engagement des forces francaises, de leur culture de guerre issue des vieilles recettes coloniales ? Terrain d'experimentations tactiques et technologiques de tout ordre, cette 'campagne
d'Afghanistan' se rejouera-t-elle au Mali ? Quel type de narco-Etat la coalition laisse-t-elle derriere elle ? Comment garantir l'avenir d'un pays ou tout est desormais possible, de l'espoir d'une vie meilleure au cauchemar du retour des taliban ? En croisant de multiples sources et les temoignages d'acteurs de cette guerre, l'auteur nous livre un remarquable essai d'histoire immediate.' A Fort of Nine Towers / by Qais Akbar Omar. - London : Picador, 2013. viii, 396 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm. ID number: 80025049 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01841 ISBN: 9781447221746 Author(s): 1. Omar, Qais Akbar 'Qais Akbar Omar's young life coincided with one of the most convulsive decades in Afghan history : civil war, the rise of the Taliban, and the arrival of international troops in 2001. This book, named for the place his parents first sought shelter from war, is the story of Qais's family and their remarkable survival. When the fighting came, this group of tenacious and deeply loving people was buffeted from one part of Afghanistan to the next. They set up camp on the plains, in the Buddha caves of Bamiyan, and later with Kuchi nomads, before they were finally able to return to Kabul - where in many senses their trials were just beginning. As he shares this long journey, through terror, loss, heartbreak, and sudden moments of joy, Qais's spirit never ceases to shine. This is an extraordinary book about a beautiful and civilized country ravaged by war, and about the power of stories to embolden, console and bind a family together, in the face of almost unimaginable odds.'
AFGHANISTAN--BOUNDARIES--PAKISTAN Under the Drones : Modern Lives in the Afghanistan-Pakistan Borderlands. - Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press, 2012. 327 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm. ID number: 80025050 Type: M Call Number: 321 /00885 ISBN: 9780674065611 Bibliography: p. 309-313. Includes index. 'In the West, media coverage of Afghanistan and Pakistan is framed by military and political concerns, resulting in a simplistic picture of ageless barbarity, terrorist safe havens, and peoples in need of either punishment or salvation. This book looks beyond this limiting view to investigate real people on the ground, and to analyze the political, social, and economic forces that shape their lives. Understanding the complexity of life along the 1,600-mile border between Afghanistan and Pakistan can help America and its European allies realign their priorities in the region to address genuine problems, rather than fabricated ones. This volume explodes Western misunderstandings by revealing a land that abounds with human agency, perpetual innovation, and vibrant complexity. Through the work of historians and social scientists, the thirteen essays here explore the real and imagined presence of the Taliban; the animated sociopolitical identities expressed through traditions like Pakistani truck decoration; Sufism's ambivalent position as an alternative to militancy; the long and contradictory history of Afghan media; and the simultaneous brutality and potential that heroin brings to women in the area. Moving past shifting conceptions of security, the authors expose the West's prevailing perspective on the region as strategic, targeted, and alarmingly dehumanizing. This book is an essential antidote to contemporary media coverage and military concerns.'
AIR DEFENSES, MILITARY--EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES IHS Jane's Land Warfare Platforms. Artillery & Air Defence : 2013-2014. - Coulsdon, UK : IHS Global Limited, 2013. 841 pages : illustrations ; 33 cm. ID number: 80025040 Type: REF Call Number: 623 /00579 REF ISBN: 9780710630872 Includes index.
ARCTIC REGIONS--INTERNATIONAL STATUS International Law and the Arctic / by Michael Byers. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press, 2013. xviii, 314 pages ; 24 cm. (Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law ; 103) ID number: 80025045 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00532 ISBN: 9781107042759 Author(s): 1. Byers, Michael, 1966Bibliography: p. 284-296. Includes index. 'Climate change and rising oil prices have thrust the Arctic to the top of the foreign policy agenda and raised difficult issues of sovereignty, security and environmental protection. Improved access for shipping and resource development is leading to new international rules on safety, pollution prevention and emergency response. Around the Arctic, maritime boundary disputes are being negotiated and resolved, and new international institutions, such as the Arctic Council, are mediating deep-rooted tensions between Russia and NATO and between nation states and indigenous peoples. This book explains these developments and reveals a strong trend towards international cooperation and law-making. It thus contradicts the widespread misconception that the Arctic is an unregulated zone of potential conflict.'
ARMED FORCES--OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR Stabilization Operations, Security and Development : States of Fragility. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. xii, 292 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. (Studies in Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding) ID number: 80025038 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00529 ISBN: 9780415536769 Bibliography: p. 248-281. Includes index, 'This edited volume provides a critical overview of the new stabilization agenda in international relations. The primary focus of so-called stability operations since 9/11 has been Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq. Covering the wider picture, this volume provides a comprehensive assessment of the new agenda, including the expansion of efforts in Latin America, the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. By harnessing the findings of studies undertaken in Afghanistan, Brazil, Columbia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Sudan, the volume demonstrates the impacts - intended and otherwise of stabilization in practice. The book clarifies the debate on stabilization, focusing primarily on the policy, practice and outcomes of such operations. Rather than relying exclusively on existing military doctrine or academic writings, the volume focuses on stabilization as it is actually occurring. Drawing on the reflections of scholars and practitioners, the volume identifies the origins and historical antecedents of contemporary operations, and also examines how they are linked to other policy spheres - ranging from peacebuilding to statebuilding. Finally, the volume reviews eight practical cases of stabilization in disparate regions around the
ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT SIPRI Yearbook : 2013 : Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. - Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press, 2013. xxi, 574 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025026 Type: REF Call Number: 327.3 /00061 REF ISBN: 9780199678433 Includes index.
ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--MIDDLE EAST Global and Regional Approaches to Arms Control in the Middle East : A Critical Assessment from the Arab World / by Gamal M. Selim. Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. x, 121 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. (SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace ; 4) ID number: 80025037 Type: M Call Number: 327.3 /00716 ISBN: 9783642293139 Author(s): 1. Selim, Gamal M. 'Since the end of the Cold War, the Middle East has been the focus of various projects for the establishment of arms control (including CBMs) regimes. Whereas some of these projects were initiated at the global level, others were discussed and debated at the regional level. This book analyses the global and regional dynamics of arms control in the Middle East in the post-Cold War era. It examines American and European arms control projects, the contexts in which they were presented, the reactions of major regional actors, and their impacts on arms control efforts in the region. It assesses Arab perceptions of the motivations for and constraints on establishing arms control regimes. It also explores the prospects of regional arms control in the context of the ongoing Arab Spring with its ramifications for Arab regional politics, and provides a new perspective on arms control in the Middle East. This volume enriches the ongoing discourse, which to date has been dominated by mainly Western perspectives.'
AZERBAIJAN--COMERCE Azerbaijan as a Regional Hub in Central Eurasia : Strategic Assessment of Euro-Asian Trade and Transportation / by Taleh Ziyadov. - Baku : Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy, 2012. xxviii, 287 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025102 Type: M Call Number: 382 /00349 ISBN: 9789952348002 Author(s): 1. Ziyadov, Taleh 'Planning in the twenty-first century involves building strategies to address the challenges of the next 20, 30 and even 50 years. Domestic issues can no longer be tackled without looking beyond national borders and assessing the increasingly interdependent nature of the global marketplace and its various influences. In today's globalized world with all its complex interactions, it is inevitable that the countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia (i.e. Central Eurasia) will find new synergies through which they can develop and secure their positions in the international economic and political arena of the future. Azerbaijan has and will continue to play a key role in Central Eurasia, helping to shape a common vision for the region and facilitate its transformation. Its vast natural resources could stimulate the development of its non-oil economy and revive non-oil
trade in the region, restoring its historical position as a commercial hub along the ancient Silk Road. By 2030, the country could be a prosperous regional hub in Central Eurasia - but for this to occur, Azerbaijan needs to set out a comprehensive strategy for sustainable development. This book provides a strategic analysis of the Euro-Asian trade and transportation networks through Central Eurasia, identifying key lessons for Azerbaijan and other aspiring hub countries. It offers an independent and comprehensive view on how, if at all, Azerbaijan could be developed into a regional hub in Central Eurasia. It proposes an integrated 'bird's eye approach' in developing Azerbaijan's non-oil economy and its potential grand hub strategy.'
BALTIC STATES--ARMED FORCES Development of the Baltic Armed Forces in Light of Multinational Deployments / by James S. Corum. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. vii, 46 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025054 Type: M Call Number: 355.3 /00129 ISBN: 1584875860 Author(s): 1. Corum, James S. 'Developing coalition security strategies within NATO has never been easy. However, it does help to have a thorough understanding of one's allies and their concerns and perspectives. This monograph provides an in-depth view of how three Baltic nations (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) view current and future security threats and likely problems. It also recommends some ways in which the United States might respond to these issues.'
COMPUTER CRIMES Cyber Crime, Security and Digital Intelligence / by Mark Johnson. - Farnham, UK : Gower, 2013. xlv, 252 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm. ID number: 80025044 Type: M Call Number: 343 /00091 ISBN: 9781409454496 Author(s): 1. Johnson, Mark, 1959Bibliography: p. 245-246. Includes index. 'Cyber crime is one of the main threats to the digital economy. From insider threats to complex distributed attacks and industrial worms, modern business faces unprecedented challenges. Cyber security and digital intelligence are the necessary responses to this challenge, yet they are understood by only a tiny minority of users and decision makers. The author goes far beyond enumerating past cases and summarising the requirements of data protection law, payment card industry or ISO standards. He focuses on how cyber crime has evolved and the nature of the very latest threats and confronts issues that have yet to be addressed by codified rules and practice guidelines.'
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (1980) The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women : A Commentary. - Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press, 2013. lix, 731 pages ; 25 cm. (Oxford Commentaries on International Law) ID number: 80025027 Type: M Call Number: 342 /00200 ISBN: 9780199682249 Bibliography: p. 689-711. Includes index. 'This is the first comprehensive commentary on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and its Optional Protocol. The Convention is a key international human rights instrument and the only one exclusively addressed to women. The Commentary describes the application of the Convention through the work of its monitoring body, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. It comprises detailed analyses of the Preamble and each article of the Convention and of the Optional Protocol. It also includes a separate chapter on the cross-cutting substantive issue of violence against women. The sources relied on are the treaty language and the general recommendations, concluding observations and case law under the Optional Protocol, through which the Committee has interpreted and applied the Convention. Each chapter is self-contained but the Commentary is conceived of as an integral whole. The book also includes an introduction which provides an overview of the Convention and its embedding in the international law of human rights.'
DEMOCRATIZATION--DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Pathways to Freedom : Political and Economic Lessons from Democratic Transitions. - New York : Council on Foreign Relations, 2013. viii, 256 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025068 Type: M Call Number: 321 /00884 ISBN: 9780876095669 Bibliography: p. 235-249. 'Many developing countries have launched transitions from authoritarianism to democracy over the past twenty-five years. While some have succeeded in building relatively strong democracies with shared prosperity, others have stumbled. As a wave of change continues to unfold across the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, the policy-relevant insights that can be gleaned from recent transitions are more salient than ever. Through case studies on Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, South Africa, Thailand, and Ukraine, this book explores the structural factors and policy choices that shaped eight important transitions - some successful, others less so. The case studies focus on six themes : socioeconomic inclusion and exclusion, economic structure and policies, civil society and media, legal system and rule of law, government structure, and education and demography. Additional chapters examine these themes in light of the quantitative evidence on democratization and highlight concrete policy recommendations from across the case studies. With concise historical analysis and forward-looking prescriptions, this book offers an authoritative and accessible look at what countries must do to build durable and prosperous democracies - and what the United States and others can do to help.'
DETERRENCE (STRATEGY)--USA Extended Deterrence and Allied Assurance : Key Concepts nd Current Challenges for U.S. Policy / by Justin V. Anderson... [et al.]. [s.l.] : USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 2013. xvi, 195 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm. (INSS Occasional Paper ; 69) ID number: 80025105 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01850 Author(s): 1. Anderson, Justin V. 2. Larsen, Jeffrey A. 3. Holdorf, Polly M. 'This paper provides a conceptual framework for the strategic concepts of extended deterrence and allied assurance and an overview of the key issues and current challenges faced by the US strategists and planners responsible for developing and implementing these concepts across the globe.'
DRONE AIRCRAFT--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS Armed Drones and the Ethics of War : Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age / by Christian Enemark. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. 150 pages ; 24 cm. (War, Conflict and Ethics) ID number: 80025064 Type: M Call Number: 623 /01184 ISBN: 9780415540520 Author(s): 1. Enemark, Christian Bibliography: p. 141-142. Includes index. 'This book assesses the ethical implications of using armed uninhabited aerial vehicles ('hunter-killer drones') in contemporary conflicts. The American way of war is trending away from the heroic and towards the post-heroic, driven by a political preference for air-powered management of strategic risks and the reduction of physical risk to US personnel. The recent use of drones in the War on Terror has demonstrated the power of this technology to transcend time and space, but there has been relatively little debate in the United States and elsewhere over the embrace of what might be regarded as politically desirable and yet morally worrisome : risk-free killing. Arguably, the absence of a relationship of mutual risk between putative combatants poses a fundamental challenge to the status of war as something morally distinguishable from other forms of violence, and it also undermines the professional virtue of the warrior as a courageous risk-taker. This book considers the use of armed drones in the light of ethical principles that are intended to guard against unjust increases in the incidence and lethality of armed conflict. The evidence and arguments presented indicate that, in some respects, the use of armed drones is to be welcomed as an ethically superior mode of warfare. Over time, however, their continued and increased use is likely to generate more challenges than solutions, and perhaps do more harm than good.'
ECONOMIC HISTORY L'etat du monde : 2014 : puissances d'hier et de demain. - Paris : Editions La Decouverte, 2013. 274 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025098 Type: REF Call Number: 321 /00396 REF ISBN: 9782707176981
EU--CSDP Policy-Making in EU Security and Defense : An Institutional Perspective / by Hylke Dijkstra. - Houndmills, UK : Palgrave MacMillan, 2013. xii, 228 pages ; 23 cm. (European Administrative Governance Series) ID number: 80025078 Type: M Call Number: 448 /00113 ISBN: 9781137357861 Author(s): 1. Dijkstra, Hylke, 1983Bibliography: p. 208-222. Includes index. 'EU foreign policy has long been considered the exclusive domain of member states. This book challenges such conventional state-centered wisdom by analyzing the influence of the Brussels-based EU officials in the sensitive area of security and defense. It asks why the member states have delegated important functions to the EU in the first place, and continues to examine how EU civil servants affect the planning and conduct of civilian and military operations. Using multiple case studies and unique insights from over a hundred interviews, this book shows how everyday security policy is made in practice. Whether it concerns the deployment of uniformed personnel to Aceh, Bosnia, Chad or Kosovo, the EU officials in the Council and the European External Action Service shape outcomes and make a difference.'
FAILED STATES--DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Failed States and Institutional Decay : Understanding Instability and Poverty in the Developing World / by Natasha M. Ezrow, Erica Frantz. - New York : Bloomsbury, 2013. 392 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025089 Type: M Call Number: 321 /00887 ISBN: 9781441150516 Author(s): 1. Ezrow, Natasha M. 2. Frantz, Erica Bibliography: p. 321-381. Includes index. 'Globalization and interdependence have had a great impact on state sovereignty. Some states have lost their ability to provide for their citizens, sustain stable borders, prevent internal conflict, and deal with transnational terrorist networks. Labeled 'failed states', they become the target of foreign intervention and preventative foreign policies. This book explains the causes and consequences of state failure by examining what constitutes a failed state and what is meant by institutional decay and by exploring the different types of institutional decay in terms of economic, military, political, and social institutions. It addresses failure in authoritarian states, its association with terrorism, its diffusion to other states, and the impact of regional challenges on state institutions. In addition to a comprehensive overview of the theories and models of state failure, this unique text features in-depth qualitative analyses, examples from around the developing world, and sidebars to clarify concepts and contexts. A synthesis of current research, it will offer students in comparative politics and international relations an invaluable
contextual understanding of institutional decay, its roots, and consequences.'
GREECE--FOREIGN RELATIONS Greece and the Cold War : Frontline State, 1952-1967 / by Evanthis, Hatzivassiliou. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2006. xvi, 229 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. (Cold War History ; 12) ID number: 80025062 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01664 ISBN: 9780415396646 Author(s): 1. Hatzivassiliou, Evanthis, 1966Bibliography: p. 221-222. Includes index. 'This book presents a comprehensive analysis of Greek foreign and security policy in the Cold War, covering the key period from the country's accession to NATO in 1952 until the imposition of the Colonels' dictatorship in 1967. It also makes extensive references to issues of Greek internal politics which substantially affected the formulation of the country's Cold War policy. Clearly dividing his analysis into three parts, 1952-55, 1955-63 and 1963-67, the author examines the following key themes : Greek foreign policy in the Cold War; threat perception; the NATO connection (including Greek-US relations, the rise of anti-Americanism, the economic dimension of security and the issue of US military aid); Greek policy towards the Soviet Bloc; and the regional dimension (mainly Greek policy towards Turkey and Yugoslavia, and the Coypus crises), which greatly complicated Greek security obligations. Making extensive use of primary resources, this volume covers the whole of these key periods in detail and makes a major contribution to all the main debates, with a special focus on the Greek-US relationship, which continues to be hotly debated.'
HIZBALLAH (LEBANON) Hezbollah and Hamas : A Comparative Study / by Joshua L. Gleis, Benedetta Berti. - Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. x, 249 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025061 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01343 ISBN: 9781421406145 Author(s): 1. Gleis, Joshua L. 2. Berti, Benedetta Bibliography: p. 239-242. Includes index. 'Hezbollah and Hamas are major players in Middle Eastern politics and have a growing involvement in global events. Despite their strikingly different beginnings, they share a common denominator - an adversary in Israel. This book draws from primary interviews and documents coupled with a thorough review of current scholarship. This is a portrait of the organizations' roots, histories, ideologies, relationships, tactics, political outlooks, and futures. The authors present organization charts, maps, and a case study of the TriBorder Area in South America, which frequently serves as an operational center for terrorist groups. Recognizing that these two groups are increasingly relevant to U.S. national security, the authors provide a comparative analysis of their histories and political missions that moves beyond reductionist portrayals of the organizations' military operations.'
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION--HISTORY Humanitarian Intervention : A History / by Brendan Simms, D. J. B. Trim. - Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press, 2011. xv, 408 pages ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025060 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00531 ISBN: 9781107673328 Author(s): 1. Simms, Brendan 2. Trim, D. J. B. Includes index. 'The dilemma of how best to protect human rights is one of the most persistent problems facing the international community today. This unique and wide-ranging history of humanitarian intervention examines responses to oppression, persecution, and mass atrocities from the emergence of the international state system and international law in the late sixteenth century, to the end of the twentieth century. Leading scholars show how opposition to tyranny and to religious persecution evolved from notions of the common interests of 'Christendom' to ultimately incorporate all people under the concept of 'human rights'. As well as examining specific episodes of intervention, the authors consider how these have been perceived and justified over time, and offer important new insights into ideas of national sovereignty, international relations and law, as well as political thought and the development of current theories of 'international community'.'
HUMANITARIAN LAW Global Violence : Consequences and Responses : Forty Years of Excellence in Humanitarian Dialogue : The 40th Anniversary of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law. - Milano : FrancoAngeli, 2011. 224 pages ; 23 cm. (Politica Studi ; 88) ID number: 80025095 Type: M Call Number: 341.3 /00236 ISBN: 9788856837711 33rd Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law (Sanremo, 9-11 September 2010). 'Global violence is a universal scourge which threatens the lives of an increasing number of people around the world. For each individual who dies and suffers as a result of an armed conflict, many more are the victims of a broad range of other patterns of political and moral collective violence. To celebrate the 40th anniversary of its foundation, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law has decided to bring together its main partners and stakeholders representatives of governments, international organizations, academia, NGOs - to review the legal and practical challenges posed by contemporary armed conflicts and other situations of violence. A specific attention has been given to the issues of deprivation of liberty, detention and judicial guarantees in armed conflicts. The book comprises a series of contributions by prominent scholars and practitioners from different countries which aim is to promote new awareness of global violence paradigms and of the inextricable relationship existing between its different expressions.'
INFORMATION WARFARE--PREVENTION Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace : The Challenge to National Security. - Boca Raton, FL : Taylor & Francis, 2014. xxviii, 332 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025090 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01845 ISBN: 9781466592018 Includes index. 'This book brings together some of the world's most distinguished military leaders, scholars, cyber operators, and policymakers in a discussion of current and future challenges that cyberspace poses to the United States and the world. Maintaining a focus on policy-relevant solutions, it offers a well-reasoned study of how to prepare for war, while attempting to keep the peace in the cyberspace domain. The discussion begins with thoughtful contributions concerning the attributes and importance of cyberspace to the American way of life and global prosperity. Examining the truths and myths behind recent headline-grabbing malicious cyber activity, the book spells out the challenges involved with establishing a robust system of monitoring, controls, and sanctions to ensure cooperation amongst all stakeholders. The desire is to create a domain that functions as a trusted and resilient environment that fosters cooperation, collaboration, and commerce. Additionally, the book : delves into the intricacies and considerations cyber strategists must contemplate before engaging in cyber war; offers a framework for determining the best ways to engage other nations in promoting global norms of behavior; illustrates technologies that can enable cyber arms control agreements; dispels myths surrounding Stuxnet and industrial control systems.'
INSURGENCY The Internationalization of Internal Conflicts : Threatening the State. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. vi, 280 pages ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025082 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01847 ISBN: 9780415507899 Includes index. 'Internal security crises from environmental disaster, extreme poverty and deprivation, armed conflicts, or ethnic or religious conflict, provide sites of opportunity for those seeking to internationalize conflicts. Domestic conflicts in Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia have started as internal problems, but have taken on regional and international dimensions as parties to the conflict within the country and sympathetic external forces have joined forces with each other for mutual gain. This book examines the international dimension to internal conflicts and asks : under what conditions do domestic conflicts become opportunities for regional or global actors to become involved ? Why have some countries been able to successfully deal with this problem while others have not ? Who are the actors who seek to internationalize conflicts ? Why and with what means do they become involved and how do their agendas get internalized/localized ? Cases include : the separatist movements in the Philippines, Southern Thailand, Aceh (Indonesia); and the civil wars in Rwanda/Congo, and Sierra Leone/Liberia, Lebanon, and Iraq. This book finds that a combination of greater democratization internally, coupled with constructive outside mediation efforts, can produce conditions necessary to prevent conflicts from escalating or diffusing, and can facilitate peace-building.'
INTELLIGENCE SERVICE--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS--USA Balancing Liberty and Security : An Ethical Study of U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance, 2001-2009 / by Michelle Louise Atkin. - Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield, 2013. x, 145 pages ; 24 cm. (Security and Professional Intelligence Education Series ; 16) ID number: 80025081 Type: M Call Number: 327.8 /00198 ISBN: 9781442219090 Author(s): 1. Atkin, Michelle Louise Bibliography: p. 137-141. Includes index. 'This book examines the philosophical foundations of information ethics and their potential for application to contemporary problems in US foreign intelligence surveillance. Questions concerning the limits of government intrusion on protected Fourth Amendment rights are examined against the backdrop of the post-9/11 period. Changes to US foreign intelligence surveillance law and policy are analyzed by applying the traditional ethical theories commonly used to support or discount these changes, namely utilitarian and contractarian ethical theories. The resulting research combines both theoretical elements, through its use of analytical philosophy, qualitative research methods, and through its use of legislation, court cases, news media, and scholarship surrounding US foreign intelligence surveillance. Using the USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), and the Terrorist Surveillance Program as case examples, the author develops and applies a normative ethical framework based on a legal proportionality test that can be applied to future cases involving US foreign intelligence surveillance. The proportionality test developed in this research, which is based on a modified version of the Canadian Oakes Test, seeks to balance legitimate concerns about collective security against the rights of the individual. As a new synthesis of utilitarian and contractarian ethical principles, the proportionality test laid out in this book has the potential for application beyond US foreign intelligence surveillance. It could act as a guide to future research in other applied areas in information policy research where there is a clear tension between individual civil liberties and the collective good of society. Problems such as passenger screening, racial and ethnic profiling, data mining, and access to information could be examined using the framework developed in this study.'
INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES The Opening Up of International Organizations : Transnational Access in Global Governance. - Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press, 2013. xv, 316 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025079 Type: M Call Number: 4 /00117 ISBN: 9781107042230 Bibliography: p. 286-309. Includes index. 'Once the exclusive preserve of member states, international organizations have become increasingly open in recent decades. Now virtually all international organizations at some level involve NGOs, business actors and scientific experts in policy-making. This book offers the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of this development. Combining statistical analysis and in-depth case studies, it maps and explains the openness of international organizations across issue areas, policy functions and world regions from 1950 to 2010. Addressing the question of where, how and why international organizations offer transnational actors access to global policy-making, this book has implications for critical issues in world politics. When do states share authority with private actors ? What drives the design of international organizations ? How do activists
and businesses influence global politics ? Is civil society involvement a solution to democratic deficits in global governance ?'.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA Prosecuting War Crimes : Lessons and Legacies of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. xviii, 241 pages ; 24 cm. (Contemporary Security Studies) ID number: 80025080 Type: M Call Number: 341.4 /00057 ISBN: 9780415827997 Includes index. 'This volume examines the legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which was created under Chapter VII of the UN Charter as a mechanism explicitly aimed at the restoration and maintenance of international peace and security. As the ICTY has now entered its twentieth year, this volume reflects on the record and practices of the Tribunal. Since it was established, it has had enormous impact on the procedural, jurisprudential and institutional development of international criminal law, as well as the international criminal justice project. This will be its international legacy, but its legacy in the region where the crimes under its jurisdiction took place is less clear; research has shown that reactions to the ICTY have been mixed among the communities most affected by its work. Bringing together a range of key thinkers in the field, this book explores these findings and discusses why many feel that the ICTY has failed to fully engage with people's experiences and meet their expectations.'
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Multilateralism. - Brussels : Royal Higher Institute for Defense, 2013. 131 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm. (Focus Paper) ID number: 80025103 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01668
IRAN--FOREIGN RELATIONS Iranian Foreign Policy since 2001 : Alone in the World. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. xiii, 232 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics ; 55) ID number: 80025036 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01662 ISBN: 9780415827430 Bibliography: p. 223-228. Includes index. 'Examining Iranian foreign policy with a focus on the years since 2001, this book analyzes the defining feature of Iran's international and regional posture, its strategic loneliness. It offers an in-depth analysis of the key drivers behind Iran's foreign policy : power, strategic culture, and ideology. In addition, the authors examine Iran's relations with key countries and regions, including its often tenuous relations with China, Russia, and America, as well as its bilateral relations with non-state actors such as Hezbollah. The common thread running throughout the volume is that Iran is alone in the world : regardless of its political maneuverings, the Islamic Republic's regional and international posture is largely one of strategic loneliness. Regrouping contributions from the US, Canada, Europe, and Iran, this book provides an international perspective, both at the theoretical and practical levels.'
KURDS--TURKEY The Kurdish Question in Turkey : New Perspectives on Violence, Representation, and Reconciliation. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. xv, 285 pages ; 24 cm. (Exeter Studies in Ethno Politics) ID number: 80025071 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01344 ISBN: 9780415830157 Includes index. 'Almost three decades have passed since political violence erupted in Turkey's south-eastern regions, where the majority of the country's approximately 20 million Kurds live. In 1984, The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) initiated an insurgency which intensified in the following decades and continues to this day. Kurdish regions in Turkey were under military rule for more than a decade and the conflict has cost the lives of 45,000 people, including soldiers, guerrillas and civilians. The complex issue of the Kurdish question in Turkey is subject to comprehensive examination in this book. It brings together chapters by social theorists, political scientists, social anthropologists, sociologists, legal theorists and ethnomusicologists to provide new perspectives on this internationally significant issue. It elaborates on the complexity of the Kurdish question and examines the subject matter from a number of innovative angles.'
LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD, 1888-1935 Lawrence in Arabia : War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East / by Scott Anderson. - New York : Doubleday, 2013. xii, 577 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm. ID number: 80025069 Type: M Call Number: 92 LAWR/00001 ISBN: 9780385532921 Author(s): 1. Anderson, Scott, 1959Bibliography: p. 543-552. Includes index. 'A thrilling and revelatory narrative of one of the most epic and consequential episodes in twentieth-century history - the Arab Revolt and the secret Great Game to control the Middle East.'
LIBYA--HISTORY--CIVIL WAR, 2011Global NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya : Lessons for Africa in the Forging of African Unity / by Horace Campbell. New York : Monthly Review Press, 2013. 320 p. ; 22 cm. ID number: 80025046 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01842 ISBN: 9781583674130 Author(s): 1. Campbell, Horace Includes index. 'The author investigates here the political and economic crises of the early twenty-first century through the prism of NATO's intervention in Libya. He traces the origins of the conflict, situates it in the broader context of the Arab Spring uprisings, and explains the expanded role of a post-Cold War NATO. This military organization, he argues, is the instrument through which the capitalist class of North America and Europe seeks to impose its political will on the rest of the world, however warped by the increasingly outmoded neoliberal form of capitalism. The intervention in Libya - characterized by bombing campaigns, military information operations, third party countries, and private contractors - exemplifies this new model. The author points out that while political elites in the West are quick to celebrate the
intervention in Libya as a success, the NATO campaign caused many civilian deaths and destroyed the nation's infrastructure. Furthermore, the instability it unleashed in the forms of militias and terrorist groups have only begun to be reckoned with, as the United States learned when its embassy was attacked and personnel, including the ambassador, were killed.'
LIBYA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Sahelistan / by Samuel Laurent. - Paris : Seuil, 2013. 370 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025084 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01347 ISBN: 9782021113358 Author(s): 1. Laurent, Samuel 'Depeche en Libye au debut de l'annee 2012 par un groupe d'investisseurs asiatiques, l'auteur a pour mission de parcourir le pays afin d'evaluer les risques et les opportunites de cette revolution. Il decouvre alors une nation a l'agonie, rongee par la violence et l'anarchie. Les brigades se disputent le pouvoir avec une ferocite inouie, en toute impunite. Les Noirs sont massacres dans l'indifference generale, tandis que les tribus arabes se dechirent pour des rancunes immemoriales. Al-Qaida s'implante en plusieurs endroits. Et la Libye devient le nouvel eldorado des trafiquants. Pourtant, au mepris de tous les dangers, cet intrepide voyageur choisit de s'enfoncer plus avant, dans le desert du Sud et les bastions jihadistes de l'Est, a la rencontre des groupes surarmes qui controlent ces zones ou le mot de frontiere n'a guere de sens. Les interviews qu'il recueille, plus stupefiantes les unes que les autres, donnent pour la premiere fois la parole a ceux qui ont ouvertement choisi de defier l'Occident. Elles permettent de comprendre les veritables raisons de la crise qui desormais embrase toute la region. Comme on l'a deja vu au Mali, l'intervention militaire de la France en Libye a bel et bien ouvert la boite de Pandore : une vaste zone du Sahara, communement appelee le 'Sahelistan', se trouve desormais aux mains de ceux-la-memes qui ont jure notre perte ...'
MALI--HISTORY--COUP D'ETAT, 2012--PARTICIPATION, FRENCH Operation Serval au Mali : l'intervention francaise decryptee. [s.l.] : Lavauzelle, 2013. 123 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025093 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01849 ISBN: 9782702515679 'Declenchee soudainement le 11 janvier 2013, l'operation militaire Serval au Mali n'a pas manque de susciter la surprise : tirant parti de la recomposition des equilibres geopolitiques en Afrique de l'Ouest, la diplomatie francaise s'est appuyee tout a la fois sur le soutien des Etats africains, les reticences americaines a intervenir directement, et l'appui chinois afin de proteger ses otages menaces a Bamako. Dans un contexte marque par le vieillissement de certains materiels et la dangereuse reduction de ses forces prepositionnees, l'armee francaise s'est revelee un outil d'une exceptionnelle reactivite. Avec les operations militaires, la France a brusquement repris conscience des enjeux strategiques de cette region. La politique africaine de la France connaitrait-elle pour autant une inflexion ? Il est difficile de le dire. Zone de transition singuliere, le Sahel s'apparente a une mer ou les Francais ont appris a naviguer depuis pres de cent cinquante ans. La France y retrouve
aujourd'hui une influence stabilisatrice, renouant ainsi avec sa vocation de puissance pacifique. Mais les ecueils y restent nombreux et ne pourront etre surmontes qu'avec une redecouverte des cultures qui en font la singularite.' Notre guerre secrete au Mali : les nouvelles menaces contre la France / by Isabelle Lasserre, Thierry Oberle. - Paris : Fayard, 2013. 247 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm. ID number: 80025087 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /011848 ISBN: 9782213677941 Author(s): 1. Lasserre, Isabelle 2. Oberle, Thierry 'Le 11 janvier 2013, a la stupefaction du grand public qui ne s'attendait pas a ce que la France entre en guerre, de surcroit seule, Francois Hollande declenchait une operation preparee dans le plus grand secret depuis des mois : il fallait reagir a l'avancee des groupes armes de jihadistes installes depuis le debut de l'annee 2012 au Sahel, dans le nord du Mali, progressant en direction de la capitale, Bamako. Des combats, on ne vit rien ou presque : les islamistes furent mis en deroute. Mais aussitot le conflit s'est transforme en une guerilla terroriste. Comment sommes-nous entres en guerre ? Etait-ce vraiment la seule solution pour dejouer les menaces pesant sur les Francais et leurs interets ? Comment regler la question des otages ? La France s'est-elle engagee dans un conflit sans fin ? Pour la premiere fois, une enquete revele les coulisses de cette guerre. Elle conduit le lecteur de l'Elysee au ministere de la Defense, de Bamako a Tombouctou, des mines d'uranium d'Areva au Niger aux circuits de la drogue qui transite par le Sahel vers l'Europe.'
MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE--TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS International Humanitarian Law and New Weapon Technologies. - Milano : FrancoAngeli, 2012. 189 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025101 Type: M Call Number: 355 /00625 ISBN: 9788820405243 34th Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law (Sanremo, 8th-10th September 2011). 'Although there can be no doubt that International Humanitarian Law applies to new weaponry and technological developments, subsuming a new technology under pre-existing rules always raises the question as to whether or not this is sufficient in terms of legal clarity, in view of the specific characteristics of new technology and - above all - the humanitarian impact such technology may have. The book comprises a series of contributions by prominent scholars, experts and practitioners from different countries who extensively explore the legal aspect of an array of new weapons and military technologies that have only recently entered the battlefield or that are now being tested with a view to being used for military purposes in the future. These not only include drones, robots and military outer space technologies, but also cyber-technology and other devices and technologies, all of which raise important legal questions and humanitarian concerns.'
MILITARY PENSIONS--USA A Framework for Restructuring the Military Retirement System / by Roy A. Wallace... [et al.]. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. ix, 35 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025058 Type: M Call Number: 355.2 /00399 ISBN: 1584875801 Author(s): 1. Wallace, Roy A. 2. Lyle, David S. 3. Smith, John Z. 'The current military retirement system has been integral to sustaining the All Volunteer Force (AVF). Mounting federal budget challenges, however, have raised concern that the program may become fiscally unsustainable. While several restructuring proposals have emerged, none have considered the implications of these changes to the broader issue of manning an AVF. Changes to the existing system could create military personnel shortfalls, adversely affect servicemember and retiree well-being, and reduce public confidence in the Armed Forces. With the right analytical framework in place, however, a more holistic system restructuring is possible, one that avoids these negative effects while significantly reducing costs. A comprehensive framework is provided, as well as a proposal that stands to benefit both servicemembers in terms of value and the military in terms of overall cost savings.'
MILITARY PLANNING--USA The Science of War : Defense Budgeting, Military Technology, Logistics, and Combat Outcomes / by Michael E. O'Hanlon. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2009. 266 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80025074 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01706 ISBN: 9780691157993 Author(s): 1. O'Hanlon, Michael E. Includes index. 'The U.S. military is one of the largest and most complex organizations in the world. How it spends its money, chooses tactics, and allocates its resources have enormous implications for national defense and the economy. This book is the only comprehensive textbook on how to analyze and understand these and other essential problems in modern defense policy.'
MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD (EGYPT) The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement / by Carrie Rosefsky Wickham. - Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2013. xviii, 360 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025053 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01345 ISBN: 9780691149400 Author(s): 1. Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky, 1962Bibliography: p. 331-342. Includes index. 'The Muslim Brotherhood has achieved a level of influence nearly unimaginable before the Arab Spring. The Brotherhood was the resounding victor in Egypt's 2011-2012 parliamentary elections, and six months later, a leader of the group was elected president. Yet the implications of the Brotherhood's rising power for the future of democratic governance, peace and stability in the region is open to
dispute. Drawing on more than one hundred in-depth interviews as well as Arabic language sources not previously accessed by Western researchers, the author traces the evolution of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt from its founding in 1928 to the fall of Mubarak and the watershed elections of 2011-2012. Further, she compares the Brotherhood's trajectory with those of mainstream Islamist groups in Jordan, Kuwait, and Morocco, revealing a wider pattern of change. The author highlights the internal divisions of such groups and explores the shifting balance of power among them. She shows that they are not proceeding along a linear path toward greater moderation. Rather, their course has been marked by profound tensions and contradictions, yielding hybrid agendas in which newly embraced themes of freedom and democracy coexist uneasily with illiberal concepts of Sharia carried over from the past. Highlighting elements of movement continuity and change, and demonstrating that shifts in Islamist worldviews, goals, and strategies are not the result of a single strand of cause and effect, the author provides a systematic, fine-grained account of Islamist group evolution in Egypt and the wider Arab world.'
MUSLIMS--BALKAN PENINSULA--HISTORY Les musulmans de l'Europe du Sud-Est : des empires aux etats balkaniques / by Nathalie Clayer, Xavier Bougarel. - Paris : Karthala, 2013. 349 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm. (Terres et Gens d'Islam) ID number: 80025083 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01346 ISBN: 9782811109059 Author(s): 1. Clayer, Nathalie 2. Bougarel, Xavier Bibliography: p. 301-330. Includes index. 'L'Europe du Sud-Est, qui s'etend de la Croatie a la Grece et de l'Albanie a la Bulgarie, compte environ huit millions d'habitants de culture musulmane. Albanais, Bosniaques, Turcs, Roms, ils sont les descendants de populations converties a l'islam ou installees la pendant la periode ottomane. Dans cet ouvrage sont presentees les transformations sociales, politiques et religieuses rencontrees par ces populations aux XIXe et XXe siecles, periode marquee par la disparition des Empires ottoman, austro-hongrois et russe, et par la formation des differents Etats balkaniques. Sur le plan politique, les musulmans de l'Europe du Sud-Est ont connu une lente et complexe cristallisation de leurs identites nationales respectives. Celle-ci s'est acceleree apres 1945 sous les effets de la modernisation communiste et a debouche a la fin du XXe siecle sur des mobilisations nationalistes symbolisees par l'independance de la Bosnie-Herzegovine et du Kosovo, dans le cadre de l'eclatement de l'ex-Yougoslavie. Sur le plan religieux, ils sont longtemps restes lies aux institutions religieuses de l'Empire ottoman, ainsi qu'a divers reseaux scolaires, confreriques et intellectuels. Apres la parenthese communiste, de nouveaux reseaux sont apparus, de type neo-salafiste ou neo-confrerique notamment. Mais les musulmans balkaniques n'ont pas echappe aux processus de secularisation a l'oeuvre dans l'ensemble de l'Europe. Cet ouvrage eclaire ainsi d'un jour nouveau les bouleversements qu'a connus le continent europeen au cours des deux derniers siecles et renouvelle les reflexions actuelles sur la place de l'islam en Europe.'
NATION-BUILDING Political Economy of Statebuilding : Power after Peace. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. xxvii, 388 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in Intervention and Statebuilding) ID number: 80025028 Type: M Call Number: 321 /00883 ISBN: 9780415604789 Bibliography: p. 342-379. Includes index. 'This volume examines and evaluates the impact of international statebuilding interventions on the political economy of conflict-affected countries over the past 20 years. It focuses on countries that are emerging, or have recently emerged, from periods of war and protracted conflict. The interventions covered fall into three broad categories : international administrations and transformative occupations (East Timor, Iraq, and Kosovo); complex peace operations (Afghanistan, Burundi, Haiti, and Sudan); governance and statebuilding programmes conducted in the context of economic assistance (Georgia and Macedonia).'
NATO--ARMED FORCES--LIBYA The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Libya : Reviewing Operation Unified Protector / by Florence Gaub. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. ix, 36 pages ; 23 cm. (Letort Papers) ID number: 80025033 Type: M 496.3 /00434 ISBN: 1584875798 Author(s): 1. Gaub, Florence 'On March 17, 2011, a month after the beginning of the Libyan revolution, with up to dead 2,000 civilians, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) decided on backing a no-fly zone over Libya and authorized 'all necessary measures' to protect civilians. While France, Great Britain, and the United States took immediate military action using air and missile strikes, considerations to hand over military actions to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) emerged within days of the operation. On March 22 2012, NATO agreed to enforce the arms embargo against Libya; 2 days later, it announced to take over all military aspects of the UNSC 1973. On March 31, 2012, Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR (OUP) began. OUP turned out to be one of NATO's shorter, and seemingly also less controversial, missions. Mandated by both the League of Arab States and the UN as the regime of Colonel Qaddafi was launching assaults on peacefully demonstrating citizens, its aim was to protect civilians from the air and sea. Described as a 'war of choice' rather than a 'war of necessity', NATO achieved its goals more by accident than by design, according to some critics. The lessons which can be drawn from OUP are both military and political in nature. The overestimation of air power as a result of 'no boots on the ground' might be a dangerous conclusion for future cases; the lack of cultural advice very likely prolonged the mission, while the shortcomings in strategic communication gave input to improve an area that is still new to NATO. The operation also highlighted a strategic dimension the Alliance was not ready to perceive - that the Mediterranean, and its Southern states, is likely to continue being a source of instability for NATO, particularly after the Arab Spring. In legal terms, the Alliance faced an important communication gap between its legal, and therefore military, mandate the legal interpretations of UNSCR 1973 made clear that the operation did not seek to topple Colonel Gaddafi's regime, let alone assassinate him. Its aim was solely the protection of civilians in a situation of internal conflict, and, therefore, it conformed to the norm of 'Responsibility to Protect'. On the political level, heads of NATO
member states made contradictory remarks calling for Gaddafi's departure, thereby compromising the clarity of the mission. Last but not least, the aftermath of NATO's Libya operation was not planned at all as the Libyan National Transitional Council firmly rejected any military personnel on the ground, not even UN observers. As the regime's security forces had virtually imploded, Libya's security therefore fell into the hands of the multiple militias which continued to proliferate after the conflict had ended.'
NAVIES IHS Jane's Fighting Ships : 2013-2014. - Coulsdon, UK : IHS Global Limited, 2013. 1030 pages : illustrations ; 33 cm. ID number: 80025042 Type: REF Call Number: 623 /00028 REF ISBN: 9780710630483 Includes index.
NIGERIA--ECONOMIC CONDITIONS The Causes of Instability in Nigeria and Implications for the United States / by Clarence J. Bouchat. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. vii, 116 pages ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025088 Type: M Call Number: 321 /00886 ISBN: 158487581X Author(s): 1. Bouchat, Clarence J. 'An understanding of the political economy of Nigeria is needed to reveal the root causes of its many ethnic, religious, economic, and political problems and to address them for the long term. The pressures now weighing on Nigeria could literally fracture the state along deep fault lines if rampant corruption and partisanship continues. As mutually important partners for both of our interests in Africa, the United States should assist in specific but indirect ways to help Nigerians overcome their political economic problems. Within such assistance, the role of the U.S. military is particularly delicate but needed through focused aid to specific programs and sharing of expertise, all best managed through employing units that are regionally aligned to Nigeria or West Africa.'
NON-STATE ACTORS (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS) Non-State Actors and International Humanitarian Law : Organized Armed Groups : A Challenge for the 21st Century. - Milano : FrancoAngeli, 2010. 255 p. ; 23 cm. (Politica Studi ; 85) ID number: 80025094 Type: M Call Number: 341.3 /00237 ISBN: 9788856824278 32nd Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law, Sanremo, 11-13 September 2009. 'This book comprises a series of contributions by well-known scholars and practitioners on the problem of the applicability of international humanitarian law and human rights to the increasing number of non-state actors involved in contemporary armed conflicts. The notion of non-state actors is very broad, covering non-governmental organizations, private military companies as well as rebels, terrorist groups and maritime pirates. A wide spectrum of issues - including the questions of accountability of non-state actors and of the affordability of initiatives which could lead organized armed groups to abide by the existing international norms - is extensively explored
not only from a strictly legal perspective.'
NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--KOREA (NORTH) Negotiating with North Korea : The Six Party Talks and the Nuclear Issue / by Leszek Buszynski. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. 208 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Security in Asia Pacific ; 25) ID number: 80025032 Type: M Call Number: 327.3 /00714 ISBN: 9780415682732 Author(s): 1. Buszynski, Leszek Bibliography: p. 197-204. Includes index. 'The North Korean nuclear threat has created an enormous amount of apprehension in the international community in recent years. In 2003, the Six Party Talks brought together the US, China, Russia, Japan as well as South and North Korea to negotiate a multilateral resolution of this nuclear issue. This book examines this multilateral attempt, and looks at the Six Party Talks as a study of multilateralism, differentiating it from empirical studies on the Korean peninsula. The author discusses the positions of the major players in regard to the Korean Peninsula in terms of their views of multilateralism and their willingness to commit themselves to it. The book goes to question why multilateralism failed to achieve its stated purpose in this instance, and examines how this failure can be resolved in the future.'
NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--USA The Obama Administration's Nuclear Weapon Strategy : The Promises of Prague / by Aiden Warren. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. xiii, 322 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) ID number: 80025034 Type: M Call Number: 327.3 /00715 ISBN: 9780415536042 Author(s): 1. Warren, Aiden Bibliography: p. 279-311. Includes index. 'This book comprehensively outlines and evaluates the key Obama nuclear weapons policies, developments and initiatives from 2008-2012. Beginning with the Administration's vision and goals posited in the 2009 Prague Speech and reaffirmed in the National Security Strategy of 2010, the book assesses the Congressionally mandated Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), the New START Treaty, the pursuit of CTBT ratification, the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT), the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) Review the Conference, the Global Nuclear Security Summit and the extent to Obama in the context of such initiatives, has actually upheld the lofty goals posited in Prague and differentiated himself from the nuclear path pursued by the Bush Administration. Additionally, the book also evaluates the Obama Administration's dealings with other states in the context of its nuclear weapons policy - in particular, North Korea, Iran, Pakistan, India and China.'
NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--IRAN Iran's Nuclear Diplomacy : Power Politics and Conflict Resolution / by Bernd Kaussler. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. ix, 167 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge New Diplomacy Studies) ID number: 80025031 Type: M Call Number: 623 /01183 ISBN: 9780415643856 Author(s): 1. Kaussler, Bernd Bibliography: p. 162-163. Includes index. 'This book examines the dynamics of relations and the substance of the negotiations between the international community and Iran over the latter's nuclear programme. Iran's nuclear programme and the alleged threat to international peace and security remains one of the most important issues in the United States, as well as in European foreign affairs. In the US, Iran has dominated the political discourse for over three decades and Europe has spent considerable political capital in finding a diplomatic solution to Iran's nuclear ambitions. While relations between both states remain subject to mutual hostility, the EU remains a channel of communication and since 2003 has maintained a multilateral negotiation framework. By and large, the narrative on nuclear negotiations is dominated by constructivist and realist literature, portraying relations between the US and Iran in ideological terms as a prolonged struggle for regional influence. Embedded within conflict resolution and diplomatic theory, this work attempts to bridge this gap. Drawing upon primary documents and interviews, the text examines negotiation behaviour and strategies and tools of statecraft, as well as analysing technical aspects of initiatives concerning the nuclear programme.'
NUCLEAR WEAPONS--SECURITY MEASURES Nuclear Weapons Security Crises : What Does History Teach ?. Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. x, 283 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025059 Type: M Call Number: 623 /01185 ISBN: 1584875747 'At the height of the Cultural Revolution a Chinese long-range nuclear missile is fired within the country, and the nuclear warhead it is carrying detonates. A French nuclear device is exploded in Algeria during a coup there. The Soviet empire has collapsed, and shots are fired at a Russian crowd intent on rushing a nuclear weapons-laden plane straining to remove a stash of nuclear weapons to a safer locale. Pakistani civilian governments are routinely pushed aside by a powerful, nuclear-armed military that observers worry might yet itself fall prey to a faction willing to seize a portion of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. This volume reveals previously unknown details on each case and teases out what is to be learned.'
POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION--IRAQ Iraq : Reconstruction Lessons, Politics and Governance. - New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2013. viii, 325 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. (Politics and Economics of the Middle East) ID number: 80025052 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00533 ISBN: 9781626187078 Includes index. 'This book brings together a wealth of information and analysis to identify important lessons learned from the rebuilding program in Iraq; lessons that could help improve significantly the US approach to future stabilisation and reconstruction operations. Drawing from
numerous interviews with past and present Iraqi leaders, senior US policymakers and practitioners, members of Congress, and others who were involved with Iraq, this book lays out in detail the enormous US reconstruction effort, which completed thousands of projects and programs since 2003, but in which there were many lessons learned the hard way. This book describes the challenges, encountered by the soldiers, diplomats, and other civilians who served in Iraq. The nine-year rebuilding program, expended about $60 billion in US taxpayer dollars and billions more in Iraqi funds. Over $25 billion of that was committed to the training and equipping of Iraqi Security Forces, with the balance funding everything from major infrastructure construction in the electricity and water sectors to local governance programs and reconstruction projects.'
POWER RESOURCES--POLITICAL ASPECTS Hydrocarbures et conflits dans le monde : strategies energetiques et enjeux contemporains. - Paris : Editions Technip, 2012. 267 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. (Geopolitique Collection) ID number: 80025085 Type: M Call Number: 620 /00172 ISBN: 9782710810186 Bibliography: p. 227-230. Includes index. 'Les questions energetiques - ou 'l'or noir' tient une place eminente - sont, depuis longtemps, au coeur des enjeux politico-economiques mondiaux. Dans le contexte annonce de la disparition des reserves de petrole et de gaz au XXIe siecle, l'exploitation et les approvisionnements en hydrocarbures sont facteurs de tensions, voire de conflits interetatiques ou intraetatiques. Entre reserves conventionnelles ou non, et exploitation des gisements onshore et offshore, le 'peak oil' est-il une realite ? Quels equilibres se mettent en place entre dependance et securite energetique, securisation des grands reseaux d'echanges - continentaux et maritimes - menaces terroristes et conflits armes, tensions financieres mondiales, partage des mers et droit international ? Les hydrocarbures sont-ils les facteurs declencheurs des futurs conflits ? Cet ouvrage, illustre de 20 cartes thematiques de reference, apporte un eclairage actualise de la complexite de cette question en abordant les bouleversements geopolitiques, la diversite des formes de conflits associee a ces ressources, les enjeux strategiques des grands axes d'approvisionnement. La transition energetique est engageee, de nouveaux equilibres se mettent en place, modifiant les perspectives et l'equilibre geostrategique mondial, a l'horizon 2030. Une mutation profonde des rapports de force dans le domaine de l'energie est d'ores et deja amorcee.'
PRESS--FRANCE--DIRECTORIES Mediasig 2013 : l'essentiel de la presse et de la communication. 39eme ed. - Paris : Documentation Francaise, 2013. 541 pages ; 21 cm. ID number: 80025097 Type: M Call Number: 07 /00046 ISBN: 9782110092144 Includes index. 'Cet ouvrage propose un panorama des medias nationaux et de la presse etrangere en France ainsi qu'un apercu des services de communication du Gouvernement et des services publics.'
PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES Private Military and Security Companies. - Milano : FrancoAngeli, 2013. 191 pages ; 23 cm. (Politica Studi) ID number: 80025100 Type: M Call Number: 355.2 /00401 ISBN: 9788820452278 35th Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law (Sanremo, 6th-8th September 2012). 'Private military and security companies have been operating for several years now in different situations of local or regional insecurity, also in support of international peacekeeping operations, and have even been directly or indirectly involved in armed conflicts. The involvement of private actors in armed conflict is not at all a new phenomenon. The presence of private contractors on the theatre of hostilities has historically been a fact of life. However, during the last decade the involvement of PMSCs in armed conflicts evolved tremendously in scale and function thus increasing their impact on the humanitarian domain. The book includes the contributions submitted by international experts, scholars and practitioners to the XXXV Round Table on current issues of international humanitarian law. They tackle a number of crucial questions concerning international humanitarian law and private military and security companies, inter alia, the status, rights and obligations of PMSCs, their clients and employees, and the regime of responsibility under international law.'
PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES--EUROPE Commercialising Security in Europe : Political Consequences for Peace Operations. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. xi, 228 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. (PRIOR New Security Studies) ID number: 80025091 Type: M Call Number: 355.2 /00400 ISBN: 9780415509886 Includes index. 'This book examines the political consequences of European security commercialisation through increased reliance on private military and security companies (PMSCs). The role of commercial security in the domestic setting in Europe is widely acknowledged; after all, the biggest private security company globally - G4S Group - has its roots in Scandinavia. However, the use of commercial security contracting by European states for military purposes in international settings is mostly held to be marginal. This book examines the implications of commercialisation for the peace and reconciliations strategies of European states, focussing specifically on European contracting in Afghanistan. Drawing upon examples from Scandinavia, Central Europe and Continental Europe, each chapter considers three key factors : the national contexts that give security contracting in Afghanistan its meaning; the national contracting practices; the political consequences for the operation in Afghanistan.'
RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA, SUB-SAHARAN Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa / by Keir Giles. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. vii, 51 pages ; 23 cm. (Letort Papers) ID number: 80025057 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01665 ISBN: 1584875879 Author(s): 1. Giles, Keir 'An apparent lack of interest by Russia in Sub-Saharan Africa over recent years masks persistent key strategic drivers for Moscow to re-establish lost influence in the region. A preoccupation with more immediate foreign policy concerns has temporarily interrupted a process of Russia reclaiming relationships that were well-developed in the Soviet period in order to secure access to mineral and energy resources which are crucial to Russia's economic and industrial interests, as well as both existing and new markets for military arms contracts. Russian policy priorities in Africa provide both challenges and opportunities for the U.S. in fields such as nuclear nonproliferation, as well as energy security for the United States and its European allies. Russian development of key resources in southern Africa should be observed closely. Russian trade with the region is significantly underdeveloped, with the exception of the arms trade, which Russia can be expected to defend vigorously if its markets are challenged, including by the prospect of regime change or international sanctions. At the same time, Russia and the United States have a shared interest in restricting the freedom of movement of terrorist organizations in ungoverned or lightly governed spaces in Africa, which opens potential for cooperation between AFRICOM initiatives and Russian presence in the region. Russian diplomatic and economic activity in southern Africa should receive continuing attention from U.S. policymakers due to its direct relevance to a number of U.S. strategic concerns.'
SAUDI ARABIA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN Saudi Arabia and Iran : Soft Power Rivalry in the Middle East / by Simon Mabon. - London : I. B. Tauris, 2013. 298 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025030 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01661 ISBN: 9781780763118 Author(s): 1. Mabon, Simon Bibliography: p. 269-290. Includes index. 'Focusing on the 'soft power' aspects of foreign policy formation (as opposed to 'hard power'), the author draws a nuanced picture of the diplomatic and international relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, and the ways in which each state has sought to attain a leading position in both the Middle East and Muslim world. He therefore looks at the ways in which each state has a tendency to provide support for identity groups that threaten the security of the other regime, such as Iran's support for the Shi'a of Saudi Arabia, or Saudi Arabia's attempts to strengthen ties with the ethnic Arabs in Iran. With analysis of this heated and often uneasy relationship and its impact on the wider Middle East, this book is vital for those researching international relations and diplomacy in the region.'
SECURITY, INTERNATIONAL Securitization and the Iraq War : The Rules of Engagement in World Politics / by Faye Donnelly. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. xii, 196 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Critical Security Studies Series) ID number: 80025065 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01843 ISBN: 9780415518116 Author(s): 1. Donnelly, Faye, 1982Bibliography: p. 157-192. Includes index. 'This book critiques the conceptualization of security found in mainstream and critical theoretical debates, and applies this to the empirical case of the 2003 Iraq War. The Iraq War represents one of the most puzzling, complex, and controversial events in the post-Cold War era. The manner in which the Bush administration finally decided to hold Saddam Hussein accountable through military intervention provoked a worldwide outcry due to the narratives they constructed to justify the 'pre-emptive use of force' and 'enhanced interrogation techniques'. Responding to constructivist and post-structuralist scholars' calls for a turn to discourse, and aligning its argument with critical security studies, particularly the Copenhagen School (CS), this book conceptualizes language as a pivotal mechanism of power. Adopting a Wittgensteinian approach, it moves away from thinking about the nexus between security and language from a single action, or speech act, to a series of actions or interactions. To illustrate this new approach, the author examines two cases in particular : the UN inspectors' finding that there was no credible evidence that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in early 2003 and the Abu Ghraib scandal in 2004. Both events show that the boundaries and relations between securitized rules and environments are not pre-given but produced in a particular language game.'
STRATEGY Strategic Survey : 2013 : The Annual Review of World Affairs. Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. 396 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80025072 Type: REF Call Number: 355.4 /00015 REF ISBN: 9781857436938 'This book analyses the events and themes of the year region by region. It includes essays on the nuclear arms race between Pakistan and India, and on the potential for greater cooperation in European defence. The Strategic Geography section includes maps on the withdrawal of military assets from Afghanistan, on international activities in the Antarctic, and on international involvement in the war in Syria. The book also contains a chronology of key events around the world.'
SYRIA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN The Syria-Iran Axis : Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations in the Middle East / by Nadia von Maltzahn. - London : I. B. Tauris, 2013. xi, 272 pages : illustrations; 23 cm. (Library of Modern Middle East Studies ; 137) ID number: 80025076 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01667 ISBN: 9781780765372 Author(s): 1. Maltzahn, Nadia von, 1983Bibliography: p. 251-264. Includes index. 'Since the Iranian revolution of 1979, the close alliance between Syria and Iran has endured for over three decades, based on geopolitical interests between the two states and often framed in the language of resistance. In view of their strong relationship at a state-level, what have Syria and Iran each been doing to foster popular exchange and employ cultural tools to build an image in the other country ? This book examines the motivations, content and reach of cultural diplomacy between Syria and Iran to determine to what degree the two partners have been successful in bridging their world views and political outlooks.'
SYRIA--HISTORY--PROTESTS, 2011Attacks on Ghouta : Analysis of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria. - [s.l.] : Human Rights Watch, 2013. iii, 21 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm. ID number: 80025104 Type: M Call Number: 623 /01186 ISBN: 9781623130534 'This report documents two alleged chemical weapons attacks on the opposition-controlled suburbs of Eastern and Western Ghouta, located 16 kilometers apart, in the early hours of August 21, 2013. Human Rights Watch analyzed witness accounts of the rocket attacks, information on the likely source of the attacks, the physical remnants of the weapon systems used, and the medical symptoms exhibited by the victims as documented by medical staff. The evidence concerning the type of rockets and launchers used in these attacks strongly suggests that these are weapon systems known and documented to be only in the possession of, and use by, Syrian government armed forces.'
TANKS (MILITARY SCIENCE) IHS Jane's Land Warfare Platforms. Armoured Fighting Vehicles : 2013-2014. - Coulsdon, UK : IHS Global Limited, 2013. 939 pages : illustrations ; 33 cm. ID number: 80025039 Type: REF Call Number: 623 /00231 REF ISBN: 9780710630865 Includes index.
TERRITORIAL WATERS--EAST CHINA SEA East Asia's Maritime Territorial Disputes : Claims and Considerations for the United States. - New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2013. viii, 191 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. (Asian Political, Economic and Security Issues) ID number: 80025067 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00530 ISBN: 9781626183728 Includes index. 'This book discusses the current tensions surrounding numerous maritime territorial disputes in East Asia which have become a pressing challenge for US foreign policy makers. Beginning around 2005-2006, long-disputed waters in the South China Sea and, more recently, the East China Sea have become the site of increasingly aggressive behaviour from nations trying to strengthen claims to disputed areas or to explore and develop offshore energy and fishery resources. The tensions have been fed by a series of aggressive actions by maritime authorities, including harassing vessels, destroying equipment, and blockading islets and shoals. The increasing frequency of such events raises the possibility of miscalculations that could lead to overt conflict at sea. It also poses complex questions about security and US diplomacy in the region, and represents one of the most complicated challenges for the Obama administration's strategy for 'rebalancing' foreign policy towards the Asia-Pacific.'
TERRORISM The Terrorist's Dilemma : Managing Violent Covert Organizations / by Jacob N. Shapiro. - Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2013. xi, 335 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025077 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01348 ISBN: 9780691157214 Author(s): 1. Shapiro, Jacob N. Bibliography: p. 272-322. Includes index. 'How do terrorist groups control their members ? Do the tools groups use to monitor their operatives and enforce discipline create security vulnerabilities that governments can exploit ? This is the first book to systematically examine the great variation in how terrorist groups are structured. Employing a broad range of agency theory, historical case studies, and terrorists' own internal documents, the author provocatively discusses the core managerial challenges that terrorists face and illustrates how their political goals interact with the operational environment to push them to organize in particular ways.'
TERRORISM--SAHEL Sahel : eclairer le passe pour mieux dessiner l'avenir. - Bruxelles : GRIP, 2013. 134 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm. (Livres du GRIP ; 305-306) ID number: 80025099 Type: M Call Number: 323 /01349 ISBN: 9782872910366 'L'intervention de l'armee francaise en janvier 2013 a ramene le Mali sur nos ecrans radar. Jusque-la, qui se souciait de cette societe aux apparences democratiques, pourtant gangrenee par une corruption endemique, le clientelisme, des trafics en tous genres ? Un pays au coeur de l'Afrique noire et aux portes de l'Europe ... happe par la mouvance islamiste. Si l'action militaire a permis de repousser les djihadistes, l'insecurite gagne du terrain et risque de destabiliser une bonne partie de l'Ouest africain. En ce sens, le cas malien ne peut etre compris qu'en le replacant dans son contexte regional. Le present ouvrage s'inscrit dans cette 'vision sans frontieres'. Les auteurs nous replongent dans le passe, s'interessent aux Touaregs du Niger et leurs migrations, a l'enracinement de la criminalite d'Etat et aux mouvements islamistes au Mali, aux populations nomades du Sahel ... D'autres chapitres analysent la politique exterieure de l'Algerie, les politiques de securite americaine et europeenne, ou encore une experience originale en Mauritanie : la repentance chez les djihadistes. Un dernier texte est enfin consacre a la question qui s'impose apres les recents soubresauts : comment imaginer revivre ensemble ? Le Sahel ne doit pas retomber dans l'oubli !'
TURKEY--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AZERBAIJAN Turkey's Entente with Israel and Azerbaijan : State Identity and Security in the Middle East and Caucasus / by Alexander Murinson. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2010. x, 219 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics ; 19) ID number: 80025048 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01666 ISBN: 9780415853187 Author(s): 1. Murinson, Alexander Bibliography: p. 201-212. Includes index. 'With the end of the Cold War came a new political instability in Turkey and a shift in relations with the West, leading Turkey to adopt new foreign policies and force alliances with neighboring states. This book offers a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the trilateral relationship between Turkey, Israel and Azerbaijan. Drawing both on first-hand interviews and on research not previously available in the English language, the author brings a new perspective to the study of the relationship between the three countries. In particular he examines the commonalities of state identities that brought the countries together, the role of state institutions, the security dimension and the influence of globalization. In a period of growing concerns about European energy security, the book provides an extensive discussion of the activites carried out by various think tanks, especially in Washington, regarding the regional and domestic politics of the three countries.'
UNITED NATIONS The UN and Human Rights : Who Guards the Guardians ? / by Guglielmo Verdirame. - Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press, 2011. lvi, 448 pages ; 23 cm. (Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law ; 82) ID number: 80025043 Type: M Call Number: 40 /00200 ISBN: 9781107617476 Author(s): 1. Verdirame, Guglielmo Bibliography: p. 398-428. Includes index. 'Through an analysis of UN operations - including international territorial administration, refugee camps, peacekeeping, the implementation of sanctions and the provision of humanitarian aid the author shows that the powers exercised by the UN carry a serious risk of human rights abuse. The International Law Commission has codified and developed the law of institutional responsibility, but, while indispensable, these principles and rules cannot on their own ensure compliance and accountability. The 'liberty deficit' of the UN, and of other international organisations, remains an urgent legal and political problem. Some solutions may be available; indeed, recent state and institutional practice offers interesting examples in this respect. But at a fundamental level we need to ask whether the power shift from states to international organisations really advances liberty.'
USA--ARMED FORCES Inside Defense : Understanding the U.S. Military in the 21st Century. - Houndmills, UK : Palgrave MacMillan, 2013. xxi, 279 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025035 Type: M Call Number: 355.2 /00398 ISBN: 9781137343000 Includes index. 'War, revolutionary protests, and humanitarian relief operations across the world have catapulted the military onto front pages and TV reports everywhere and every day. While the military's unique mission is to defend freedom by 'fighting and winning the nation's wars', it has increasingly been charged with non-warfighting and foreign policy responsibilities. Because the military has been so active in so many places and with such a variety of missions, this book brings together scholars, policy experts and practitioners to provide a comprehensive view of the US military to understand the military's role in international politics and its relationship with domestic institutions and society.'
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS Local Interests and American Foreign Policy : Why International Interventions Fail / by Karl Sandstrom. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2013. xii, 175 pages ; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy) ID number: 80025051 Type: M Call Number: 341.2 /00534 ISBN: 9780415659543 Author(s): 1. Sandstrom, Karl, 1975Bibliography: p. 157-172. Includes index. 'This book provides an alternative perspective on how social interest-groups form and interact to affect interventions. It combines historic, sociological and international relations perspectives in a framework through which to view the relevant socio-political dynamics in 'target societies'. At a time when American foreign policy seeks to
redefine its objectives and its methods of intervention, the monolithic ideological assumptions of the state as the panacea to all social ailments, both as a format and a vehicle of norm delivery, seemingly dooms American foreign policy and European allies, to the repetition of old mistakes. In environments where interests and priorities are shaped on a highly localised basis, interventionist agendas often lack relevant meaning. The book focuses in particular on the contrast between the assumptions inherent in 'Western' interventionist strategies and social interest formation in Afghanistan, Somaliland, and Somalia. Based on extensive fieldwork, the book draws on available literature and on interviews with local population or international aid and development workers. The conclusion is that in the cases examined, the agency of local interest groups largely controls the outcome of external strategies.'
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--MIDDLE EAST The Dispensable Nation : American Foreign Policy in Retreat / by Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr. - New York : Doubleday, 2013. 300 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm. ID number: 80025066 Type: M Call Number: 327 /01663 ISBN: 9780385536479 Author(s): 1. Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza, 1960Includes index. 'Former State Department advisor for Afghanistan and Pakistan Vali Nasr delivers a sharp indictment of America's flawed foreign policy and outlines a new relationship with the Muslim world and with new players in the changing Middle East. In this book, the author argues that the Obama administration had a chance to improve its relations with the Middle East, but instead chose to pursue its predecessor's questionable strategies there. The author takes readers behind the scenes at the State Department and reveals how the new government's fear of political backlash and the specter of terrorism crippled the efforts of diplomatic giants, like Richard Holbrooke and Hillary Clinton, to boost America's foundering credibility with world leaders. Meanwhile, the true economic threats, China and Russia, were quietly expanding their influence in the region. And a second Arab Spring is brewing - not a hopeful clamor for democracy but rage at the United States for its foreign policy of drones and assassinations. Drawing on his in-depth knowledge of the Middle East and firsthand experience in diplomacy, the author offers a powerful reassessment of American foreign policy that directs the country away from its failing relationships in the Middle East (such as with Saudi Arabia) toward more productive, and less costly, partnerships with other foreign allies (such as Turkey).
USA--NATIONAL SECURITY A Thorn in Transatlantic Relations : American and European Perceptions of Threat and Security / by Mary N. Hampton. - New York : Palgrave MacMillan, 2013. x, 206 pages ; 23 cm. (Palgrave Studies in Governance, Security, and Development) ID number: 80025047 Type: M Call Number: 355.4 /01844 ISBN: 9781137343260 Author(s): 1. Hampton, Mary N. Includes index. 'Americans and Europeans perceive threat differently. Americans remain more religious than Europeans and generally still believe their nation is providentially blessed. American security culture is relatively stable and includes the deeply held belief that existential threat in
the world emanates from the work of evil-doers. The U.S. must therefore sometimes intervene militarily against evil. The European Union (EU) security culture model differs from traditional European iterations and from the American variant. The concept of threat as evil lost salience as Western Europe became more secularist. Threats became problems to manage and resolve. The upsurge in anti-immigrant and anti-foreigner sentiment in the midst of economic crisis undermines this model.'
USA. AFRICA COMMAND AFRICOM at 5 Years : The Maturation of a New U.S. Combatant Command / by David E. Brown. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2013. x, 111 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. (Letort Papers) ID number: 80025055 Type: M Call Number: 355.3 /00128 ISBN: 1584875828 Author(s): 1. Brown, David E. 'The U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), newest of the six U.S. Department of Defense geographic combatant commands (CCMDs), was created in 2007 amid great controversy in both Africa and the United States over its location and mission. Over the last 5 years, AFRICOM has matured greatly, overcoming much of the initial resistance from African stakeholders through careful public messaging, and by addressing most of the U.S. interagency concerns about the Command's size and proper role within the U.S. national security/foreign policy community. This paper describes the geostrategic, operational, and intellectual changes that explain why AFRICOM was created, and debunks three myths about AFRICOM : that it was created to 'exploit' Africa's oil and gas riches, 'blocks' China's rise in Africa, and that France 'opposes' AFRICOM. The author concludes by raising five issues that are important to AFRICOM's future : 1) allocated forces to carry out short-term training engagements in Africa; 2) preference to emerging democracies in the selection of the Command's partner-nations; 3) the desirability of regional approaches in Africa, including helping the African Union and its Regional Economic Communities to establish standby brigades; 4) the location of the Command's headquarters, which should remain in Stuttgart, Germany, for operational efficiency; and, 5) the need to carry out a top-down 'right-sizing' exercise at AFRICOM during a time of severe budget constraints and a real risk for the United States of 'strategic insolvency'.'
WAR Proxy Warfare / by Andrew Mumford. - Cambridge, UK : Polity, 2013. ix, 141 pages ; 22 cm. (War and Conflict in the Modern World) ID number: 80025075 Type: M Call Number: 355 /00624 ISBN: 9780745651187 Author(s): 1. Mumford, Andrew, 1983Bibliography: p. 129-139. Includes index. 'Proxy wars represent a perennial strand in the history of conflict. The appeal of 'warfare on the cheap' has proved an irresistible strategic allure for nations through the centuries. However, proxy wars remain a missing link in contemporary war and security studies. In this book, the author sheds new light on the dynamics and lineage of proxy warfare from the Cold War to the War on Terror, whilst developing a cogent conceptual framework to explain their appeal. Tracing the political and strategic development of proxy wars throughout the last century, they emerge as a dominant characteristic
of contemporary conflict. The book ably shows how proxy interventions often prolong existing conflicts given the perpetuity of arms, money and sometimes proxy fighters sponsored by third-party donors. Furthermore, it emphasizes why, given the direction of the War on Terror, the rise of China as a global power, and the prominence now achieved by non-state actors in the Arab Spring, the phenomenon of proxy warfare is increasingly relevant to understandings of contemporary security.' War from the Ground Up : Twenty-First Century Combat as Politics / by Emile Simpson. - London : Hurst, 2012. x, 284 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. ID number: 80025056 Type: M Call Number: 355 /00623 ISBN: 9781849042550 Author(s): 1. Simpson, Emile Includes index. 'This book presents a discussion of the concept of war in its contemporary context, specifically in terms of the conflict in Afghanistan. The tension that animates the argument throughout the book is the distinction between these practices : first, the use of armed force within a military domain that seeks to establish military conditions for a political solution, a practice traditionally associated with the concept of war; second, the use of armed force that directly seeks political, as opposed to specifically military, outcomes, which lies beyond the scope of war in its traditional paradigm.'
WOMEN AND PEACE Gender, Governance and International Security. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2014. xiv, 171 pages ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025070 Type: M Call Number: 355 /00622 ISBN: 9780415829151 Includes index. 'The United Nations Security Council, in 2000, unanimously passed a resolution calling for women's increased participation in conflict prevention and peace-building, as well as their protection during conflict. This marked the first time that the UN Security Council explicitly addressed gender issues in 'conflict' and 'post-conflict' situations. But what difference has this international agenda on 'Women, Peace and Security' made to women's lives on the ground and to the governance of international peace and security ? This volume provides a critical evaluation of the mainstreaming of gender issues in matters of international peace and security resulting from the passage of Resolution 1325 in 2000. It considers how this agenda actually plays out in different contexts, and the implications for women's activism and for peace and security. The picture that emerges is not uniform, obliging us to reconsider the links between gender, conflict, different visions of peace and, consequently, different projects of peacebuilding. Thus, the book poses new questions for transnational feminist scholars and activists.'
WORLD POLITICS The Statesman's Yearbook : The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World : 2014. - 150th ed. - Houndmills, UK : Palgrave MacMillan, 2013. xxvii, 1570 p. : ill.; 26 cm. ID number: 80025073 Type: REF Call Number: 321 /00065 REF ISBN: 9780230377691 Includes index. Ramses 2014 : rapport annuel mondial sur le systeme economique et les strategies. - Paris : Dunod, 2013. 349 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm. ID number: 80025096 Type: REF Call Number: 338.9 /00287 REF ISBN: 9782100589364 Includes index.
Journal Articles Articles de revues
AFGHAN WAR, 2001Afghanistan : une sortie de guerre aleatoire / by Jean-Charles Jauffret., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 49-66.) ID Number: JA029564 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Jauffret, Jean-Charles International coalition troops will pull out of Afghanistan in 2014, 13 years after the launch of Operation Enduring Freedom. The achievements of these 13 years are admittedly mediocre. Often conducted outside international law and marked by blunders and abuse of detainees, the War on Terror - far from 'winning hearts and minds' as America's strategists had hoped - has instead resulted in an enduring hatred of foreign troops on the part of most Afghans. All the more so because the intervention also installed the corrupt regime of Hamid Karzai in the seat of power in Kabul. State-building has failed in a country where ethnic and religious affiliations are stronger than ever on the ground, and where the Taliban and the warlords rule. Drugs production has never been higher. And while Al Qaeda has been pushed back, it has certainly not spoken its last. Would it be an exaggeration to call this a fiasco ? System Failure : The Underlying Causes of US Policy-Making Errors in Afghanistan / by Matt Waldman., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 825-843.) ID Number: JA029597 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Waldman, Matt The United States intervention in Afghanistan since 2001 has brought progress in some areas, but the conflict has expanded, the Taliban remains powerful, and misgovernance and predation are widespread. Afghan national security forces - the linchpin of the coalition's exit strategy - offer no guarantee of future stability. Many accounts describe the mistakes that led to this predicament. This article attempts to explain why these mistakes were made by examining their underlying or structural causes. Based on 51 interviews with officials and experts, it identifies major US policy-making errors with respect to state-building, military activities and diplomacy. It argues that there are four principal underlying causes of such errors, relating to organizations, leadership and strategic thinking, psychology, and domestic politics. It finds that there were severe shortcomings in the acquisition and processing of information and a lack of institutional self-evaluation; civilian and military leaders made major strategic misjudgments in mistaking the strategy for the goal, overestimating the efficacy of military force or resources, and drawing false lessons from history or analogous cases such as Iraq; leaders were predisposed to overconfidence and oversimplification; and, at the highest level,
policies were distorted by domestic politics. The article contends that the cumulative impact of these shortcomings was sufficient to seriously disrupt the functioning of the foreign policy-making system. It argues that action is required to improve US information gathering and assessment, systematize institutional self-evaluation, build regional expertise, establish mechanisms to understand the motivations and perceptions of other actors, and increase awareness of decision-makers' cognitive flaws and biases.
AFRICA, NORTH--ARMED FORCES Apres les revolutions, des armees maghrebines face a une double transition / by Said Haddad., 2013. (REVUE INTERNATIONALE ET STRATEGIQUE, no. 91, automne 2013, p. 29-37.) ID Number: JA029668 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Haddad, Said La sequence des 'revolutions arabes', enclenchee en 2011, a souligne la diversite des roles tenus par les armees dans ces bouleversements. Au Maghreb, la diversite du positionnement des armees peut s'expliquer par l'etat des relations civilo-militaires et par l'organisation des armees. Par ailleurs, le contexte regional pese egalement sur le positionnement et l'engagement des forces armees sur la scene politique regionale et domestique. L'articulation de ces trois elements est ainsi discutee dans cet article. L'hypothese centrale est que - a l'exception de la Libye - les armees maghrebines sont appelees a jouer un role majeur au lendemain de la sequence de 2011 et en cette periode de double transition, tant a l'interieur des systemes nationaux qu'au niveau regional.
ALGERIA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Algerie : l'apres-Boutteflika a commence / by Luis Martinez., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 147-159.) ID Number: JA029567 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Martinez, Luis With major uncertainties still surrounding the state of Abdelaziz Bouteflika's health, Algeria is wracked with doubt. Only one thing is certain : the legacy of the aged president, who has been in power since 1999, is meager indeed. He admittedly succeeded in reconciling the opposing forces in the civil war that tore apart the country in the 1990s. But behind the image of a stable and prosperous regime lie serious economic, political and social problems. The country is overly dependent on oil, its institutions are weak, the educational system is adrift, there is massive youth unemployment and endemic corruption. All these handicaps undermine the foundations of the country's future development and exacerbate tensions. Fifty years after independence, the Algerian people aspire to be rid of 'the generation of '62', the so-called 'liberators' who have proved unable to lead the country along the path to modernization. Above all, however, they hope to avoid re-plunging into violence.
ANTIMISSILE MISSILES--ISRAEL Israel et la defense anti-missile / by Jean-Loup Samaan., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 69-84.) ID Number: JA029653 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Samaan, Jean-Loup Le dispositif de defense antimissile israelien, developpe des le milieu des annees 80 avec l'aide americaine, est aujourd'hui l'un des plus sophistiques au monde. Les dynamiques de la proliferation au Moyen-Orient constituent indeniablement un motif de cette entreprise. Pour autant, l'etude de l'institutionnalisation de la defense antimissile en Israel met en lumiere des tensions toujours saillantes dans la culture strategique nationale, culture longtemps orientee autour de capacites offensives militaires comme moyen de dissuasion de ses ennemis. A cet egard, la recherche israelienne d'un point d'equilibre entre offensive et defensive qui fasse des systemes de defense antimissile non pas un substitut mais un complement a ses capacites de dissuasion offre des pistes de reflexion precieuses pour les pays europeens en general et la France en particulier. Israel et la defense anti-missile / by Jean-Loup Samaan., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 69-84.) ID Number: JA029630 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Samaan, Jean-Loup Le dispositif de defense antimissile israelien, developpe des le milieu des annees 80 avec l'aide americaine, est aujourd'hui l'un des plus sophistiques au monde. Les dynamiques de la proliferation au Moyen-Orient constituent indeniablement un motif de cette entreprise. Pour autant, l'etude de l'institutionnalisation de la defense antimissile en Israel met en lumiere des tensions toujours saillantes dans la culture strategique nationale, culture longtemps orientee autour de capacites offensives militaires comme moyen de dissuasion de ses ennemis. A cet egard, la recherche israelienne d'un point d'equilibre entre offensive et defensive qui fasse des systemes de defense antimissile non pas un substitut mais un complement a ses capacites de dissuasion offre des pistes de reflexion precieuses pour les pays europeens en general et la France en particulier.
ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--ASIA The Promise of Involvement : Asia in the Arctic / by Olav Schram Stokke., 2013. (STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, vol. 37, no. 4, July - August 2013, p. 474-479.) ID Number: JA029576 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Stokke, Olav Schram This article argues that deeper Asian involvement in Arctic affairs can only strengthen international governance efforts in key areas like sustainable development, safety at sea, and environmental protection, whereas the potential drawbacks are modest. The author reviews the main concerns voiced regarding outside influence over Arctic affairs, and then shows that effective governance of this region will require active support by non-Arctic states within a range of global institutions. Thereafter he asks whether such support can be generated by deeper non-Arctic involvement in the work of the Arctic Council. The final section summarises the argument and draws some conclusions relevant to policy decisions by the states involved.
ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--CHINA La Chine en Arctique : strategie raisonnee ou approche pragmatique ? / by Olga V. Alexeeva, Frederic Lasserre., 2013. (ETUDES INTERNATIONALES, vol. 44, no. 1, mars 2013, p. 25-41.) ID Number: JA029617 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Alexeeva, Olga V. 2. Lasserre, Frederic Depuis quelques annees, de nombreux articles de presse et textes d'analystes predisent un regain de tension dans l'Arctique, dans ce qui serait une course a l'appropriation des espaces maritimes. Dans cette course, la Chine chercherait a se poser en acteur incontournable. Nombre d'analyses mettent l'accent sur les ambitieux projets chinois dans la region et sur le potentiel destabilisateur de ces ambitions. En realite, si le gouvernment chinois semble preciser, depuis peu, une politique arctique, rien ne laisse entendre que la Chine va contester les revendications des pays riverains ou chercher a imposer un coup de force pour s'emparer des ressources supposees de la region.
ARCTIC REGIONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Sovereignty Is the Key to Russia's Arctic Policy / by Pavel K. Baev., 2013. (STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, vol. 37, no. 4, July - August 2013, p. 489-493.) ID Number: JA029579 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Baev, Pavel K. This article focuses on the crucial importance of issues pertaining to sovereignty in Russian policy-making, while starting with examining the revised evaluations of Arctic resources and continuing with assessing the usefulness of military build-up.
ARCTIC REGIONS--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION The Arctic : Potential for Conflict amidst Cooperation / by Sarabjeet Singh Parmar., 2013. (STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, vol. 37, no. 4, July - August 2013, p. 480-485.) ID Number: JA029577 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Parmar, Sarabjeet Singh
ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--CHINA Transformation of China's Policy on Disarmament / by Yuri Belobrov., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (Minneapolis), vol. 59, no. 3, 2013, p. 40-56.) ID Number: JA029573 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Belobrov, Yuri
ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--MIDDLE EAST The Future of Arms Control in the Middle East., 2013. (MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL, vol. 67, no. 3, Summer 2013, p. 426-436.) ID Number: JA029591 Type: ART
ARMS TRANSFERS--CHINA China's Arms Transfers to Africa and Political Violence / by Ian Taylor, Zhengyu Wu., 2013. (TERRORISM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE, vol. 25, no. 3, July - August 2013, p. 457-475.) ID Number: JA029583 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Taylor, Ian 2. Wu, Zhengyu Chinese arms sales to Africa have increased in recent years. In a region beset by conflict and unstable regimes, and where arms sales are a significant and positive predictor of an increased probability of political violence, this is inherently problematic. The sale of weaponry to a regime in Khartoum caught up in an alleged 'genocide' in Darfur, the awkward appearance in 2008 of a Chinese ship loaded with weapons bound for Mugabe's Zimbabwe off the coast of eastern Africa, and the recent exposure in 2011 that Chinese arms companies offered to sell around $200 million worth of arms to Muammar Gaddafi's regime are emblematic of an issue in Africa's political violence that needs analysis. This article seeks to discuss the rationale behind China's arms sales to Africa and the effect that they have had on political violence in recipient countries. It also provides an analysis of the supply-and-demand circumstances of Chinese arms transfers to Africa, Beijing's attempts to control such transfers, and evidence that Chinese policies on proliferation are (slowly) evolving.
BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION The Barents Cooperation : Region-Building and New Security Challenges / by Rune Rafaelsen., 2013. (STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, vol. 37, no. 4, July - August 2013, p. 486-488.) ID Number: JA029578 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rafaelsen, Rune The Barents Cooperation has become an important contribution to rapprochement in the High North and a platform for improved cross-border relations. How can these experiences be used to improve general East-West relations in the North of Europe, as well as more generally in other regions with closed or troubled borders ?
CHECHNYA (RUSSIA)--HISTORY--CIVIL WAR, 1994Chechnya and Kashmir : The Jihadist Evolution of Nationalism to Jihad and Beyond / by George Garner., 2013. (TERRORISM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE, vol. 25, no. 3, July - August 2013, p. 419-434.) ID Number: JA029582 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Garner, George This article examines the transformation of the Chechen conflict from a predominately nationalist to jihadist struggle, and compares the similar changes that took place in the Kashmiri insurgency. Using global jihadist strategy and ideology, and the accompanying influence of Al Qaida, both conflicts are shown to have taken on a new ideology and to have expanded beyond previous areas of operation. In both instances, the political leadership wrapped themselves in the mantle of political Islam (Islamism) as ensuing violence led to rapid socioeconomic transformation and social breakdown, thus allowing foreign jihadists to exert power and take up/divert the cause. In the past few years, two main groups originating in Chechnya and Kashmir have taken on Western targets and become more indoctrinated in Al
Qaida's global jihadist ideology : the Caucasus Emirate (CE) and Lashkaar-e Taiba (LeT). The opportunist franchising strategy of Al Qaida could come to play a role in the future of both groups, especially if the CD is able to coalesce into a more unified front. More importantly, the global jihadist attributes of the CE must begin to garner the same attention in the Western world as that of LeT.
CHINA--ARMED FORCES Le renouvellement de la Commission militaire centrale chinoise / by Delphine Richard., 2013. (POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 78, no. 2, ete 2013, p. 141-153.) ID Number: JA029683 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Richard, Delphine Apres d'intenses tractations, le 18e Congres du Parti communiste chinois a nomme les 11 nouveaux membres de la Commission militaire centrale (CMC), organe de commandement de l'Armee populaire de liberation. La nouvelle composition de cette CMC reflete les profondes mutations en cours au sein de l'appareil militaire chinois modernisation de son armement, autonomisation de ses diverses composantes - et, dans une moindre mesure, l'evolution de la relation entre le Parti et l'armee.
CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS Beyond Win-Win : Rethinking China's International Relationships in an Era of Economic Uncertainty / by Brantly Womack., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 911-928.) ID Number: JA029600 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Womack, Brantly China is the least disadvantaged major economy in the current era of global economic uncertainty. Thus it is becoming the focus of attention of its neighbours and is achieving a prominence in the world political economy unparalleled in its modern history. To a great extent, China's success is the result of 'good neighbour diplomacy' such as 'win-win' and the policies of reform and openness of the past thirty years. However, despite continuity in policy, China's 'peaceful leap forward' since 2008 has changed the context of its external relationships. The increasing asymmetries between China and its neighbours, as well as decreasing asymmetry with the United States, require an adjustment of win-win values beyond mutual benefit to credible reassurance. As China's neighbours become more dependent, they also become more anxious concerning their interests. Meanwhile, China's relative gain the US requires a different kind of confidence-building diplomacy.
CONVENTIONAL ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT--EUROPE Conventional Arms Control in Europe : Old Problems, New Solutions / by Oleg Shakirov., 2013. (SECURITY INDEX, vol. 19, no. 3, Summer 2013, p. 13-22.) ID Number: JA029663 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Shakirov, Oleg The issue of conventional arms control in Europe (CACE) remains a subject of debate. How should the borders of 'Europe' be defined ? What are the weapons categories that should fall under CACE arrangements ? What should be the procedure for revising or amending the list of controlled weapons to make sure that the CACE regime is effective and up to date ? The paper offers an analysis of the
complexities facing any future CACE regime. It also looks at the proposals being made by various international players, with a special emphasis on the political aspects, including Russian policy in this field.
COUNTERINSURGENCY Learning in Counterinsurgency : What Do We Really Know ? / by James Hasik., 2013. (DEFENSE & SECURITY ANALYSIS, vol. 29, no. 3, September 2013, p. 203-217.) ID Number: JA029651 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hasik, James Since the publication in 2002 of John Nagl's 'Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife', organizational learning has been widely presumed an important ingredient for success in counterinsurgency. But sampling the literature from before and after this time shows remarkably little analytical treatment of the issue of learning and even confusion over what it may mean. This article considers the theories, hypotheses, research strategies, threats to validity, methods of measurement, treatments of time, and general lack of statistical analysis in the work to date and recommends a course for future research.
COUNTERINSURGENCY--AFGHANISTAN The Limits of Counterinsurgency Doctrine in Afghanistan : The Other Side of the COIN / by Karl W. Eikenberry., 2013. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 92, no. 5, September - October 2013, p. 59-74.) ID Number: JA029620 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Eikenberry, Karl W.
COUNTERINSURGENCY--CANADA From Medusa Past Kantolo : Testing the Effectiveness of Canada's Enemy-Centric and Population-Centric Counterinsurgency Operational Strategies / by Eric Jardine, Simon Palamar., 2013. (STUDIES IN CONFLICT AND TERRORISM, vol. 36, no. 7, July 2013, p. 588-608.) ID Number: JA029581 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Jardine, Eric 2. Palamar, Simon Canada's counterinsurgency in Kandahar province, Afghanistan, involved two distinct operational strategies : an initial enemy-centric strategy and, after 2009, a population-centric strategy. Using insurgent-initiated attacks against civilians as a measure for the level of control and security provided by the counterinsurgency, this article tests the effectiveness of these two strategies using a quasi-experimental research design. The article finds that a population-centric counterinsurgency strategy that aimed to provide security to the population rather than destroy the insurgency resulted in the most controlled and secure environment for the civilian population. To the extent that a secure civilian population is important for successful counterinsurgency, the post-2009 population-centric operational strategy of the Canadian Forces, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and the United States increased the chances of a successful counterinsurgency in Afghanistan.
COUNTERINSURGENCY--GREAT BRITAIN Institutions, Organizational Culture, and Counterinsurgency Operations : Why Do States Fight Similar Insurgencies Differently ? / by Marc R. DeVore., 2013. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 32, no. 3, July - August 2013, p. 169-191.) ID Number: JA029603 Type: ART Author(s): 1. DeVore, Marc R. This article expands our understanding of how states respond militarily to threats and challenges by examining how organizational culture and institutional policymaking structures shape states' use of force. To evaluate the explanatory power of culture and institutions, the author analyzes the effect of each variable on how the United Kingdom and France conduct counterinsurgency operations. To preview the conclusions, although both organizational culture and institutional structures provide insights into how states fight insurgencies, institutional structures are much more decisive in shaping outcomes. In states where policymaking institutions promote maximal political control of the armed forces, the result will be strategic satisficing, whereby restricted force is surgically employed, along with diplomacy, to achieve the state's limited goals while minimizing the risks of casualties and/or escalation. Contrarily, in states where institutions accord operational autonomy to the armed forces, commanders will pursue their preference for decisive military victory by applying overwhelming force and conducting operations that risk escalating conflicts. In contrast to institutions, organizational culture plays a more modest role, limited to shaping how military leaders initially conceptualize the challenges they face and the techniques they employ at the tactical level. Thus, institutional structures, rather than organizational culture, offer a more convincing argument for why similar states, facing comparable challenges, use force in systematically different ways. Myth and the Small War Tradition : Reassessing the Discourse of British Counter-Insurgency / by David Martin Jones, M. L. R. Smith., 2013. (SMALL WARS AND INSURGENCIES, vol. 24, no. 3, July 2013, p. 436-464.) ID Number: JA029615 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Jones, David Martin 2. Smith, M. L. R. In recent years a number of commentators have posited that the British reputation for conducting small wars has suffered in the wake of setbacks in Iraq and Afghanistan. The argument here contests whether such a tradition can be truly said to have ever existed. A close examination of this supposed tradition reveals it to be a myth. In fact, rarely have the British armed forces claimed a facility for counter-insurgency or small war. invariably, commentators in the United States keen to discern practices of minimum force or rapid institutional learning generated the narrative of British COIN expertise. Ultimately, what this myth reveals is that, when deconstructed, it is political will, not an ingrained understanding of fighting insurgencies, that has determined Britain's success, or otherwise, in so-called small wars.
COUNTERINSURGENCY--USA Reflections on the Counter-Insurgency Era / by David H. Petraeus., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 82-87.) ID Number: JA029629 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Petraeus, David H. In his Chesney Gold Medal acceptance speech, David Petraeus argues that insurgency will remain a challenge to Western militaries, and so the lessons of the past decade will endure.
CYBERTERRORISM The Sophistication Criterion for Attribution : Identifying the Perpetrators of Cyber-Attacks / by Clement Guitton, Elaine Korzak., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 62-68.) ID Number: JA029628 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Guitton, Clement 2. Korzak, Elaine In the wake of Stuxnet, there has been an increasing tendency on the part of politicians and analysts to see the sophistication of a cyber-attack as an indication of its perpetrator. Indeed, the more sophisticated the attack, the more sophisticated the attacker, thereby pointing to a state actor as the culprit - or so it is argued. However, the authors note the lack of clarity and inconsistency around the term 'sophistication', contending that it is context-dependent and therefore that it cannot be used unquestioningly in identifying the perpetrator of a cyber-attack.
CZECH REPUBLIC--FOREIGN RELATIONS Coping with U.S. and EU's Challenges ? Strategic Confusion in the Czech Foreign and Security Policy / by Nik Hynek., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 373-385.) ID Number: JA029657 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hynek, Nik This article traces developments in the Czech political elite's thinking about structural changes that the region and the country have experienced during the last several years. It is argued that two parallel, external structural constraints have significantly shaped decisions of the Czech political elite as the country has, once again, proven to be an ostensibly 'reactive state'. These structural constraints have been the ongoing US recalibration of its grand strategy as well as the financial crisis with a systemic challenge to the European political project in which fiscal and monetary issues have largely replaced previous criticism of the Constitutional Treaty and then the Reform Treaty. It is argued that these developments have posed a notable problem for two predominant ideological convictions present in the Czech political thinking - Atlantism and Europeanism, as neither of them has offered readily answers to deal with such a challenge. As will be shown, this mutually reinforcing dual challenge has further exacerbated previously existing Czech government's lack of political vision, and resorted to a political mentality which has contained elements of denial, rationalization, and political resignation.
DISENGAGEMENT (MILITARY SCIENCE) Ending the War in Afghanistan : How to Avoid Failure on the Istallment Plan / by Stephen Biddle., 2013. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 92, no. 5, September - October 2013, p. 49-58.) ID Number: JA029619 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Biddle, Stephen
DRONE AIRCRAFT--FRANCE Actualite des drones / by Benoit d' Aboville., 2013. (COMMENTAIRE, vol. 36, no. 143, automne 2013, p. 485-492.) ID Number: JA029669 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Aboville, Benoit d' Personne ne conteste, a la lumiere des operations militaires en Afghanistan, en Libye et, aujourd'hui, au Mali, que la France ait pris du retard dans le domaine des drones militaires. Elle se propose donc d'acheter des plateformes americaines 'Reaper' tout en se faisant le promoteur d'une cooperation europeenne pour la generation suivante de ces systemes. De son cote, l'Administration Obama, aux prises avec la controverse sur la pratique d''assassinats cibles a distance' effectues dans le cadre de la politique antiterroriste, peine a definir le cadre juridique et les implications internationales de l'utilisation des drones armes. Le debat sur les drones, en raison de la revolution strategique qu'engendrent leurs capacites, mais egalement des limites et ambiguites inherentes a leur utilisation, aussi bien militaire que civile, s'invite en Europe.
EU--CFSP The Role of Ideas in EU Responses to International Crises : Comparing the Cases of Iraq and Iran / by Benjamin Kienzle., 2013. (COOPERATION AND CONFLICT, vol. 48, no. 3, September 2013, p. 424-443.) ID Number: JA029637 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Kienzle, Benjamin This article examines how cognitive and normative ideas influence the ability of the European Union (EU) to formulate common policies in response to international crises such as the 2002-2003 Iraq crisis and the Iranian nuclear crisis (since 2002). It argues that in crisis situations, i.e. in highly uncertain circumstances, ideas often become the principal guide for policy-makers. More specifically, ideas foster interpretations of a crisis along several core themes : above all, how the crisis issue is perceived, which means are deemed to be legitimate and/or effective and, depending on the particular crisis, how other relevant themes are seen, e.g. the appropriate relationship with the United States. Thus, the formulation of common EU crisis response depends on the convergence of these interpretations in Member States as in the Iran crisis. On the contrary, if Member States' interpretations diverge beyond a common 'ideational space' - as in the case of Iraq - dissonance will be the probable outcome.
EU--CROATIA Le 28eme membre du club / by Jean-Arnault Derens, Laurent Geslin., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 249-261.) ID Number: JA029571 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Derens, Jean-Arnault 2. Geslin, Laurent On July 1, 2013, Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union. Its accession has hardly been greeted by cheers of enthusiasm. The other EU members have been generally indifferent to this tiny state, whose demographic and economic significance is minimal, with a population of 4 million and GDP equivalent to just 0.33% of the EU total. Croatians themselves are equally unenthusiastic. Skeptical for quite some time that membership will bring a better standard of living, they fear instead it will weaken their economy, due to pressure from Brussels to liberalize. Either way, the fact remains that Croatia is an intrinsically European country and its integration is entirely normal. What remains to be seen is whether Zagreb will close the door behind it, or leave it open for its Balkan neighbors Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania and Kosovo - who also aspire to join the 'club'.
EU--CSDP--GREAT BRITAIN The UK, the EU and European Security : A German Perspective / by Ronja Kempin, Jocelyn Mawdsley., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 32-36.) ID Number: JA029625 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Kempin, Ronja 2. Mawdsley, Jocelyn While German commentators and politicians are primarily concerned with the economic impact of a possible 'Brexit' and the loss of a partner in EU economic negotiations, David Cameron's speech has also raised questions about the future of European security. For some in Berlin, the CSDP is unworkable without British participation; for others, the removal of the British veto would enable progress on CSDP institutions, long desired by Berlin. Here, the authors explore the apparent contradictions in German security policy, and the (possible unwelcome) opportunities a Brexit might open up for Germany in relation to the CSDP. No One Left Behind ? European Defence and 'Brexit' / by Marcin Terlikowski., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 26-30.) ID Number: JA029624 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Terlikowski, Marcin One of Poland's primary aims during its presidency of the EU in 2011 was to generate greater momentum towards reform of the CSDP - an objective it continues to seek as national defence budgets are cut across Europe. The author argues that instead of removing the main obstacle to greater defence collaboration in Europe - widely perceived to be British intransigence - a 'Brexit' would weaken efforts in this regard.
EU--CSDP--OPERATIONS The Logic Underpinning EU Crisis Management Operations / by Benjamin Pohl., 2013. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 22, no. 3, September 2013, p. 307-325.) ID Number: JA029639 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Pohl, Benjamin The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) epitomises the EU's aspirations to be a key actor in global security. The logic underlying the policy, however, remains contentious. In order to elucidate the latter, this article compares the plausibility of different theoretical frameworks. It suggests that liberal IR theory offers considerable explanatory power in this respect, and argues that the decisive forces behind CSDP operations are governmental interests as defined by domestic expectations. European governments' shared interest lies in being perceived to effectively further national interests and domestically held values. Yet, this preoccupation with domestic politics also entails and explains CSDP's often-noted inconsistencies and constraints.
EU--ENLARGEMENT Europe : l'elargissement, jusqu'ou ? / by Yves Gounin., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 215-226.) ID Number: JA029570 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Gounin, Yves On July 1 Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union. The EU has continued to expand since its creation in 1957, spawning a certain malaise as to whether this could dilute the European identity. Yet the question of Europe's borders must be addressed one day or another. Will Turkey, Ukraine and Russia eventually join ? There is a risk that these expansions undermine the unity of the original vision. The reform of European institutions - designed for a six-nation Europe and incapable of functioning smoothly with a Europe that now counts 27 states and possibly 35 in the future - is an incredibly thorny issue. For nearly 20 years, the Treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon have instituted cosmetic and insufficient reforms. The EU faces a strong temptation to agree to new requests for membership, which are flattering testimony to its power of attraction. But sometimes, the best response is to just say 'no' ...
EU--ESDP--EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY Not Another 'Grand Strategy' : What Prospects for the Future European Security Strategy ? / by Ion Berindan., 2013. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 22, no. 3, September 2013, p. 395-412.) ID Number: JA029642 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Berindan, Ion The article advocates that the current proposals for a new European security strategy aim to a similar or even more ambitious strategy than the original 2003 one, calling in effect for a European 'grand strategy' in world affairs. Taking into account the original aims and consequent results of the initial European security strategy and related documents, it argues that the European Union (EU) was not and is still not prepared to undertake a security project of such scope due to severe limitations in terms of structure, capabilities and learning curve, now and in the near future. Rather than insisting with an approach that produced very little, the EU should abandon the traits of a grand strategy in favour of a more realistic and restrained project that could focus on security matters in its
neighbourhood including the problematic Russian and Turkish issues while relying on better transatlantic relations and true multilateralism.
EU--MOLDOVA The EU's Post-Liberal Approach to Peace : Framing EUBAM's Contribution to the Moldova-Transnistria Conflict Transformation / by Vanda Amaro Dias., 2013. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 22, no. 3, September 2013, p. 338-354.) ID Number: JA029640 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Dias, Vanda Amaro This article analyses what may be termed as the European Union's (EU) post-liberal approach to the Moldova-Transnistria conflict. Since 2003, within the ENP framework, the EU has become increasingly committed to its transformation. Such an engagement is further confirmed by the establishment of the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) in 2005, aimed at building confidence between the parties, stimulate their economic interdependence and change perceptions about the conflict. The mission's outcomes are moving beyond its technical scope, supporting the conflict peaceful transformation. The focus on bottom-up initiatives and local engagement allows for a broader understanding of the complex dynamics underlying the conflict, which together with the high-level negotiation process may provide a holistic approach to its resolution and increase the likelihood to reach a sustainable settlement.
EUROPE--NATIONAL SECURITY Explaining European Security Policy., 2013. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 34, no. 2, August 2013, p. 350-416 (several articles).) ID Number: JA029677 Type: ART
FRANCE--MILITARY POLICY Setting the Tone : The 2013 French White Paper and the Future of European Defence / by Luis Simon., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 38-44.) ID Number: JA029626 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Simon, Luis The 2013 French defence White Paper presents a strategic analysis and capability assessment that address the pressing concerns posed by austerity cuts to defence budgets, instability in Europe's neighbourhood, and US rebalancing towards the Asia-Pacific. It proposes ways in which France - and Europe - can remain strategically relevant in this changing environment. In doing so, argues the author, the White Paper provides a useful blueprint for the European Council meeting in December 2013.
ILLEGAL ARMS TRANSFERS How the Private Sector Can Do More to Prevent Illicit Trade / by Daniel Salisbury., 2013. (ARMS CONTROL TODAY, vol. 43, no. 6, July - August 2013, p. 22-28.) ID Number: JA029587 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Salisbury, Daniel Efforts to make companies more aware of illicit procurement attempts and strengthen the firms' ability to identify suspicious inquiries are proving crucial in the battle to prevent proliferation. Involving entire supply chains, rather than individual companies, greatly magnifies the impact of this approach.
INFORMATION WARFARE (INTERNATIONAL LAW) Searching for International Rules Applicable to Cyber Warfare : A Critical First Assessment of the New Tallinn Manual / by Dieter Fleck., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND SECURITY LAW, vol. 18, no. 2, Summer 2013, p. 331-351.) ID Number: JA029610 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fleck, Dieter The new Tallinn Manual on International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare represents an important professional achievement which is, however, less than comprehensive. The Manual deliberately focuses on (international and non-international) armed conflict, whereas the prohibition of intervention below the threshold of armed attack is not discussed in detail. Dealing with a phenomenon that may arise in future but has hardly occuured so far in the practice of states and non-state actors, the Manual refrains from addressing legal problems of cyber security outside armed conflicts in a systematic manner. It does so even at the risk of misunderstandings for users who may tend to military action in situations where such action would be unlawful, whereas law enforcement and political cooperation would be required. Relevant issues including state sovereignty and sovereign immunity, accountability for cyber operations, effects of armed conflicts on rules applicable in peacetime and criminal jurisdiction are of practical significance in the context of cyber operations and need to be further elaborated. As far as the jus in bello is concerned, the Manual explains important principles and rules as applicable to cyber warfare, but it also takes some controversial positions and thus challenges further efforts to develop best practice standards for the conduct of military operations, solve interoperability problems and address policy issues in a convincing manner. Efforts to improve cyber security in international cooperation deserve to be continued.
INFORMATION WARFARE--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Cyberwarfare and Russian Style of Cyberdefense / by Oleg Demidov., 2013. (SECURITY INDEX, vol. 19, no. 3, Summer 2013, p. 67-71.) ID Number: JA029665 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Demidov, Oleg A clash of nations on a virtual battlefield - in cyberspace - is no longer a fantasy. Cyberespionage, cybersabotage, and other hostile cyberoperations have become a fact of life. They have recently been exemplified by the outbreaks of the Stuxnet, Red October and Flame malware, which mainly targeted Iran, as well as a recent wave of DDoS attacks against US financial institutions. Cyberwars are knocking on the doors of a growing number of countries - but the cyberspace itself still remains a battlefield without rules or restrictions. The article offers an analysis of the current state of cyberthreats and the dangers posed by confrontation in cyberspace. It also looks at Russia's current and future steps to strengthen its cyberdefenses.
INSURGENCY--SUDAN Low-Intensity Conflict in Eastern Sudan : A Comparative Approach to the Development of Rebel Groups / by Saskia Baas., 2013. (SMALL WARS AND INSURGENCIES, vol. 24, no. 3, July 2013, p. 518-535.) ID Number: JA029616 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Baas, Saskia This article discusses the development of a low-intensity conflict in Sudan's eastern region between 1994 and 2006. Drawing on data collected in the region in 2009, recruitment processes within three different insurgent groups are analysed and compared, paying attention to the impact of these processes on insurgents' organisational development and military capacity. The peace process in Eastern Sudan is further discussed, focusing specifically on the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes for former insurgents. The article finally discusses current developments and draws conclusions regarding the risk of renewed rebellion in Eastern Sudan.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND China and the IMF : From Mimicry Towards Pragmatic International Institutional Pluralism / by Peter Ferdinand, Jue Wang., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 895-910.) ID Number: JA029599 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Ferdinand, Peter 2. Wang, Jue The International Monetary Fund was the international financial institution that was most alien to the Chinese government when it embarked upon its economic reforms at the end of the 1970s, because financial markets were neglected in China's centralized plan. Therefore, China's increasing cooperation with the IMF illuminates the extent to which China has changed through 'socialization' into the norms of global governance more generally. The article examines the evolution of China's involvement with the IMF and argues that in many respects it has embraced those norms. Even though its political economy still substantially diverges from western prescriptions, many features are compatible with the (original) 'Washington Consensus'. But China remains wary of becoming too dependent on possible IMF assistance; it tries to preserve its freedom of manoeuvre. Although
the IMF has attempted to acknowledge China's growing global importance by increasing its voting rights, this has failed to keep pace with change in the global economy. China is thus attracted by the possibility of additional ways of pragmatically increasing its leverage over global decisions, for instance through regional financial cooperation in Asia.
IRAN--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Who Is Ali Khamenei ? The Worldview of Iran's Supreme Leader / by Akbar Ganji., 2013. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 92, no. 5, September - October 2013, p. 24-48.) ID Number: JA029618 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Ganji, Akbar
ISLAM AND POLITICS--AFRICA, SUB-SAHARAN Relire la geographie de l'islam subsaharien / by Maud Lasseur., 2013. (COMMENTAIRE, vol. 36, no. 143, automne 2013, p. 501-507.) ID Number: JA029671 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lasseur, Maud Avec l'operation Serval au Mali, l'enlevement de la famille Moulin-Fournier au Cameroun, les attentats perpetres par Boko Haram au Nigeria, l'annee 2013 semble marquer le basculement de l'Afrique soudano-sahelienne dans l'espace du chaos islamiste. Si l'on en croit les medias, l'islamisation de la societe et son glissement vers le radicalisme seraient les traits saillants des evolutions touchant l'islam subsaharien, dont on avait pourtant pris l'habitude de souligner le caractere tolerant et syncretique. Une lecture geographique, precise et nuancee, permet un regard moins caricatural sur les transformations qui caracterisent l'islam au sud du Sahara.
ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM--ASIA, CENTRAL On the Brink : The Emergence of Militant Islam in Central Asia / by Luke Falkenburg., 2013. (SMALL WARS AND INSURGENCIES, vol. 24, no. 3, July 2013, p. 375-393.) ID Number: JA029613 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Falkenburg, Luke Since Operation Enduring Freedom, Central Asian militants, such as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, have fled to Pakistan from their previous strongholds in Afghanistan. However, many militants have begun returning to Central Asia. Thus questions are raised as to what extent militancy has the potential to thrive with the pending North Atlantic Treaty Organization withdrawal from Afghanistan set for 2014 ? Is militancy a legitimate security threat to Central Asia ? What strategies might militants implement ? Thus, this article examines the current state of militancy, analyzes militant trends, introduces Afghanistan and Pakistan into the Central Asian equation, and determines the militants' capability and overall strategy. The article concludes that militant Islam, regardless of its current numbers, remains a viable threat to regional security, Afghanistan will be an essential factor for the future of Central Asian militancy, and the form this re-emergence will take becomes apparent.
JIHAD Jihad or Qatal ? Examining Al Qaeda's Modus Operandi / by Shireen K. Burki., 2013. (DEFENSE & SECURITY ANALYSIS, vol. 29, no. 3, September 2013, p. 234-252.) ID Number: JA029652 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Burki, Shireen K. There is widespread acknowledgment that the modus operandi of jihadis affiliated with Al Qaeda and associated movements (AQAM) relies on brutal terror-inducing tactics which, more often than not, target Muslim and non-Muslim non-combatants. This article comparatively analyzes the AQAM modus operandi within the traditional stipulations of Islamic precepts with respect to waging jihad al saghir. The purpose is to glean whether or not such tactics such as suicide bombings, declaring fellow Muslim apostates in order to kill them, use of IEDs and EFPs to target civilians, constitute legitimate rules of engagement in jihad al saghir.
JORDAN--FOREIGN RELATIONS--SYRIA Le verrou jordanien / by Laurent Zecchini., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 101-112.) ID Number: JA029565 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Zecchini, Laurent Countries across the region are worried about the consequences if Bashar al Assad should be deposed, which may lead to the fragmentation of Syria and the emergence of political-military groups with varying degrees of affinity with radical Islam. Jordan is in the eye of the storm. It has yet to be directly affected, but its 370 kilometers of borders with Syria position it on the front lines should the conflict spread further. As a strategic domino, the Hashemite kingdom continues to benefit from US support. But Abdullah II should not fool himself : if the United States should come to see the Islamist advance as ineluctable, it would not hesitate to drop its Jordanian ally, just as it did Hosni Moubarak in Egypt. King Hussein ruled Jordan for 46 years, but times have changed. Although the Islamic opposition has yet to attain the critical mass that could tip the balance of power in its favor, King Abdullah II is not protected from a possible 'velvet Spring'
KOREA (NORTH)--POLTICS AND GOVERNMENT Dediaboliser la Coree du Nord ? / by Pascal Dayez-Burgeon., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 215-226.) ID Number: JA029569 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Dayez-Burgeon, Pascal The archetypical rogue state, North Korea systematically ignores its commitments and toys with world peace by threatening a nuclear strike against its southern neighbor, against Japan, and even against the Hawaiian islands. It stops at nothing, neither terrorism, nor arms dealing nor even, according to Washington, drug trafficking and money laundering. This moral condemnation is perfectly justified, but at the same time constitutes a dual admission of impotence. Denouncing the Pyongyang regime doesn't help understand how it continues to survive despite nearly universal opposition. Nor does stigmatizing the regime help explain why North Korea wins each of the standoffs that oppose it against the international community. The time is ripe to try and understand the inner workings that enable the regime of Kim Jong-un to last and go toe to toe with the rest of the world. This understanding
is the only way to possible reverse the situation and negotiate more effectively with him.
KOSOVO (REPUBLIC)--INTERNATIONAL STATUS Afraid of a 'Kosovo Scenario' : A Disquieting Precedent for International Conflict Management / by Marta Vrbetic., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 308-334.) ID Number: JA029646 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Vrbetic, Marta The UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) represented an interim settlement that permitted conflict de-escalation while postponing the search for a lasting political solution. The final settlement should have been reached through negotiations between Belgrade and the Kosovo Albanians, and then endorsed by the UN Security Council, in accordance with the UN Resolution 1244 (1999). However, citing the ambiguity of the interim agreement and a deadlock in the negotiations, the United States and its allies recognized Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence in February 2008, thereby allowing the Kosovo Albanians to defect from the peace process. Therefore, instead of an internationally endorsed negotiated outcome, there has been an attempt at a unilaterally enforced political settlement, in disregard for the authority of the UN Security Council, which had placed Kosovo under international administration. The subsequent involvement of the International Court of Justice has failed to resolve the contentious issues between Belgrade and Prishtina or bridge the international divide over Kosovo. Besides creating a troublesome legal precedent, the recognition of Kosovo represents a bad model for international conflict management. The issues of concern are the viability of future interim settlements, good faith negotiations and the legitimacy and guarantees provided by the international involvement, including the authority of the UN Security Council. Some parallels are drawn between Kosovo and other territorial disputes, particularly in the Caucasus, indicating how the Kosovo case could influence other conflicts.
LIBYA--HISTORY--CIVIL WAR, 2011The Permanence of Inconsistency : Libya, the Security Council, and the Responsibility to Protect / by Aidan Hehir., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, vol. 38, no. 1, Summer 2013, p. 137-159.) ID Number: JA029595 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hehir, Aidan Many observers heralded the Security Council-sanctioned intervention in Libya in March 2011 as evidence of the efficacy of the responsibility to protect (R2P). Although there is no doubt that the intervention was significant, the implications of Resolution 1973 are not as profound as some have claimed. The intervention certainly coheres with the spirit of R2P, but it is possible to situate it in the context of a trajectory of Security Council responses to large-scale intrastate crises that predate the emergence of R2P. This trajectory is a function of the decisionmaking of the five permanent members of the Security Council (P5), a group guided by politics and pragmatism rather than principles. As a consequence, the Security Council's record in dealing with intrastate crises is characterized by a preponderance of inertia punctuated by aberrant flashes of resolve and timely action impelled by the occasional coincidence of interests and humanitarian need, rather than an adherence to either law or norms. The underlying factors that contributed to this record of inconsistency - primarily the P5's veto power - remain post-Libya, and
thus the international response to intrastate crises likely will continue to be inconsistent. A Model Humanitarian Intervention ? Reassessing NATO's Libya Campaign / by Alan J. Kuperman., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, vol. 38, no. 1, Summer 2013, p. 105-136.) ID Number: JA029594 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Kuperman, Alan J. NATO's 2011 humanitarian military intervention in Libya has been hailed as a model for implementing the emerging norm of the responsibility to protect (R2P), on grounds that it prevented an impending bloodbath in Benghazi and facilitated the ouster of Libya's oppressive ruler, Muammar al-Qaddafi, who had targeted peaceful civilian protesters. Before the international community embraces such conclusions, however, a more rigorous assessment of the net humanitarian impact of NATO intervention in Libya is warranted. The conventional narrative is flawed in its portrayal of both the nature of the violence in Libya prior to the intervention and NATO's eventual objective of regime change. An examination of the course of violence in Libya before and after NATO's action shows that the intervention backfired. The intervention extended the war's duration about sixfold; increased its death toll approximately seven to ten times; and exacerbated human rights abuses, humanitarian suffering, Islamic radicalism, and weapons proliferation in Libya and its neighbors. If it is a 'model intervention', as senior NATO officials claim, it is a model of failure. Implementation of R2P must be reformed to address these unintended negative consequences and the dynamics underlying them. Only then will R2P be able to achieve its noble objectives.
MALI--HISTORY--COUP D'ETAT, 2012 Le Mali entre l'ONU et l'Europe / by Georges-Marie Chenu., 2013. (COMMENTAIRE, vol. 36, no. 143, automne 2013, p. 509-514.) ID Number: JA029672 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Chenu, Georges-Marie L'armee francaise ayant mis en fuite des groupes jihadistes conquerants, le Conseil de securite a lance une 'Mission multidimensionnelle integree des Nations unies pour la stabilisation au Mali (MINUSMA). Le bilan des operations onusiennes etant, dans l'ensemble, peu convaincant, on peut s'interroger sur les chances de cette nouvelle mission de paix. Or, point positif, il a ete tenu compte des erreurs passees. La nouvelle mission est dotee de pouvoirs et de moyens appropries. Cela suffira-t-il ? Beaucoup dependra des responsables locaux, de leur sens de l'interet general et de l'adresse de la Communaute internationale - en fait quatre acteurs principaux : ONU, France, Union europeenne, Etats-Unis, qui sont tres attaches a leur liberte d'action. Enfin, autre question, le Mali est-il bien la seule cible ? Nomads, Islamists, and Soldiers : The Struggles for Northern Mali / by Lawrence E. Cline., 2013. (STUDIES IN CONFLICT AND TERRORISM, vol. 36, no. 8, August 2013, p. 617-634.) ID Number: JA029673 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cline, Lawrence E. Mali has been faced with a series of uprisings by its Tuareg over a number of years. Although each of these rebellions was ended by a cease-fire, the Malian government never succeeded in instituting
longer term peace agreements. The 2012 Tuareg rebellion has presented even more significant security threats. The environment in northern Mali now is marked by multiple armed groups, with multiple competing agendas. This complex situation, with Tuareg rebels, Islamists with varying goals, and local militias, with a pattern of varying levels of cooperation and conflict, will at best be very difficult to resolve in the long term. Combined with an almost complete security vacuum in northern Mali on the part of the government, this situation could be intractable even with external intervention. At the same time, the focus on counterterrorism in northern Mali may not be conducive to a long-term resolution of what in reality is a much more complicated security environment.
MEDIATION Mediation and Conflict Prevention / by Gerald Eisenkopf, Andre Bachtiger., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION, vol. 57, no. 4, August 2013, p. 570-597.) ID Number: JA029584 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Eisenkopf, Gerald 2. Bachtiger, Andre Mediation is a popular process to prevent conflicts over common resources, but there is little clean insight into its effectiveness and mechanisms. The authors' experimental approach allows for a comprehensive analysis of third-party intervention into potential conflicts and circumvents key problems linked to the analysis of field data. A mediator who credibly threatens punishment in the case of uncooperative behavior achieves the efficient solution in most cases. Similar results are obtained even if the mediator is biased toward one party or has no incentive to intervene. When cooperation fails, communication without credible punishment threats leads to particularly low payouts for the 'losing' party. Mediation and Peacekeeping in Civil Wars / by J. Michael Greig, Nicolas Rost., 2013. (CIVIL WARS, vol. 15, no. 2, June 2013, p. 192-218.) ID Number: JA029634 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Greig, J. Michael 2. Rost, Nicolas The occurrence of outside mediation and peacekeeping has increased exponentially since the end of the Cold War. But how do third-party states and international organizations decide which civil wars to intervene in ? And how do they decide whether to mediate talks between the warring parties or to send peacekeepers ? In this study, the authors propose that third parties are influenced by their interests in a civil war country, they take into account the urgency a civil war poses, and they shy away from particularly challenging civil wars. Empirical tests confirm some of these hypotheses but also yield some contrary results. In contrast to much of the empirical literature, which has mostly treated different conflict management tools separately, this study combines two of the most important aspects of international conflict management - mediation and peacekeeping - into one theoretical framework.
MIDDLE EAST--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Not a Curse at All : Why Middle Eastern Oil States Fail and How It Can Be Prevented / by Rolf Schwarz, Miguel de Corral., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 402-422.) ID Number: JA029649 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Schwarz, Rolf 2. Corral, Miguel de Western scholarship has often noted that oil states in the Middle East are affected by the 'resource curse'. Thus, such states are to eventually fail due to their plundering of resources and their neglect of the social contract with their citizens. However, this is not the case, as oil states are neither failed states, nor fully democratic. They hover in a middle ground in which they assure security through coercion, but lack representation and legitimacy. Due to the events of the Arab Spring, a pragmatic, insightful and comprehensive review of oil states in the region is necessary. Although oil states in the region thus far have remained stable, change can be expected in the future. How will oil states deal with the pressures of a more demanding society and an ever-challenging economic atmosphere ? Furthermore, what can history teach us so that state failure can be averted ?
MILITARY ROBOTS--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS The Morality of Autonomous Robots / by Aaron M. Johnson, Sidney Axinn., 2013. (JOURNAL OF MILITARY ETHICS, vol. 12, no. 2, July 2013, p. 129-141.) ID Number: JA029667 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Johnson, Aaron M. 2. Axinn, Sidney While there are many issues to be raised in using lethal autonomous robotic weapons (beyond those of remotely operated drones), the authors argue that the most important question is : should the decision to take a human life be relinquished to a machine ? This question is often overlooked in favor of technical questions of sensor capability, operational questions of chain of command, or legal questions of sovereign borders. The authors further argue that the answer must be 'no' and offer several reasons for banning autonomous robots. (1) Such a robot treats a human as an object, instead of as a person with inherent dignity. (2) A machine can only mimic moral actions, it cannot be moral. (3) A machine run by a program has no human emotions, no feelings about the seriousness of killing a human. (4) Using such a robot would be a violation of military honor. The authors therefore conclude that the use of an autonomous robot in lethal operations should be banned.
MINORITIES--SYRIA Minorites syriennes : entre le marteau et l'enclume / by Christophe Chiclet., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 129-142.) ID Number: JA029566 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Chiclet, Christophe After two years of merciless fighting, more than 100,000 dead, 1.1 million refugees in neighboring countries and 2 million people displaced within Syria, the conflict has bogged down, with neither winner nor loser. This interminable war has revealed multiple fractures : the Sunni majority against the Alawite minority, Salafists against Christians, Arabs against non-Arabs ... Each minority in the Syrian mosaic is playing their own game, whether Alawite, Kurd, Syriac Christian, Turkmen, Druze, Armenian, etc. Unless a negotiated solution should be hammered out in extremis, an implosion is the most likely outcome, with a totally autonomous Kurdish zone and the Alawite Jabal region transformed into a stronghold of the fallen regime. But regardless of how this war plays out, the settling of scores promises to be particularly bloody.
MOROCCO--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Maroc : les paris du roi / by Pierre Vermeren., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 169-185.) ID Number: JA029568 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Vermeren, Pierre At first sight, Morocco seems to have negotiated the recent instabilities in the best possible way. While the wind of the Arab Spring has indeed been felt in the Sharifian Kingdom, the Palace has responded cleverly by allowing the Islamists of the Justice and Development Party - winners of the November 2011 parliamentary election - to head the government. Loyal to the monarchy, the men of the PJD, chief among them Prime Minister Abdelilah Benkirane, effectively form a 'buffer' between the monarchy and the increasingly discontent masses. Rabat has also benefited from France's intervention in northern Mali, presenting itself as a bastion against the jihadist movement and accusing the Independence Intifada of Western Sahara of being in league with the terrorists of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. But many troubles still lie ahead : the global economic crisis is taking its toll and the gulf continues to widen between an impoverished population and a privileged elite, often living a life of open opulence.
NATION-BUILDING Failed Statebuilding versus Peace Formation / by Oliver P. Richmond., 2013. (COOPERATION AND CONFLICT, vol. 48, no. 3, September 2013, p. 378-400.) ID Number: JA029636 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Richmond, Oliver P. This article outlines the often countervailing forces and norms of state formation, statebuilding and peacebuilding according to their associated theoretical approaches. It introduces a new concept of 'peace formation', which counterbalances a reliance on internal violent or externalised institutions' agency, reform and conditionality. Without incorporating a better understanding of the multiple and often critical agencies involved in peace formation, the states emerging from statebuilding will remain as they are : failed by
design. This is because they are founded on externalised systems, legitimacy and norms rather than a contextual, critical and emancipatory epistemology of peace. Engaging with the processes of peace formation may aid international actors in gaining a better understanding of the roots of a conflict, how local actors may be assisted, how violence and power-seeking may be ended or managed and how local legitimacy may emerge.
NATION-BUILDING--USA The Love That Dare Not Speak Its Name ? George W. Bush : State and Nation Building in Afghanistan, 2001-2 / by Donette Murray., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 241-258.) ID Number: JA029644 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Murray, Donette George W. Bush was an unlikely statebuilder. This controversial activity - one that he and many others persistently referred to as 'nation building' - held little appeal for America's 43rd president. He did, however, learn to appreciate Charles Krauthammer's axiom that 'no sane person opposes national building in places that count'. This article posits that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a more nuanced reading of the evidence shows that Bush rapidly and fairly consistently adopted something that resembled statebuilding, even if he was reluctant to acknowledge this in public.
NATO--EUROPE, EASTERN Between Willing and Reluctant Entrapment : CEE Countries in NATO's non-European Missions / by Peter Marton, Jan Eichler., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 351-362.) ID Number: JA029659 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Marton, Peter 2. Eichler, Jan The article focuses on Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries' experiences related to Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya, three non-European theatres of Western military operations, in predominantly Muslim lands, in the decade between 2001 and 2011. CEE countries readily became involved in two of these foreign missions (Afghanistan and Iraq) because of their deep ties to Western politico-economic structures, without direct security interests compelling them to do so, but not without normative convictions regarding what were seen by them as virtues of the two missions. In Libya, however, they were reluctant to join the Western intervention. In light of this, the article is interested in examining how political elites within the region relate to the generally constrained security policy agency that they have. A key argument advanced is that such agency may be located in how external hegemony is mediated in elite discourses of threat and legitimacy construction. This as well as the three case studies outlined in the article show that seeming changes in CEE countries' behaviour in fact boil down to a simple set of rules guiding their behaviour. Having identified this 'algorithm' as an implicit pattern of CEE foreign policy behaviour, originating in the intra-alliance security dilemma within the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), the article formulates its conclusions about the alliance policy of these countries is largely within a neorealist framework.
NATO--SLOVAKIA Compliance and Non-Compliance as Sources of Recognition : Slovakia and NATO / by Jozef Batora., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 387-396.) ID Number: JA029656 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Batora, Jozef This article argues that there is a difference in what constitutes the sources of recognition prior to countries' membership in the Euro-Atlantic community represented by NATO and after countries become its members. While prior to membership, countries are recognized for their compliance with NATO standards and policies, upon membership countries get the opportunity to promote specific interests legitimately and may seek recognition via non-compliance with NATO mainstream. The paper explores this dynamic of recognition on the issue of Kosovo independence where Slovakia went from supporting NATO in its effort to protect civilians in Kosovo in the late 1990s to non-recognition of Kosovo in defiance of the majority of NATO member states less than a decade later. The crucial point proposed here is that there was a shift in how recognition by NATO worked prior to Slovakia's membership and upon membership in these frameworks. While prior to membership recognition was achieved by compliance and identification with NATO standpoints, policies and actions, upon membership, recognition is achieved by differentiation from these patterns. More generally, the study shows that NATO membership is a powerful source of conditionality in relation to future members and a powerful source of legitimacy in relation to current members' actions. While this has been discussed in the literature, the point here is that recognition in its various forms is an important driving force in these conditionality processes.
NATO-FRANCE The French Return to NATO : Reintegration in Practice, Not in Principle / by Pernille Rieker., 2013. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 22, no. 3, September 2013, p. 376-394.) ID Number: JA029641 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rieker, Pernille Sarkozy's decision to bring France back into NATO's integrated military structure in 2009 represents in some ways a break with French exceptionalism. But how deep is this change ? This article examines whether the decision has led to a real integration of France along various dimensions of integration; whether the decision represents a continuation or a break with the traditional French approach and the effects of this reintegration on NATO/EU cooperation. The empirical analysis of French political and military practices in NATO combines a focus on macro-level foreign policy formulations with a micro-level study of how French officials and representatives communicate and interact on a day-to-day basis. The analysis shows that France has become increasingly integrated into NATO since 2009 on most dimensions except with regard to cultural integration. Thus, France may be reintegrated in practice, but not yet in principle.
NATURAL RESOURCES--ARCTIC REGIONS Convoitises arctiques / by Caroline Morange., 2013. (POLITIQUE INTERNATIONALE, no. 140, ete 2013, p. 339-355.) ID Number: JA029572 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Morange, Caroline Under the influence of global warming, the Arctic ice cap is shrinking year to year. As a result, the region has become the focus of international attention. Neighboring countries are locked in talks over the definition of maritime borders and control of natural resources. Melting sea ice is opening up new commercial shipping routes, while the development of tourism offers potential new sources of revenue. Three possible scenarios are on the horizon : (1) A blanket ban on the exploitation of Arctic resources, called for by ecologists but impossible, given the burgeoning global demand for oil and gas. 2) An armed confrontation for control of the region, thankfully unrealistic, since the countries concerned prefer to settle their differences by legal means. 3) Partial and regulated exploitation of resources, the most likely way forward. Regulations acceptable to all parties have yet to be negotiated, of course, and this will not be a piece of cake ...
NONLETHAL WEAPONS 'Are We Ready for the Revolution of Nonlethal Weapons ?' : Using a Comprehensive RMA Model to Examine the Current Strategic Situation / by Ofer Fridman., 2013. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 32, no. 3, July - August 2013, p. 192-206.) ID Number: JA029604 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fridman, Ofer This article presents a comprehensive Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) model that is built on previous RMA research. This model examines the political, strategic, and military situation, and technological developments in the beginning of the second decade of the twenty-first century, and argues that nonlethal weapons have a potential to lie at the core of the next RMA.
NORTHEAST PASSAGE Sailing through the Northern Sea Route : Opportunities and Challenges / by Vijay Sakhuja., 2013. (STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, vol. 37, no. 4, July - August 2013, p. 494-498.) ID Number: JA029580 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Sakhuja, Vijay This article argues that the NSR offers a mixed bag of opportunities and challenges and would require the technological upgrade of platforms, navigational facilities, trained human resource and a cargo base to encourage shipping companies to deploy vessels along the new routes. Furthermore, stakeholders would need to be conscious of the adverse impact of commercial and human activity on the Arctic ecology.
NUCLEAR DETERRENCE--CHINA Certainty of Uncertainty : Nuclear Strategy with Chinese Characteristics / by Wu Riqiang., 2013. (JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, vol. 36, no. 4, August 2013, p. 579-614.) ID Number: JA029589 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Riqiang, Wu China's nuclear deterrent relies on so-called 'first strike uncertainty', which means not letting the other side be confident of a completely successful disarming strike. But in order to deter, the uncertainty must be high enough. After reviewing the developmental history of China's nuclear capability and the evolution of Chinese and foreign leaders' perceptions of China's nuclear retaliatory capability, this article identifies the criteria of nuclear deterrence for China and other countries. This research can contribute to Sino-US strategic dialogue and deepening understanding of the security consequences of nuclear proliferation.
NUCLEAR ENERGY--MIDDLE EAST Nuclear Energy in the Middle East : Russia's Interests and Role / by Andrey Baklitsky., 2013. (SECURITY INDEX, vol. 19, no. 3, Summer 2013, p. 23-32.) ID Number: JA029664 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Baklitsky, Andrey Nuclear energy in the Middle East is becoming a highly profitable industry, rather than merely a source of risks and nuclear proliferation threats. Russia has one of the strongest positions in the Middle Eastern nuclear energy market. The Russian state-owned corporation Rosatom has built the region's first nuclear power plant in Iran, and signed large contracts for NPP construction and nuclear fuel supplies with several countries in the region. The author offers his view of Rosatom's competitive advantages over its Western rivals.
NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION La proliferation a l'heure des sanctions ciblees / by Bruno Gruselle, Elisande Nexon., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 101-117.) ID Number: JA029654 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Gruselle, Bruno 2. Nexon, Elisande La decouverte des activites de diffusion de technologies nucleaires du reseau dirige par Abdul Qader Khan en 2003 a conduit la communaute internationale a renforcer et a diversifier les outils destines a lutter contre les flux de biens et de technologies destines a des programmes d'armes de destruction massive. Le Conseil de Securite a vote contre la Coree du Nord et l'Iran des sanctions visant exclusivement a leur interdire l'acquisition a l'etranger de ces elements indispensables a la poursuite de leurs efforts. Rentree depuis 10 ans dans un nouveau paradigme de lutte contre la proliferation, la communaute internationale doit s'interroger sur les resultats obtenus et l'avenir du systeme concu au milieu de la decennie precedente.
NUCLEAR TERRORISM Why States Won't Give Nuclear Weapons to Terrorists / by Keir A. Lieber, Daryl G. Press., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, vol. 38, no. 1, Summer 2013, p. 80-104.) ID Number: JA029593 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lieber, Keir A. 2. Press, Daryl G. Many experts consider nuclear terrorism the single greatest threat to US security. The fear that a state might transfer nuclear materials to terrorists was a core justification for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and, more recently, for a strike against Iran's nuclear program. The logical basis for this concern is sound : if a state could orchestrate an anonymous nuclear terror attack, it could destroy an enemy yet avoid retaliation. But how likely is it that the perpetrators of nuclear terrorism could remain anonymous ? Data culled from a decade of terrorist incidents reveal that attribution is very likely after high-casualty terror attacks. Attribution rates are even higher for attacks on the US homeland or the territory of a major US ally - 97 percent for incidents in which ten or more people were killed. Moreover, tracing a terrorist group that used a nuclear weapon to its state sponsor would not be difficult, because few countries sponsor terror; few terror groups have multiple sponsors; and only one country that sponsors terrorism, Pakistan, has nuclear weapons or enough material to manufacture them. If leaders understand these facts, they will be as reluctant to give weapons to terrorists as they are to use them directly; both actions would invite devastating retaliation.
NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--NATO NATO's Nuclear Addiction : 12 Steps to 'Kick the Habit' / by Trine Flockhart., 2013. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 22, no. 3, September 2013, p. 271-287.) ID Number: JA029638 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Flockhart, Trine The article argues that NATO is a nuclear-addicted alliance. It focuses on how the addiction developed, the damage caused by the addiction and ways in which it may be overcome. After outlining the origins to NATO's nuclear addiction, the article turns to the recent defence and deterrence posture review (DDPR), which is seen as a classic example of 'addict behaviour' spoiling the best chance NATO has had for overcoming its addiction. The article offers an assessment of the DDPR, portraying the outcome of the process as not only a lost opportunity, but unfortunately also as a position that limits the possibilities for reaching a constructive agreement on the important question of the remaining non-strategic nuclear weapons based in Europe. The article ends by suggesting 12 steps for NATO to overcome its addiction, although it is acknowledged that the DDPR has severely restricted NATO's room for maneuver leaving only a slim chance for 'complete recovery.'
NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GOVERNMENT POLICY--USA The Challenges Confronting US Extended Nuclear Assurance in Asia / by Rod Lyon., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 929-941.) ID Number: JA029601 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lyon, Rod This article aims to explore the credibility of future US extended nuclear assurance in Asia. Extended nuclear assurance, all too frequently confused with extended nuclear deterrence, faces a daunting series of challenges : a US strategic mainstream fractured on the roles and purposes of nuclear weapons; an Asia where assurance demands are high during a period of strategic uncertainty; and a US theatreand tactical-range nuclear arsenal much depleted from its heyday. Meanwhile, nuclear latency is growing in Asia as more countries reach the technological level that the US attained in 1945, as nuclear skill sets become more prevalent, and as delivery vehicles appropriate to nuclear weapons become more typical in regional arsenals. The US now provides extended nuclear assurance to nearly 40 countries worldwide, agreeing to run nuclear risks on behalf of its allies and friends. The bulk of those assurances derive from the NATO alliance, but it is the non-NATO-related assurances - and settings - that seem likely to be the more controversial ones over the next decade or two. Asia is coming into its own at a time when extended nuclear assurance needs reinvigoration as a key ingredient in US strategic policy.
ORGANIZED CRIME--CHINA The Increasing Threat of Chinese Organised Crime : National, Regional and International Perspectives / by Peng Wang., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 6-18.) ID Number: JA029623 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Wang, Peng With the growing global importance of China, Chinese organised crime has become a growing non-military threat to national and international security. The author focuses on the three dimensions of Chinese organised crime : the resurgence of the criminal underworld and rampant police corruption in mainland China; cross-border crime in Greater China; and Chinese organised crime overseas, including in the UK. The national, regional and international threats posed by ethnic-Chinese criminal groups require the law-enforcement agencies of both China and those countries hosting Chinese communities to improve their response strategies as a matter of urgency.
PAKISTAN--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Pakistan's Foreign and Security Policies after the 2013 General Election : The Judge, the Politician and the Military / by Frederic Grare., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 987-1001.) ID Number: JA029602 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Grare, Frederic This article examines the consequences of Nawaz Sharif's electoral victory in Pakistan's 2013 general election on the country's foreign and security policies. It analyses the relationships the new government is likely to entertain with the military institutions and the judiciary, and tries to identify the potential vulnerabilities of the new authorities. It concludes that the security situation will improve marginally, at best, and that a relatively smooth working
relationship with the US, dictated by the constraints of the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, can be anticipated. Relations with India are likely to constitute the real test of the political freedom enjoyed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif vis-a-vis the military. The difficulty will be to calibrate the relationship to avoid provoking a backlash with the military.
PEACE-BUILDING Frictions in Peacebuilding Interventions : The Unpredictability of Local-Global Interaction., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING, vol. 20, no. 2, April 2013, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA029563 Type: ART
PEACE-BUILDING--SOMALIA A Lost Cause Recouped : Peace Enforcement and State-Building in Somalia / by Stephen Burgess., 2013. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 34, no. 2, August 2013, p. 302-323.) ID Number: JA029675 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Burgess, Stephen A constitutional convention with representation from clan elders adopted a new constitution for Somalia on 1 August 2012, which paved the way for the election of a federal parliament and a new president of the Federal Republic of Somalia. This article examines two opposing explanations for this progress in a country long dismissed as a lost cause. Bottom-up stability, with grass-roots equilibrium, is argued to be more likely to bring representation and renewal. The counter-hypothesis emphasizes security from the top down as more likely to lead to representation and renewal. Both hypotheses are evaluated here based on peacebuilding theory and evidence from Somalia and other relevant cases, including Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This review concludes that top-down security was possible and desirable in Somalia, paving the way for continued security efforts and stability work. The strategy of the African Union, European Union, and United States - supporting Burundi, Kenya, and Uganda with high-salience peace enforcement in Somalia - succeeded in bringing greater top-down security. The article explains that a combination of international assistance and training and increased combat effectiveness forced As Shabaab out of Mogadishu and other urban centres. Western governments and international organizations continue to pursue top-down security as the best hope for ending war and restoring peace in Somalia. Top-down security, if properly implemented, can pave the way for bottom-up stability efforts and renewal and representation in Somalia, Africa, and elsewhere.
PETROLEUM INDUSTRY AND TRADE--AFRICA Petroleum to the People : Africa's Coming Resource Curse - and How to Avoid It / by Larry Diamond, Jack Mosbacher., 2013. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 92, no. 5, September - October 2013, p. 86-98.) ID Number: JA029621 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Diamond, Larry 2. Mosbacher, Jack
PIRACY The Political Economy of Plunder : Economic Opportunity and Modern Piracy / by Ryan S. Jablonski, Steven Oliver., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION, vol. 57, no. 4, August 2013, p. 682-708.) ID Number: JA029585 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Jablonski, Ryan S. 2. Oliver, Steven Maritime piracy is a growing scourge on the international community imposing large costs on maritime states and the shipping industry, as well as potentially undermining state capacity and funding terrorism. Using original data on over 3,000 pirate attacks, the authors argue that these attacks are, in part, a response to poor labor market opportunities. To establish this, the authors take advantage of the strong effect of commodity prices on labor market opportunities in piracy-prone states. Consistent with this theory, the authors show that changes in the price of labor - and capital-intensive commodities have consistent and strong effects on the number of pirate attacks in a country's territorial waters each month. The authors confirm these results by instrumenting for commodity prices using monthly precipitation levels.
PIRACY--SOMALIA The Business of Piracy in Somalia / by Sarah Percy, Anja Shortland., 2013. (JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, vol. 36, no. 4, August 2013, p. 541-578.) ID Number: JA029588 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Percy, Sarah 2. Shortland, Anja This article argues that understanding why Somali piracy has resisted control efforts requires understanding that it is a criminal business rather than a conventional international security problem. The authors statistically model Somali piracy and draw two conclusions : first, piracy increases with economic stability, and second, naval interdiction efforts are stabilising but not significantly reducing piracy. They argue that these conclusions are not surprising if piracy is understood as an organised crime. Their argument has four components. First, Somali piracy is a land-based problem, and naval control mechanisms are not deterring pirates. Second, improving Somalia's anarchic political situation will not necessarily stop piracy : their statistical analysis demonstrates that piracy is a business which improves with a more stable operating environment. Third, piracy is organised criminal activity, and like other organised crime groups, will be difficult to control, especially if it becomes embedded in state structures. Finally, the authors argue that few of the relevant players have any real incentives to alter their behaviour.
POLAND--FOREIGN RELATIONS Where From, Where To ? New and Old Configurations in Poland's Foreign and Security Policy Priorities / by Kerry Longhurst., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 362-372.) ID Number: JA029658 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Longhurst, Kerry The past twenty years have seen profound shifts in Polish foreign and security policy. Like other states in Central Europe Poland became part of the Euro-Atlantic sphere upon gaining first NATO and EU membership. Despite such broad similarities, Poland's trajectory since 1989 has been marked by some specific and defining features. Poland has become the most significant player in Central Europe and tends to be viewed in the region as a leader. Twinned with this, due to its size and relative strength, Poland is taken seriously at the EU table. At the same time, there has been a palpable shift in Polish Atlanticism and a more skeptical view of the US has emerged. This article explores the sources of these reconfigurations and considers their potential implications.
POLICE TRAINING Insurgency and Civilian Policing : Organizational Culture and German Police Assistance in Afghanistan / by Cornelius Friesendorf., 2013. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 34, no. 2, August 2013, p. 324-349.) ID Number: JA029676 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Friesendorf, Cornelius Effective and legitimate policing is a necessary condition for the sustainable stabilization of war-torn countries. A crucial dilemma faced by international donors is whether to promote militarized or civilian policing. Particularly with insurgency and terrorism, police need robust capabilities to defend themselves and citizens against violence. At the same time, militarized police forces with weak oversight may fail to use proportionate force and serve the public. Little is known about management of this dilemma. This article argues that three established explanations - local security threats, international norms, and the political systems of donor states - do not determine the shape of police assistance programmes. Rather, the organizational cultures of donor police forces most crucially influence whether donors prioritize civilian or militarized police assistance. German support for the Afghan National Police (ANP) is a case in point. Despite deteriorating security and American pressure to support counterinsurgency, German police advisors stuck with a civilian policing model, due to their own organizational culture. Planners of foreign missions should better anticipate the organizational biases of specific donor agencies, this article concludes, to avoid frustration during the implementation phase.
PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES--FRANCE Les ESSD en France : l'age de raison / by Charles Lambert., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 155-169.) ID Number: JA029655 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lambert, Charles L'Etat francais fait montre, vis-a-vis de ses societes de securite privees, d'une certaine mefiance qui, ajoutee a l'absence de structuration du secteur d'activite, penalise leur developpement. Or, ce developpement leur permettrait de rivaliser avec les grandes companies etrangeres qui sont des vecteurs de la puissance de leurs Etats, et ainsi d'etre elles aussi un outil de la souverainete de l'Etat. Les ESSD en France : l'age de raison / by Charles Lambert., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 155-169.) ID Number: JA029632 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lambert, Charles L'Etat francais fait montre, vis-a-vis de ses societes de securite privees, d'une certaine mefiance qui, ajoutee a l'absence de structuration du secteur d'activite, penalise leur developpement. Or, ce developpement leur permettrait de rivaliser avec les grandes compagnies etrangeres qui sont des vecteurs de la puissance de leurs Etats, et ainsi d'etre elles aussi un outil de la souverainete de l'Etat.
PRIVATIZATION--KOSOVO (REPUBLIC) Privatization in Kosovo : 'Liberal Peace' in Practice / by Rita Augestad Knudsen., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 287-307.) ID Number: JA029645 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Knudsen, Rita Augestad This article examines internationally led privatization in Kosovo as an example of international statebuilding. It concentrates on the period from 1999 to 2008, when privatization was planned and implemented under formal international management. International statebuilding is typically sought justified with the idea of 'liberal peace', and this article shows how the tension between the political and economic tenets of the idea of liberal peace manifested itself in Kosovo's internationally led privatization.
PUBLIC DIPLOMACY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Public Diplomacy / by Aleksandr Lukin., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (Minneapolis), vol. 59, no. 3, 2013, p. 118-133.) ID Number: JA029575 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lukin, Aleksandr
QAIDA (ORGANIZATION) Al Qaeda's Uncertain Future / by Bruce Hoffman., 2013. (STUDIES IN CONFLICT AND TERRORISM, vol. 36, no. 8, August 2013, p. 635-653.) ID Number: JA029674 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hoffman, Bruce This article considers the current state of the Al Qaeda terrorist movement and its likely future trajectory. It considers the principle assumptions both today and in the past about Al Qaeda and how they affect our understanding of the movement and the threat that it poses; Al Qaeda's current capacity for violence; and its ability to plan strategically and implement terrorist operations. The article further identifies nine key change drivers that will likely determine Al Qaeda's fate in the years to come before concluding that, even while the core Al Qaeda group may be in decline, Al Qaeda-ism, the movement's ideology, continues to resonate and attract new adherents. In sum, it argues that Al Qaeda remains an appealing brand most recently and most especially to extremist groups in North and West Africa and the Levant. Exposing and Exploiting Weaknesses in the Merger of Al-Qaeda and Al-Shabaab / by Matthew J. Thomas., 2013. (SMALL WARS AND INSURGENCIES, vol. 24, no. 3, July 2013, p. 413-435.) ID Number: JA029614 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Thomas, Matthew J. On 9 February 2012 the Somali terrorist organization al-Shabaab officially merged with al-Qaeda. While the significance of the merger is highly contested, it does expose internal weaknesses within the two organizations along ideological, clan, and sectarian lines. The article identifies three key weaknesses of the merger and concludes with a discussion of al-Qaeda's growing presence in trans-Saharan Africa.
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL--USA The Future of Plutonium Disposition / by Tom Clements... [et al.]., 2013. (ARMS CONTROL TODAY, vol. 43, no. 6, July - August 2013, p. 8-15.) ID Number: JA029586 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Clements, Tom 2. Lyman, Edwin 3. Hippel, Frank von The Obama's administration is reviewing its current strategy of turning excess weapons plutonium into reactor fuel. That is promising news. There are several direct-disposal options that would avoid many of the costs, complications, and risks of plutonium-based fuels.
RELIGION AND POLITICS Religiously Oriented Parties and Democratization., 2013. (DEMOCRATIZATION, vol. 20, no. 5, August 2013, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA029612 Type: ART
RELIGION AND POLITICS--MEDITERRANEAN REGION Religion, Secularism and Politics : A Mediterranean View., 2013. (MEDITERRANEAN POLITICS, vol. 18, no. 2, July 2013, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA029611 Type: ART
RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (INTERNATIONAL LAW) The Responsibility to Protect : Added Value or Hot Air ? / by Alex J. Bellamy., 2013. (COOPERATION AND CONFLICT, vol. 48, no. 3, September 2013, p. 333-357.) ID Number: JA029635 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Bellamy, Alex J. This article argues that the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) adds value to international efforts to protect populations from genocide and mass atrocities, but not in the ways commonly thought. It suggests that RtoP is not particularly effective as a 'rallying call' that mobilises action in cases where international society may be initially reluctant to act. Where it does add value is in helping to reshape states' identities and interests such that consideration of the protection needs of populations, in relation to the threat of genocide and mass atrocities, has been internalised to some extent by the UN Security Council. As such, RtoP is best seen as being a 'habit former'. The principle does not, however, determine particular behaviours or guarantee international consensus because decision-making is heavily influenced by contextual factors. The argument proceeds in three parts. The first examines instances where RtoP has been invoked since early 2006. The second explores the role of context in shaping how the UN Security Council responds to particular crises. Finally, to amplify the points made in these sections, the third section considers the UN Security Council's response to the crisis in Somalia after 2006.
RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE,EASTERN Continuity and Change in Russia's Policy toward Central and Eastern Europe / by Yury E. Fedorov., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 315-326.) ID Number: JA029661 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fedorov, Yury E. The accession of the CEE states to NATO and the European Union has put an end to the geopolitical ambiguity and implicit insecurity in the region between Russia and the so-called 'Old Europe'. Instead of being an area of great powers' rivalry, elements of 'buffer belts' lacking meaningful strategic options, objects of raw Nazi-Soviet deals, or zones under Russian occupation and domination, the three Baltic States and the Visegrad group countries became full-fledged members of the European Union and were given NATO's security guarantees. By the middle of the 2000s, one would conclude that traditional geopolitics had ended in this region. However, the changes in the strategic situation in CEE have not changed the deep rooted moving forces and long-term strategic goals of the Russian policy toward the region. Moscow seeks to have the position, as its official rhetoric says, of an 'influential centre of a multipolar world' that would be nearly equal to the USA, China, or the EU. With this in view Moscow seeks for the establishment of its domination over the new independent states of the former USSR and for the formation of a sphere of influence for itself in Central Eastern Europe. If it achieves these goals, then
Europe may return once again to traditional geopolitics fraught with great power rivalries and permanent instabilities radiating far beyond CEE borders. Yet a few questions remain. Has Russia come to the conclusion that attempting to restore its privileged position of influence in Central-Eastern Europe is wrong ? Has Russia enough power to threaten the CEE countries ? How credible are NATO's security guarantees ? How may Russian behavior in CEE affect a wider European geopolitical context ? These questions are appropriate in the light of Russia's 'resurgence' as a revanchist power and because Russia is, and most probably will remain in the next five to ten years, a weighty economic and strategic factor in areas along the Western borders of the former USSR.
RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PAKISTAN Russia and Pakistan : Prospects for Engagement / by Igor Morgulov., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (Minneapolis), vol. 59, no. 3, 2013, p. 86-90.) ID Number: JA029574 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Morgulov, Igor
RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PERSIAN GULF REGION Russia and the Persian Gulf : Trade, Energy, and Interdependence / by Katerina Oskarsson, Steve A. Yetiv., 2013. (MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL, vol. 67, no. 3, Summer 2013, p. 381-403.) ID Number: JA029590 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Oskarsson, Katerina 2. Yetiv, Steve A. This article examines changes in Russia's diplomatic, trade, and energy relations in the Persian Gulf over time. The authors' data suggest that Russia's profile in the Persian Gulf is rising in the post-Cold War period. While Russian-Gulf state trade has not reached high levels, trade and energy cooperation have increased significantly. These changes do not mean that Russia has jettisoned strategic interests in the Middle East writ large - as its support of Syria, or to some extent Iran, may indicate - or that it no longer seeks to balance against Washington. But it appears that in the mix of its foreign policy motivations, trade and commerce with Arab Gulf states matter much more now than they did in the past. Should such ties continue to strengthen, they may give Russia greater reason to cooperate with Arab Gulf states on contentious regional issues.
SECESSION--SUDAN Sudan and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in the Rear-View MIrror : What Lessons for the Future ?., 2013. (CIVIL WARS, vol. 15, no. 2, June 2013, Special Section, p. 101-191. (Several articles).) ID Number: JA029633 Type: ART
SECURITY SECTOR REFORM Security Sector Reform from a Policy Transfer Perspective : A Comparative Study of International Interventions in the Palestinian Territories, Liberia and Timor-Leste / by Ursula C. Schroeder... [et al.]., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 381-401.) ID Number: JA029647 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Schroeder, Ursula C. 2. Chappuis, Fairlie 3. Kocak, Deniz Security sector reform (SSR), targeting security forces and their management and oversight institutions, has become a major feature of international peace- and statebuilding activities. The article draws on policy transfer research to assess substantive and procedural changes in how international actors intervene in the security governance of fragile or post-conflict states. By comparing transfer processes in Liberia, Timor-Leste and the Palestinian Territories, the article shows that despite variations across political, economic and strategic factors in each domestic context, external SSR interventions showed distinct similarities. SSR interventions expanded their substantive scope over time; less directly coercive mechanisms of persuasion and socialization increasingly replaced the direct imposition of external models of security governance; and the influence of domestic elite actors on transfer processes increased over the duration of interventions.
SECURITY SECTOR REFORM--AFGHANISTAN With an Eye Open and a Round Chambered : Explaining the Afghan Insider Threat and Its Implications for Sustained Partnership / by Nicholas J. Armstrong., 2013. (JOURNAL OF INTERVENTION AND STATEBUILDING, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2013, p. 223-240.) ID Number: JA029643 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Armstrong, Nicholas J. This article presents ethnographic data and an analytical framework concerning the recent spike in Afghan National Security Force (ANSF) 'insider' or 'green-on-blue' attacks on NATO forces. This data was collected as part of an in-depth, multi-level case study of NATO partnering efforts with the Afghan Defence and Interior ministries, the Afghan National Army, the Afghan National Police and Afghan Local Police. Preliminary findings support the argument that, in addition to ANSF infiltration and coercion by the Taliban and Haqqani network, cross-cultural friction and contextual stress on Afghan troops are strong contributors to the rise in insider attacks. Additionally, emotional intelligence, cultural awareness and conflict resolution skills are shown to be important mitigating factors.
SPECIAL FORCES (MILITARY SCIENCE)--FRANCE Quel role pour les forces speciales francaises ? / by Alain Quinet., 2013. (COMMENTAIRE, vol. 36, no. 143, automne 2013, p. 493-499.) ID Number: JA029670 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Quinet, Alain Cree apres la premiere guerre du Golfe, le commandement des operations speciales (COS) francais vient de feter son vingtieme anniversaire. Initialement concues comme des forces de reaction rapide, les forces speciales sont de plus en plus sollicitees. Elles doivent desormais davantage s'inserer 'a froid' dans un dispositif de sauvegarde generale destine a mieux anticiper les nouvelles menaces transnationales, terroristes et mafieuses, et a contenir les crises.
STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM Coercing Weak Regimes to Stop Supporting Terrorism : How and When It Can Be Done / by Or Arthur Honig., 2013. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 32, no. 3, July - August 2013, p. 245-260.) ID Number: JA029605 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Honig, Or Arthur Scholars tend to pessimistically argue that the weaker a regime is the harder it becomes for international actors to coerce it to fight the terrorist groups that it harbors/sponsors, since weak regimes are afraid that taking such an unpopular step could critically undermine their stability. Yet, this argument ignores the policy option that the coercing actor has of threatening to take steps which would undermine the stability of the weak regime unless it ceases its support for terrorist groups. Such a regime-threatening coercive strategy can overcome the problem of the weak regime's lack of political incentives because if the threat is credible, even a weak regime may conclude that it is politically cheaper to suppress the terrorists than face an externally triggered regime destabilization. Since weak regimes often care more about their survival than about national security interests, the regime-threatening coercive strategy has the best chances for success against such regimes. This article presents three different regime-threatening military coercive strategies and explores the conditions under which they are likely to be successful.
SYRIA--HISTORY--PROTESTS, 2011Russia and Syria : Explaining Alignment with a Regime in Crisis / by Roy Allison., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 795-823.) ID Number: JA029596 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Allison, Roy This article explores explanations of Russia's unyielding alignment with the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad since the Syrian crisis erupted in the spring of 2011. Russia has provided a diplomatic shield for Damascus in the UN Security Council and has continued to supply it with modern arms. Putins' resistance to any scenario of western-led intervention in Syria, on the model of the Libya campaign, in itself does not explain Russian policy. For this we need to analyse underlying Russian motives. The article argues that identity or solidarity between the Soviet Union/Russia and Syria has exerted little real influence, besides leaving some strategic nostalgia among Russian security policy-makers. Russian material interests in Syria are also overstated, although Russia still hopes to entrench itself in
the regional politics of the Middle East. Of more significance is the potential impact of the Syria crisis on the domestic political order of the Russian state. First, the nexus between regional spillover from Syria, Islamist networks and insurgency in the North Caucasus is a cause of concern - although the risk of 'blowback' to Russia is exaggerated. Second, Moscow rejects calls for the departure of Assad as another case of the western community imposing standards of political legitimacy on a 'sovereign state' to enforce regime change, with future implications for Russia or other authoritarian members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Russia may try to enshrine its influence in the Middle East through a peace process for Syria, but if Syria descends further into chaos western states may be able to achieve no more in practice than emergency coordination with Russia.
TALIBAN The Taliban at War : Inside the Helmand Insurgency, 2004-2012 / by Theo Farrell, Antonio Giustozzi., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 89, no. 4, July 2013, p. 845-871.) ID Number: JA029598 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Farrell, Theo 2. Giustozzi, Antonio In seeking to explain why and how the war in Afghanistan has dragged on, most analysis has focused on the western and Afghan government effort. In this article, the authors examine how the war looks from the perspective of the insurgency. Using Helmand province as a case-study, they draw on a large number of original interviews with Taliban field commanders and fighters to produce a uniquely detailed picture of the Taliban at war. In the first section, the authors explore how the Taliban returned to Helmand from 2004 to 2006, and show how the British made the situation far worse when they deployed forces to Helmand in 2006. In the second part of the article, they examine the evolution of the Taliban insurgency in Helmand since 2006. They show how the Taliban has developed an increasingly centralized organizational structure, a more militarized shadow government and greater professionalism of field units. The overall picture that emerges is of a resilient insurgency that has adapted under immense military pressure. The Taliban have suffered very heavy attrition in Helmand, but they are far from defeated.
TARGETED KILLING (INTERNATIONAL LAW) Targeted Killings : Contemporary Challenges, Risks and Opportunities / by Sascha-Dominik Bachmann., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND SECURITY LAW, vol. 18, no. 2, Summer 2013, p. 259-288.) ID Number: JA029609 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik The use of drones and other forms of targeted killings are being increasingly criticized at the international and domestic level. Before the backdrop of the most recent news that the United Nations has launched an inquiry into the overall legality of such a method of warfare and counterterrorism and its associated loss of civilian life, this article aims to give an overview on targeted killings as a means of warfare. The article asks what constitutes targeted killing and what distinguishes it from assassinations. It reflects on the safeguards, which are necessary to ensure the legality of the targeting process. This article further introduces the reader to an updated account of the use of Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems, or 'drones', in targeted killings, employed as a means of warfare by the USA in its 'War on Terror'. The drone campaign in Pakistan also raises
questions in respect to State Sovereignty and potential violations of this central tenet of International Law. The article also touches upon another field of global security, so called 'Hybrid Threats', where the use of targeted killing may have an operational military benefit as part of a holistic counterstrategy. It concludes with a sobering warning that while targeted killing operations may be an effective means of achieving short-term tactical goals within the scope of a wider operational objective, the unregulated and increased use of targeted killings by the USA in the 'War on Terror' would be both immoral as well as illegal in the long run. Targeting Individuals : Overcoming the Dilemmas of Secrecy / by Armin Krishnan., 2013. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 34, no. 2, August 2013, p. 278-301.) ID Number: JA029678 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Krishnan, Armin Targeted killing is not new. What has changed is the nature of armed conflict, states that openly admit to the practice, and the emergence of much more capable technology. Targeting individuals seems to make sense given the changing nature of armed conflict. But whether targeting dangerous individuals is indeed legal, effective, and ethical is often impossible to determine, either in specific cases or systematically, because of the secrecy surrounding such operations. Calls from civil society and legislatures for greater transparency in targeted killings are unlikely to result in more openness or accountability, easily denied by the precedence of security claims for these intelligence-driven operations and covert actions. This barrier also makes it very difficult to develop consistent domestic and international rules for targeting individuals outside war zones. If states became more transparent about how and why individuals are targeted, the approach could gain more legitimacy. Rather than giving states a blanket legal authority of secretly killing individuals they deem terrorists or threats to national security, a workable solution could be a systematic preference to rely on non-lethal means in targeted counterterrorism operations with the aim of subsequent prosecution of captured individuals. A systematic preference for non-lethality should be accompanied by a requirement for the humane treatment of detained terrorists/combatants and a requirement for a fair trial after a specified period of detention. Secret prisons and indefinite detentions of terrorism suspects not charged with any crime should not be permissible practices in democratic states.
TERRORISM Terrorism : A Philosophical Discourse / by Allan Orr., 2013. (DEFENSE & SECURITY ANALYSIS, vol. 29, no. 3, September 2013, p. 177-187.) ID Number: JA029650 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Orr, Allan Though it is nigh on 12 years since 9/11, there is still no agreed definition of terrorism. Indeed, the original nations of the 'Coalition of the Willing', who previously pursued a 'War on Terror' so vigorously (Australia, Britain and the USA) have come full circle now to disown entirely the very notion of a 'War on Terror'. A key stumbling point towards a definition remains whether terrorism should be classified as an act of crime or of war. The two conceptualisations are philosophically and fundamentally opposed and inevitably from each flows entirely different strategic prescriptions to counter the phenomenon. If policy is to be guided adequately, let alone optimally, the philosophical arguments of each camp must be thrown headlong into
one another, with the last philosophy standing the victor and then claiming the policy spoils.
TERRORISM--GOVERNMENT POLICY--USA The End of the Rainbow ? Terrorism and the Future of Public Warning / by Philip Kirby., 2013. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 158, no. 4, August - September 2013, p. 54-60.) ID Number: JA029627 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Kirby, Philip After 9/11, the US introduced a public warning system for terrorism, the Homeland Security Advisory System : the first of its kind in the country. Within months, however, the system was attracting widespread criticism, with questions regarding its ability to adequately communicate risk, its use of colour-coded threat levels, and even its potential to be manipulated for political advantage by the Bush administration. Despite this, the UK introduced a similar system in 2006. Whilst some lessons appear to have been learned from the American experience, in other respects the UK approach is still a work in progress.
TERRORISM--PREVENTION--GREAT BRITAIN Out of the Shadows : The Courts and the United Kingdom's Malfunctioning International Counter-Terrorism Partnerships / by C. R. G. Murray., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND SECURITY LAW, vol. 18, no. 2, Summer 2013, p. 193-232.) ID Number: JA029607 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Murray, C. R. G.
TERRORISM--PREVENTION--LAW AND LEGISLATION Human Rights Beyond Borders : A New Era in Human Rights Accountability for Transnational Counter-Terrorism Operations ? / by Alex Conte., 2013. (JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND SECURITY LAW, vol. 18, no. 2, Summer 2013, p. 233-258.) ID Number: JA029608 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Conte, Alex The transnational nature of terrorist and counter-terrorist activities, and the inter-State cooperation that forms the basis of many counter-terrorism operations, engages difficult and controversial questions concerning the extraterritorial application of human rights law. The decisions in July 2011 of the European Court of Human Rights in Al-Skeini and Others v the United Kingdom and Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom concern the jurisdictional reach of the European Convention on Human Rights to operations abroad, including in the context of multinational operations conducted under a United Nations (UN) mandate. This article argues that these decisions usher in a new era in human rights accountability by realigning the rules concerning attribution of responsibility between the UN and multinational forces; and by moving to a hybrid test between personal and geographical jurisdiction in order to allow the finding of a jurisdictional link for the killing of persons where the State has assumed public functions such as the maintenance of security. While it is inevitable that some questions remain unanswered, the decisions go a long way towards repairing the earlier restrictive and highly problematic case
law of the European Court in Bankovic and Others v Belgium and Behrami and Saramati v France. The Court's decision in Al-Jedda also establishes a robust approach to the question of the compatibility of Security Council resolutions with human rights, consistent with the position of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy that respect for human rights and the rule of law is a fundamental basis of the fight against terrorism.
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA De Clinton a Obama, les Etats-Unis et l'Afrique / by Jennifer G. Cooke., 2013. (POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 78, no. 2, ete 2013, p. 67-79.) ID Number: JA029682 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cooke, Jennifer G. Les administrations de Bill Clinton et de George W. Bush ont sensiblement developpe l'engagement americain en Afrique : redefinition des interets strategiques, developpement d'importants programmes humanitaires, sanitaires, investissement economique et militaire. La premiere administration Obama a decu les attentes, semblant quelque peu negliger le continent africain. Le deuxieme mandat de Barack Obama renouvellera-t-il l'engagement americain, au double niveau humanitaire et economique ?
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--CHINA China's Real and Present Danger : Now Is the Time for Washington to Worry / by Avery Goldstein., 2013. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 92, no. 5, September - October 2013, p. 136-144.) ID Number: JA029622 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Goldstein, Avery
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE Obama II : quel avenir pour l'alliance transatlantique ? / by Robin Niblett., 2013. (POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 78, no. 2, ete 2013, p. 13-25.) ID Number: JA029679 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Niblett, Robin Depuis le grand elargissement a l'est de l'Union europeenne entrepris en 2004, le test d'une relation transatlantique constructive se joue non plus sur ce que les deux allies accomplissent ensemble en Europe, mais sur ce qu'ils peuvent faire ensemble pour soutenir leurs interets communs sur la scene mondiale.
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE, EASTERN The Changing Nature of the Transatlantic Link : US Approaches and Implications for Central and Eastern Europe / by Daniel Hamilton., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 303-313.) ID Number: JA029662 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hamilton, Daniel This article examines the changing security, economic and diplomatic components of the transatlantic link, with a particular focus on Washington's approach and implications for Central and Eastern Europe. The United States continues to play an essential role as security underwriter in the region, but the military dimension of the transatlantic relationship is transforming and will result in greater burdens on Europeans. Economic links between the US and Central Europe are developing more strongly than generally understood, and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is likely to drive both political and economic ties. Unconventional gas developments are enhancing US engagement in European energy markets. Finally, the US remains keen to engage its European partners on a broad agenda of global and regional issues and retains its own interests in working particularly with Central and Eastern European countries to lend stability to 'wider Europe'.
USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--MIDDLE EAST Washington et le Proche-Orient : le jeu des nuances / by Chady Hage-Ali., 2013. (POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 78, no. 2, ete 2013, p. 41-52.) ID Number: JA029680 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hage-Ali, Chady Au cours du premier mandat de Barack Obama, la politique proche-orientale americaine a suscite beaucoup de deception, en particulier chez les Palestiniens. Le president americain entend desormais jouer un role plus actif dans la region, ou les dossiers sensibles ne manquent pas, du nucleaire iranien a la guerre civile en Syrie en passant par le conflit israelo-palestinien. Il pourra compter sur l'aide de John Kerry qui a remplace Hillary Clinton au poste de secretaire d'Etat.
USA--MILITARY POLICY--ECONOMIC ASPECTS Military Primacy Doesn't Pay (Nearly As Much As You Think) / by Daniel W. Drezner., 2013. (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, vol. 38, no. 1, Summer 2013, p. 52-79.) ID Number: JA029592 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Drezner, Daniel W. A common argument among scholars and policymakers is that America's military preeminence and deep international engagement yield significant economic benefits to the United States and the rest of the world. Ostensibly, military primacy, beyond reducing security tensions, also encourages economic returns through a variety of loosely articulated causal mechanisms. A deeper analytical look reveals the causal pathways through which military primacy is most likely to yield economic returns : geoeconomic favoritism, whereby the military hegemon attracts private capital in return for providing the greatest security and safety to investors; direct geopolitical favoritism, according to which sovereign states, in return for living under the security umbrella of the military superpower, voluntarily
transfer resources to help subsidize the costs of hegemony; and the public goods benefits that flow from hegemonic stability. A closer investigation of these causal mechanisms reveals little evidence that military primacy attracts private capital. The evidence for geopolitical favoritism seems more robust during periods of bipolarity than unipolarity. The evidence for public goods benefits is strongest, but military predominance plays only a supporting role in that logic. While further research is needed, the aggregate evidence suggests that the economic benefits of military hegemony have been exaggerated in policy circles. These findings have significant implications for theoretical debates about the fungibility of military power and should be considered when assessing US fiscal options and grand strategy for the next decade.
USA--MILITARY RELATIONS--ASIA La nouvelle posture militaire americaine en Asie / by Corentin Brustlein., 2013. (POLITIQUE ETRANGERE, vol. 78, no. 2, ete 2013, p. 53-65.) ID Number: JA029681 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Brustlein, Corentin Apres les retraits d'Irak et d'Afghanistan, les Etats-Unis comptent reorienter leur strategie militaire vers l'Asie. Ce recentrage se traduit notamment par un renforcement des partenariats bilateraux avec certains pays asiatiques, par des deploiements supplementaires d'hommes et de materiels, ainsi que par l'elaboration d'un nouveau concept operationnel. Les contraintes budgetaires, comme l'incertitude strategique, amenent pourtant a s'interroger sur sa mise en oeuvre a long terme.
VISEGRAD GROUP Visegrad : Fit for Purpose ? / by Rick Fawn., 2013. (COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES, vol. 46, no. 3, September 2013, p. 339-349.) ID Number: JA029660 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fawn, Rick Visegrad inter-state cooperation among the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia has faced numerous near-death experiences since its official birth in 1991. Furthermore, it has faced two challenges since the four member-countries' accession to the EU in 2004. Then Visegrad was eulogized, considered deceased by many precisely for having achieved the apparently ultimate aim of EU membership. Second, having purposefully stated rumours of its death, Visegrad has since 2008 been confronted by issues from outside and ones well beyond its size - the Obama presidency and its apparent abandonment of Central and Eastern Europe in its 'reset' strategy towards Moscow; a post-Lisbon EU agenda; strategic reorientations in NATO; and both the general, that is, global, financial crisis and particularly within the EU and regarding the Euro. This article, by contrast, contends that the fundamental changes and challenges that Visegrad has faced enhanced the Group's clear and successful strategy. It identifies and elaborates that strategy, drawing also selectively and thematically on the Group's historical experience since 1991. These strategies include targeted rather than broad selection of aims; retaining an exclusive membership while also inventing variable and flexible mechanisms for adding non-member countries to help them pursue specific initiatives. Through a study of annual Group Presidency agendas and reports, high-level and ministerial meeting declarations and media and secondary source analysis and interviews with National Coordinators, the article contends that the Group continues to promote realistic
aims, and provides a unique platform for exercising them. This study concludes that Visegrad, despite the outside challenges remains effective in raising awareness, advancing smaller-scale policies and influencing EU policy towards the Western Balkans and European Partnership (EaP) countries, as well as achieving specific Visegrad initiatives with those states.
WAR--MORAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS Ethically Insoluble Dilemmas in War / by Marcus Schulzke., 2013. (JOURNAL OF MILITARY ETHICS, vol. 12, no. 2, July 2013, p. 95-110.) ID Number: JA029666 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Schulzke, Marcus Soldiers encounter extremely difficult ethical dilemmas during wars, as they must make decisions about how to follow the laws of war and their rules of engagement while still protecting themselves and accomplishing their missions. Scholarship on just war theory and military ethics generally describe soldiers' dilemmas as being ethical challenges that soldiers can overcome by using the correct ethical reasoning process. However, this essay argues that some of the apparent ethical dilemmas that soldiers confront are actually ethically insoluble dilemmas that cannot be solved using ethical reasoning processes. Dilemmas are ethically insoluble when soldiers do not have sufficient knowledge of a situation or control over it to apply an ethical decision procedure. In these situations soldiers must guess at the right course of action and leave the outcome to luck.
WEAPONS PROLIFERATION La proliferation a l'heure des sanctions ciblees / by Bruno Gruselle, Elisande Nexon., 2012. (SECURITE GLOBALE, no. 22, hiver 2012, p. 101-117.) ID Number: JA029631 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Gruselle, Bruno 2. Nexon, Elisande La decouverte des activites de diffusion de technologies nucleaires du reseau dirige par Abdul Qader Khan en 2003 a conduit la communaute internationale a renforcer et a diversifier les outils destines a lutter contre les flux de biens et de technologies destines a des programmes d'armes de destruction massive. Le Conseil de Securite a vote contre la Coree du Nord et l'Iran des sanctions visant exclusivement a leur interdire l'acquisition a l'etranger de ces elements indispensables a la poursuite de leurs efforts. Rentree depuis 10 ans dans un nouveau paradigme de lutte contre la proliferation, la communaute internationale doit s'interroger sur les resultats obtenus et l'avenir du systeme concu au milieu de la decennie precedente.